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Addictive disorders

Bartlomiej Piechowski-Jozwiak, Julien Bogousslavsky
The studies on the relation between artistic production, especially visual art, and brain function gave a basis to the development of neuroesthetics. Most of the information on brain artistic creativity comes from studies on brain disease in well-established visual artists. Brain disease may cause change, dissolution, or emergence of artistic creativity. The visual artistic production may become impaired in individuals with a variety of brain diseases, including focal and generalised disorders of sudden and slowly progressive onset...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Emma T Schiestl, Ashley N Gearhardt
OBJECTIVE: Assessment approaches for food addiction in younger samples have not been updated to reflect recently revised diagnostic approaches for addictive disorders. The aim of the current study is to develop a new dimensional approach to assess food addiction in adolescents that is psychometrically sound, developmentally appropriate, and reflective of the updated diagnostic criteria. METHODS: The dimensional Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children 2.0 (dYFAS-C 2...
October 17, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Bernie Garrett, Tarnia Taverner, Diane Gromala, Gordon Tao, Elliott Cordingley, Crystal Sun
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) therapy has been explored as a novel therapeutic approach for numerous health applications, in which three-dimensional virtual environments can be explored in real time. Studies have found positive outcomes for patients using VR for clinical conditions such as anxiety disorders, addictions, phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, stroke rehabilitation, and for pain management. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to highlight key issues in the implementation of clinical research for VR technologies...
October 17, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Jannis T Kraiss, Peter M Ten Klooster, Melissa Chrispijn, Hester R Trompetter, Anja W M M Stevens, Erica Neutel, Ralph W Kupka, Ernst T Bohlmeijer
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by recurrent (hypo)manic and depressive episodes, alternating with euthymic states in which patients are relatively symptom free. Besides clinical recovery, it is important to also strive for improvement of mental well-being and personal recovery. One prominent field focussing on the improvement of well-being is positive psychology. However, studies assessing the effects of positive psychology or personal recovery interventions for people with BD are scarce and have used weak methodological designs...
October 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Amir Jalali, Bistoun Shabrandi, Rostam Jalali, Nader Salari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is a psychosocial disorder, whose emergence, continuation, and treatment are associated with personality factors, spiritual well-being, and social support. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of personality traits with spiritual well-being and perceived social support in methamphetamine users who were undergoing treatment in 2016 in the clinics of Kermanshah, Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 117 methamphetamine users who were undergoing treatment in addiction clinics of Kermanshah, Iran...
October 17, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Conchín Simó-Sanz, M ª Luisa Ballestar-Tarín, Antonio Martínez-Sabater
The wide functionality and the vast range of attributes offered by smartphones has led to a substantial increase in the average amount of time these devices are used per day. An excessive use of these tools has been shown to result in symptomatology similar to psychological disorders caused by substance addiction. In Spain, smartphone use has risen exponentially but the effects of this increase remain unclear. Therefore, an instrument is required to help determine the extent of smartphone addiction in the Spanish population...
2018: PloS One
Tellervo Korhonen, Anu Loukola, Jenni Hällfors, Veikko Salomaa, Jaakko Kaprio
Introduction: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a growth factor in the central nervous system. There is evidence for the involvement of BDNF in addictions and mental disorders. We aimed to replicate the earlier reported association of a functional genetic variant of BDNF with smoking initiation (SI) using a large population-based sample, and to test whether the association is independent of depression. Methods: Our sample was drawn from the Finnish population-based FINRISK Surveys conducted in 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007...
October 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Mounir Fawzi, Mohab Fawzi
Background: The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the gold standard for assessment of food addiction based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). To keep up with the DSM-5 update, the YFAS 2.0 was published in early 2016. Aims: We conducted the present study to translate, adapt and validate the DSM-5 Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 for use with Arabic speakers. Methods: Both the final YFAS 2.0-A, developed with a rigorous methodology, and the English YFAS 2...
October 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Chun-Wai Yam, Amir H Pakpour, Mark D Griffiths, Wai-Yan Yau, Cheuk-Long Matthew Lo, Jennifer M T Ng, Chung-Ying Lin, Hildie Leung
Given that there is a lack of instruments assessing internet-related addictions among Chinese population, this study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scales- Short Form (IGDS-SF9), Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) among Hong Kong university students. Participants aged between 17 and 30 years participated in the present study (n = 307; 32.4% males; mean [SD] age = 21.64 [8.11]). All the participants completed the IGDS-SF9, BSMAS, SABAS, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
October 16, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Bert Theodor Te Wildt
Internet dependence, especially online computer games, social networks and online pornography, is increasingly understood as a behavioral addiction. Addiction criteria, as used in the diagnosis of substance-related addiction disorders, have also proven effective in these cases. Prevalence estimates for Germany assume a frequency of around 1%, although the proportion in younger populations is already significantly higher and is therefore expected to increase for the time being. In diagnosis and treatment, comorbid disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and substance-related dependencies should be taken into account, especially when psychopharmacotherapy is considered...
October 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Sullivan Fontesse, Stéphanie Demoulin, Florence Stinglhamber, Pierre Maurage
Dehumanization, defined as the denial of one's membership to humanity, is a process repeatedly reported in extreme contexts (e.g., genocides) but also in everyday life interactions. Some antecedents of dehumanizing experiences (e.g., social exclusion, negative stereotypes) have been reported among patients presenting psychiatric disorders, but dehumanization's experience remains completely unexplored in addictive disorders. We propose a theoretical model and research agenda to overcome this limitation and to improve our understanding of dehumanization's experience in psychiatry, with a special focus on alcohol-related disorders...
