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Addictive disorders

Shuguang Wei, Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Weine Dai, Jinxiu Sun, Haiyan Wu, Xun Liu
Converging evidence supports that addiction involves the pathological usurpation of normal reward processes. However, the nature and direction of reward processing dysfunction in substance abusers remain unclear. The current study explored the electrophysiological responses associated with different stages of reward processing in methamphetamine (MA) use disordered individuals. Electroencephalography recording was used to compare responses of 21 MA use disordered individuals and 22 healthy controls (HC) while participants engaged in a simple gambling task...
August 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Aimee N C Campbell, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Mary Hatch-Maillette, Sarah E Mennenga, Martina Pavlicova, Jennifer Scodes, Tanya Saraiya, Shannon G Mitchell, John Rotrosen, Patricia Novo, Edward V Nunes, Shelly F Greenfield
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: We investigated gender differences in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving inpatient services and entering a randomized controlled trial comparing extended-release naltrexone to buprenorphine. METHODS: Participants (N = 570) provided demographic, substance use, and psychiatric information. RESULTS: Women were significantly younger, more likely to identify as bisexual, live with a sexual partner, be financially dependent, and less likely employed...
August 14, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Grace Chang, Mitchell Crawford, Michelle Pitts, Abigail Z Schein, Katherine Goodwin, Justin L Enggasser
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the promise of extended release naltrexone in the treatment of the opioid and alcohol use disorders, challenges with initiation and subsequent adherence have limited its potential. The purpose of this study is to identify the patient and treatment characteristics associated with adherence to extended release naltrexone. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 155 veterans who initiated the medication in FY 2014 and FY2015. Medical records were abstracted for patient and treatment data including preferred drug and utilization of substance use treatment in the year before and after medication initiation...
August 14, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
GuangMing Tan, Ari J Mintz, Bruce Mintz, Jorge C Borges, Mary Deborah Hines, Robert M Schainfeld, Michael R Jaff, Ido Weinberg
Amphetamine and its related derivatives and analogues (ADRA) are highly addictive central nervous system stimulants that are used commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. These medications are associated with many side effects but reports of peripheral arterial manifestations associated with ADRA usage are scarce. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 16 patients (median age 37 years (IQR 31-47), 13 females) referred to a single tertiary referral service while receiving ADRA...
August 14, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Luciana López-Jury, Rodrigo C Meza, Matthew T C Brown, Pablo Henny, Carmen C Canavier
Action potentials (APs) in nigral dopaminergic neurons often exhibit two separate components, the first reflecting spike initiation in the dendritically located axon initial segment (AIS) and the second the subsequent dendro-somatic spike. These components are separated by a notch in the ascending phase of the somatic extracellular waveform and in the temporal derivative of the somatic intracellular waveform. Still, considerable variability exists in the presence and magnitude of the notch across neurons. To systematically address the contribution of AIS, dendritic and somatic compartments to shaping the two-component APs, we modeled APs of previously in vivo electrophysiologically characterized and 3D-reconstructed male mouse and rat dopaminergic neurons...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shreeya Gyawali, Siddharth Sarkar, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Saurabh Kumar, Vaibhav Patil, Swarndeep Singh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Perceived stigma is related to the beliefs that members of stigmatized group have about the stigmatizing attitudes present in society. We present the data on perceived stigma in alcohol and opioid users seeking treatment. METHODS: This study was conducted at a tertiary care de-addiction facility with recruitment of patients with substance use disorders (alcohol and opioid use). Perceived stigma was assessed using Perceived Stigma of Substance Abuse Scale (PSAS)...
August 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Lorena Oliveira de Matos, Ana Luiza de Araujo Lima Reis, Lorena Terene Lopes Guerra, Leonardo de Oliveira Guarnieri, Muiara Aparecida Moraes, Nayara Soares Sena Aquino, Raphael E Szawka, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Bruno Rezende Souza
Alterations in dopaminergic signaling and neurodevelopment are associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and schizophrenia. Imbalances in dopamine levels during prenatal development are associated with behavioral alterations later in life, like hyperactivity and addiction, and it is possible that dopaminergic imbalances may have diverse effects during different neurodevelopmental windows. In this study, we investigate whether an increase in dopamine levels during the perinatal developmental window affects behavior of juvenile male and female Swiss mice...
August 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Roshna Ramchandran, Shivendra Verma, Riddhi Dasgupta, Nihal Thomas
Chronic liquorice ingestion is a rare cause of secondary hypertension and hypokalaemia with periodic paralysis. We report the case of a middle-aged Indian man who presented with hypertension and hypokalaemic alkalosis with recurrent bouts of periodic paralysis. Biochemical investigations revealed suppressed plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations with normal cortisol concentration. A detailed history revealed that he was addicted for the last 5 years to a form of chewing tobacco mixed with herbal preparations as a sweetening agent which on analysis revealed active principles of glycyrrhizin using the thin liquid chromatography method...
August 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Michelle Raggatt, Cassandra J C Wright, Elise Carrotte, Rebecca Jenkinson, Kate Mulgrew, Ivanka Prichard, Megan S C Lim
BACKGROUND: Fitspiration is a popular social media trend containing images, quotes and advice related to exercise and healthy eating. This study aimed to 1) describe the types of fitspiration content that users access and how they engage with content, 2) investigate the disordered eating and exercise behaviours and psychological distress of individuals who access fitspiration, and 3) understand the perceived influence of fitspiration on health and wellbeing. METHODS: Participants who access fitspiration content were recruited via social media to complete a cross-sectional online survey...
