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Addictive disorders

Nora D Volkow, Emily B Jones, Emily B Einstein, Eric M Wargo
Importance: More than 42 000 Americans died of opioid overdoses in 2016, and the fatalities continue to increase. This review analyzes the factors that triggered the opioid crisis and its further evolution, along with the interventions to manage and prevent opioid use disorder (OUD), which are fundamental for curtailing the opioid crisis. Observations: Opioid drugs are among the most powerful analgesics but also among the most addictive. The current opioid crisis, initially triggered by overprescription of opioid analgesics, which facilitated their diversion and misuse, has now expanded to heroin and illicit synthetic opioids (fentanyl and its analogues), the potency of which further increases their addictiveness and lethality...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Joseph J Avery, Jordan Starck, Yuanda Xu, Jonathan D Avery, Joel Cooper
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While a large percentage of criminal offenders suffer from substance use disorders (SUDs), virtually nothing is known about the attitudes criminal defense attorneys possess toward their clients who are facing substance-related charges. This is a serious concern, as the burden of steering individuals with SUDs into treatment often falls to criminal defense attorneys. The goal of this study was to examine the attitudes of criminal defense attorneys toward individuals who have been accused of drug crimes...
December 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Giulio Perugi, Alessandro Pallucchini, Salvatore Rizzato, Pietro De Rossi, Gabriele Sani, Angelo Maremmani, Vito Pinzone, Icro Maremmani
Substance use disorder (SUD) is very common amongst patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The two disorders share partially overlapping features and SUD in ADHD is characterized by an early age of onset, high likelihood of poly-substance use, increased risk of suicide attempts, more hospitalizations, and scarce treatment adherence. Areas covered: This paper reviews randomized active comparator-controlled or placebo-controlled trials evaluating the use of pharmacotherapy in patients with ADHD and SUD...
December 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
N A Fineberg, Z Demetrovics, D J Stein, K Ioannidis, M N Potenza, E Grünblatt, M Brand, J Billieux, L Carmi, D L King, J E Grant, M Yücel, B Dell'Osso, H J Rumpf, N Hall, E Hollander, A Goudriaan, J Menchon, J Zohar, J Burkauskas, G Martinotti, M Van Ameringen, O Corazza, S Pallanti, S R Chamberlain
The Internet is now all-pervasive across much of the globe. While it has positive uses (e.g. prompt access to information, rapid news dissemination), many individuals develop Problematic Use of the Internet (PUI), an umbrella term incorporating a range of repetitive impairing behaviours. The Internet can act as a conduit for, and may contribute to, functionally impairing behaviours including excessive and compulsive video gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour, buying, gambling, streaming or social networks use...
November 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nitika Sanger, Meha Bhatt, Ieta Shams, Hamnah Shahid, Candice Luo, Sabrina Lue Tam, M Constantine Samaan, Russell de Souza, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid misuse in Canada has become a serious public health concern and has contributed to Canada's opioid crisis. There are thousands of Canadians who are currently receiving treatment for opioid use disorder, which is a chronic relapsing disorder with enormous impact on individuals and society. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and demographic differences between cohorts of patients who were introduced to opioids through a prescription and those introduced to opioids for non-medical purposes...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Jacqueline C Carter, Megan Van Wijk, Marsha Rowsell
'Food addiction' refers to the idea that certain highly palatable foods can trigger an addictive-like process in susceptible individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of 'food addiction' symptoms in binge eating disorder (BED) using the second version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS 2.0). Participants were 71 individuals with BED and 79 individuals with no history of an eating disorder (NED). The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) was used to diagnose BED and to measure binge eating...
November 30, 2018: Appetite
Ana Canseco-Alba, Norman Schanz, Branden Sanabria, Juan Zhao, Zhicheng Lin, Qing-Rong Liu, Emmanuel S Onaivi
Activation of the endocannabinoid system modulate dopaminergic pathways that are involved in the effects of psychostimulants including amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine and other drugs of abuse. Genetic deletion or pharmacological activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptor is involved in the modulation of the effects of psychostimulants and their rewarding properties. Here we report on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants in DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice with selective deletion of type 2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons...
November 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Stefano Triberti, Luca Milani, Daniela Villani, Serena Grumi, Sara Peracchia, Giuseppe Curcio, Giuseppe Riva
Online video gaming is now widely considered an activity possibly related to addictive behaviors, so that the diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is now included both in DSM-5 and ICD-11; however, there is still debate about some specific features of such disorder. One debated aspect is time spent playing: IGD gamers certainly play a high amount of time, but, on the other hand, also highly-engaged individuals or people working with video games (e.g.: eSports professional players) may play a lot without developing IGD...
December 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
John C Rhead, Marilyn F Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Mark H C Lai, George B Richardson, Hio Wa Mak
Establishing measurement invariance, or that an instrument measures the same construct(s) in the same way across subgroups of respondents, is crucial in efforts to validate social and behavioral instruments. Although substantial previous research has focused on detecting the presence of noninvariance, less attention has been devoted to its practical significance and even less has been paid to its possible impact on diagnostic accuracy. In this article, we draw additional attention to the importance of measurement invariance and advance diagnostic research by introducing a novel approach for quantifying the impact of noninvariance with binary items (e...