September 1, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Esther U Kim, Elena I Varlinskaya, Carol A Dannenhoffer, Linda P Spear
Alcohol use initiated early in adolescence is a major predictor for the development of alcohol use disorders. This risk may be increased when drinking is initiated around the time of puberty, given evidence of bidirectional relationships between alcohol and gonadal hormones. The current study examined the effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) on pubertal timing and expression of novelty-seeking and peer-directed behaviors as well as neural correlates of these behaviors. AIE did not affect pubertal timing or the later expression of novelty-seeking and peer-directed behaviors...
May 9, 2018: Alcohol
Changjiu Zhao, Stephen C Gammie
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1) (also known as Rev-erb alpha) has been linked to circadian rhythm regulation, mood-related behavior, and disorders associated with social deficits. Recent work from our laboratory found striking decreases in Nr1d1 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the maternal condition and indirect evidence that Nr1d1 was interacting with numerous addiction and reward-related genes to modulate social reward. In this study, we applied our insights from the maternal state to non-parental adult mice to determine whether decreases in Nr1d1 expression in the NAc via adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene knockdown were sufficient to modulate social behaviors and mood-related behaviors...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Catherine F Moore, Angelo Blasio, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Binge eating disorder is an addiction-like disorder characterized by recurrent, excessive food consumption within discrete periods of time, and it has been linked to increased trait impulsivity. Within impulsivity components, while impulsive action was shown to predict binge-like and addictive-like eating, the role of impulsive choice is instead unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if impulsive choice predicted, or was altered by binge-like eating of a sugary, highly palatable diet. We utilized a modified adjusting delay task procedure in free-fed rats to assess impulsive choice behavior, that is...
October 15, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Mark A Brown, Wendy Gellatley, Anna Hoffman, Lisa Dowdell, Anne Camac, Rachel Francois, Belinda Boston, Amany Zekry
BACKGROUND: Homelessness is an increasing societal and health issue associated with high rates of substance abuse and mental health disorders. Homeless people die more often and younger than others. AIM: To identify health needs and improve healthcare for homeless men. METHODS: A physician-led clinic was established on-site at the Mission Australia Centre (MAC) in Sydney, incorporating a) liver screening, including portable fibroscan testing, and on-site treatment of Hepatitis C, b) a mental health clinic, staffed by a psychiatrist, and c) a nurse led clinic to follow up medical issues and deliver vaccinations...
October 15, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Cassandre Coudert, Camille Vidal, Thomas Lefèvre, Patrick Chariot
OBJECTIVE: Custody conditions in police cells are often demeaning and considered inappropriate for human beings. The detention of young adolescents in police custody has received little attention. Our study aimed to describe the characteristics of adolescents under 18 detained in custody. METHODS: We studied all arrestees aged 13-17 examined in 1 year (January 01-December 31, 2014) in a suburban district near Paris. We evaluated the proportion of adolescents under 18 among all arrestees detained in custody and their medical history, addictive behaviors, perceived health status, and opinion on custody...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Raoul Borbé, Christine Pfäffle, Frank Eisele, Gerhard Längle
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: General practitioners are mainly responsible for primary health care. Patients with mental disorders, in particular patients with complex or multiple needs, use these services infrequently in case of somatic complaints. Psychiatric outpatient clinics have to deal with these patients and have perhaps an additional role in diagnosing and treating somatic co-morbidities. This should be evaluated. METHODS: Physicians in outpatient clinics of the Centre of Psychiatry Suedwuerttemberg were asked about their attitude towards somatic co-morbidities, somatic co-treatment and prescribing somatic drugs...
October 15, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Marc Auriacombe, Sarah Moriceau, Fuschia Serre, Cécile Denis, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Etienne de Sevin, Emilien Bonhomme, Stéphanie Bioulac, Mélina Fatseas, Pierre Philip
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are under-detected and not systematically diagnosed or screened for by primary care. In this study, we present the acceptability and validity of an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) designed to screen tobacco and alcohol use disorder, in individuals who did not seek medical help for these disorders. METHODS: Individuals were included from June 2016 to May 2017 in the Outpatient Sleep Clinic of the University Hospital of Bordeaux...
October 6, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Alessandra Matzeu, Lars Terenius, Remi Martin-Fardon
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable efforts, few drugs are available for the treatment of alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) use disorder (AUD). Ethanol directly or indirectly modulates several aspects of the central nervous system, including neurotransmitter/neuromodulator systems. Relapse vulnerability is a challenge for the treatment of EtOH addiction. Ethanol withdrawal symptoms create motivational states that lead to compulsive EtOH drinking and relapse even after long periods of abstinence. Among the therapeutics to treat AUD, naltrexone (NTX) is a pharmacological treatment for relapse...
October 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mohammad Bagher Saberi Zafarghandi, Hamid Khanipour, Seyed Mojtaba Ahmadi
Objective: Individuals with substance use disorder are not homogeneous as we might regard. Thus, this study was conducted to present a novel classification of substance use disorder based on temperament, addiction severity, and negative emotions. Method : In this correlation study, Temperament and Character Inventory, Addiction Severity Index, Aggression Subscale of MMPI-2, Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale, Emotional Schema Questionnaire, and Psychosocial Checklist were used for data collection. Results: The cluster analysis of 324 individuals with substance use disorder explored 4 subtypes...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
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