August 10, 2018: BMC Public Health
Tara Gomes, Wayne Khuu, Diana Craiovan, Diana Martins, Jordan Hunt, Kathy Lee, Mina Tadrous, Muhammad M Mamdani, J Michael Paterson, David N Juurlink
BACKGROUND: The Canadian opioid crisis is a complex, multifaceted problem involving prescribed, diverted and illicitly manufactured opioids. This study sought to characterize the contribution of prescribed opioids to opioid-related hospitalizations in Canada. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of all individuals who were admitted to hospital for opioid toxicity in British Columbia (BC), Manitoba and Ontario between April 2015 and March 2016. We used prescription claims to ascertain active prescription opioid use at time of hospital admission...
July 31, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
M Carmen Blanco-Gandía, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
Addiction pharmacotherapy aims to prevent drug abstinence symptoms, reduce drug craving and relapse, and normalize physiologic functions disrupted by chronic use of the drug. During the last 50 years, there has been an enormous revolution in pharmacotherapy for drug addiction. From abstinence as practically the only treatment option available, there are now multiple drugs on the market that have proved their efficacy in treating opiate and alcohol disorders. The present review will focus on the pharmacological treatments of the drugs whose consumption most affects individuals and society: alcohol and opiates...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hussam Jefee-Bahloul, Lantie Jorandby, Albert J Arias
: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant medication with increasingly strong evidence, supporting its use for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) based on clinical trials. These clinical cases summarize the initiation and titration of topiramate in AUD treatment. The core issues of patient selection, consideration of comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions, side-effect profile, safety and effectiveness are reviewed. Addiction physicians should take a leading role in using topiramate to treat AUDs, working with patients to balance the benefits of topiramate with the risk...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Ajay Manhapra, Anirban Chakraborty, Albert J Arias
: Topiramate is a non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsant medication with multi-faceted pharmacologic action. It has emerged as an efficacious pharmacotherapeutic option for the treatment of addiction, especially alcohol use disorder (AUD). We present a broad narrative review of the putative mechanism of action and clinical utility of topiramate with regard to AUD and other substance use disorders. Collective evidence suggests topiramate is an effective treatment option in AUD, with notable efficacy in reducing harmful drinking patterns in AUD...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Olivia M Lapenta, Lucas M Marques, Gabriel G Rego, William E Comfort, Paulo S Boggio
The study of addiction and impulsion control disorders has shown that behaviors of seeking and consumption of addictive substances are subserved by neurobiological alterations specifically related to brain networks for reward, stress, and executive control, representing the brain's adaptation to the continued use of an addictive substance. In parallel, studies using neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have demonstrated promising effects in modulating cognitive and motor functions...
August 8, 2018: Journal of ECT
Astrid Müller, Crispin Leukefeld, Carolin Hase, Kerstin Gruner-Labitzke, Julian W Mall, Hinrich Köhler, Martina de Zwaan
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the association between food addiction (FA) and other addictive behaviours in 216 bariatric surgery candidates (91.7% class 3 obesity; 80.1% women; age Mdn = 44.00 years, range 18-73). METHOD: Assessment included the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (YFAS 2.0) and standardized self-report questionnaires to measure symptoms of disorders related to substance use (alcohol and nicotine) and behavioural addictions (gambling, Internet-use, buying, hypersexual disorders, and exercise dependence)...
August 9, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Pankajakshan Vijayanthi Indu, Chandran Remany Jinu, Noorudheen Razi Pallikkal, Ramya Sampathkumar, Jomon Joy
Background: Prevalence of both domestic violence (DV) and alcohol use is reported to be high in Kerala. The prevalence of DV and psychological morbidity in spouses of alcohol-dependent males has not been studied objectively. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the occurrence of DV and psychological morbidity-major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorders-in spouses of alcohol-dependent males attending the de-addiction center of a tertiary care hospital in South India...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Thomas Kyle Harrison, Howard Kornfeld, Anuj Kailash Aggarwal, Anna Lembke
As part of a national effort to combat the current US opioid epidemic, use of currently Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for the treatment of opioid use disorder/opioid addiction (buprenorphine, methadone, and naltrexone) is on the rise. To provide optimal pain control and minimize the risk of relapse and overdose, providers need to have an in-depth understanding of how to manage these medications in the perioperative setting. This article reviews key principles and discusses perioperative considerations for patients with opioid use disorder on buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone...
September 2018: Anesthesiology Clinics
Nikki Bozinoff, Bernard Le Foll
Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. There are efficacious behavioral and pharmacological options for smoking cessation including three FDA approved therapies - nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion. Nevertheless, uptake of smoking cessation treatments continues to be poor and there is a need for novel smoking cessation treatments. Areas covered: This article reviews the biobehavioral basis of nicotine addiction, its implications for smoking cessation treatments, the various neurotransmitter systems involved in nicotine addictive effects, and their potential therapeutic value...
August 10, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Leandro Val Sayson, Arvie Abiero, Zae Young Ryoo, Jae Hoon Cheong, Hee Jin Kim
Drug addiction is a chronic and relapsing brain disorder, influenced by complex interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors. Per2, a circadian gene, plays a role in drug addiction. Previous studies using Per2-knockout mice have shown a role for Per2 in cocaine, morphine and alcohol addiction. In the present study, we investigated the role of Per2 in methamphetamine (METH) addiction using Per2-overexpression and knockout mice. We observed locomotor sensitization responses to METH administration, and rewarding effects using a conditioned place preference test...
August 9, 2018: Addiction Biology
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