November 22, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Amna Zehra, Elsa Lindgren, Corinde E Wiers, Clara Freeman, Gregg Miller, Veronica Ramirez, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Gene-Jack Wang, Lori Talagala, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Numerous studies have documented cognitive impairments in multiple domains in patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), including perceptuomotor, executive, and visuospatial functions. Although the neural underpinnings of cognitive deficits in AUD have been studied extensively, the neural basis of attention deficits in AUD remains relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated neural responses to a visual attention task (VAT) in 19 recently abstinent patients with AUD and 23 healthy control participants (HC) using functional MRI (fMRI)...
November 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kevin Glynn, John Lyne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Fei Chen, André Berchtold, Yara Barrense-Dias, Joan-Carles Suris
Background Earlier studies suggested a positive impact of spirituality on addictive disorders, but this effect has rarely been studied in a large adolescent and young adult population. Aim To examine the association between spiritual beliefs (general belief, the supporting role of spiritual belief, the critical role of spiritual belief) and potentially addictive behaviors (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drugs, excessive Internet use and gambling). Methods Data were collected using online self-report questionnaires among a sample of 5179 adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years in post-mandatory education in Switzerland...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Mateusz Gola, Małgorzata Draps
Compulsive Sexual Behaviors (CSB) are a reason to seek treatment. Given this reality, the number of studies on CSB has increased substantially in the last decade and the World Health Organization (WHO) included CSB in its proposal for the upcoming ICD-11. Sixty percent of the neuroimaging studies on CSB published since 2014 aimed to examine similarities and differences between brain mechanisms underlying CSB, gambling disorder, and substance use disorders. One of the crucial brain circuits involved in addiction is the reward system involving the ventral striatum (including nucleus accumbens)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Nicole K Horst, Bianca Jupp, Angela C Roberts, Trevor W Robbins
Behavioral flexibility, which allows organisms to adapt their actions in response to environmental changes, is impaired in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction. Studies in human subjects and monkeys have reported correlations between individual differences in dopamine D2-type receptor (D2R) levels in the caudate nucleus and performance in a discrimination reversal task, in which established contingent relationships between abstract stimuli and rewards (or punishments) are reversed...
November 15, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tony Cijsouw, Austin M Ramsey, TuKiet T Lam, Beatrice E Carbone, Thomas A Blanpied, Thomas Biederer
Synapses are specialized neuronal cell-cell contacts that underlie network communication in the mammalian brain. Across neuronal populations and circuits, a diverse set of synapses is utilized, and they differ in their molecular composition to enable heterogenous connectivity patterns and functions. In addition to pre- and post-synaptic specializations, the synaptic cleft is now understood to be an integral compartment of synapses that contributes to their structural and functional organization. Aiming to map the cleft proteome, this study applied a peroxidase-mediated proximity labeling approach and used the excitatory synaptic cell adhesion protein SynCAM 1 fused to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a reporter in cultured cortical neurons...
November 28, 2018: Proteomes
Rachel McGihon, Lisa D Hawke, Gloria Chaim, Joanna Henderson
BACKGROUND: Youth with concurrent substance use and mental health concerns have diverse psychosocial needs and may present to a multitude of clinical and social service sectors. By integrating service sectors at a system level, the diversity of needs of youth with concurrent disorders can be addressed in a more holistic way. The objective of the present study was to quantify the level of cross-sectoral integration in youth-focused services in Canada. METHODS: Social network analysis (SNA) was used to examine the relationships between eight sectors: addictions, child welfare, education, physical health, housing, mental health, youth justice, and other social services...
November 28, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Akash Goel, Saam Azargive, Wiplove Lamba, Joel Bordman, Marina Englesakis, Sanjho Srikandarajah, Karim Ladha, Tania Di Renna, Harsha Shanthanna, Scott Duggan, Philip Peng, John Hanlon, Hance Clarke
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) are treated with opioid agonist-antagonists such as buprenorphine/naloxone. Perioperative management of patients on buprenorphine/naloxone is inconsistent and remains a controversial topic with mismanagement posing a significant risk to the long-term health of these patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search involving Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, Cochrane Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, Web of Science (Clarivate), Scopus (Elsevier), CINAHL (EbscoHosst), and PubMed (NLM)...
November 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Niroshani Broman, Anders Hakansson
Background: Substance-related addictive disorders are known to be overrepresented in non-heterosexual individuals, but it is largely unknown whether this is also the case for behavioral addictions such as problem gaming and gambling. This study aimed, in a pilot web survey design, to assess whether problematic gambling, gaming and internet use may be more common in individuals with a non-heterosexual orientation. Methods: An online survey was distributed through media and social media, and answered by 605 individuals (51% women and 11% non-heterosexual)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
James M Kasper, Ashley E Smith, Jonathan D Hommel
Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is characterized by repeated cycles of drug seeking and drug taking. Currently, there are no available pharmacotherapies to treat CUD, partially due to a lack of a mechanistic understanding of cocaine-evoked alterations in the brain that drive drug-related behaviors. Repeated cocaine use alters expression of numerous genes in addiction-associated areas of the brain and these alterations are in part driven by inter-subject genetic variability. Recent findings have shown the neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU) and its receptor NMU receptor 2 (NMUR2) decrease drug-related behaviors, but it is unknown if substances of abuse alter NMU or NMUR2 expression...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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