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Hela G Zouari, Sophie Ng Wing Tin, Abir Wahab, Thibaud Damy, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
BACKGROUND: Distal involvement of autonomic nerve fibers is critical in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) due to transthyretin (TTR) mutation. This study compares different methods for assessing autonomic foot innervation in TTR-FAP patients. METHODS: Three groups of seven TTR-FAP patients were included, according to disease severity: clinically asymptomatic, moderate, or advanced neuropathy. Autonomic investigation included EMLA test and laser doppler flowmetry (LDF) for vasomotor aspects and Sudoscan® (measuring electrochemical skin conductance, ESC) and Neuropad® test for sudomotor aspects...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Hatem Jaber, Everett Lohman, Noha Daher, Gurinder Bains, Abhay Nagaraj, Prajakta Mayekar, Manali Shanbhag, Mansoor Alameri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Ankle sprains are common and potentially disabling musculoskeletal injuries that often lead to chronic ankle instability (CAI). CAI has been linked to impairments in postural and neuromuscular control; however, inconsistent findings have been reported. Individuals who experience a lateral ankle sprain, but do not develop instability, termed copers, may adapt different neuromuscular control strategies after injury. This study aimed to compare postural control and electromyographic (EMG) activity of hip and ankle muscles during the performance of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in subjects with and without CAI...
2018: PloS One
Frans van Workum, Annelijn E Slaman, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen, Suzanne S Gisbertz, Ewout A Kouwenhoven, Marc J van Det, Frits J H van den Wildenberg, Fatih Polat, Misha D P Luyer, Grard A P Nieuwenhuijzen, Camiel Rosman
INTRODUCTION: Totally minimally invasive esophagectomy (TMIE) is increasingly used in treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma. However, it is currently unknown if McKeown TMIE or Ivor Lewis TMIE should be preferred for patients in whom both procedures are oncologically feasible. METHODS: The study was performed in 4 high-volume Dutch esophageal cancer centers between November 2009 and April 2017. Prospectively collected data from consecutive patients with esophageal cancer localized in the distal esophagus or gastroesophageal junction undergoing McKeown TMIE or Ivor Lewis TMIE were included...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Yuttapong Thawornwattana, Daniel Dalquen, Ziheng Yang
Deep coalescence and introgression make it challenging to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related species that arose through radiative speciation events. Despite numerous phylogenetic analyses and the availability of whole genomes, the phylogeny in the Anopheles gambiae species complex has not been confidently resolved. Here we extract over 80,000 coding and noncoding short segments from the genomes of six members of the species complex and use a Bayesian method under the multispecies coalescent model to infer the species tree, which takes into account genealogical heterogeneity across the genome and uncertainty in the gene trees...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Maxim Tikhonov, Marina Utkina, Oksana Maksimenko, Pavel Georgiev
Alternative splicing (AS) is a regulatory mechanism of gene expression that greatly expands the coding capacities of genomes by allowing the generation of multiple mRNAs from a single gene. In Drosophila, the mod(mdg4) locus is an extreme example of AS that produces more than 30 different mRNAs via trans-splicing that joins together the common exons and the 3' variable exons generated from alternative promoters. To map the regions required for trans-splicing, we have developed an assay for measuring trans-splicing events and identified a 73-bp region in the last common intron that is critical for trans-splicing of three pre-mRNAs synthesized from different DNA strands...
August 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Eivind Rørvik, Lars Fredrik Fjæra, Tordis J Dahle, Jon Espen Dale, Grete May Engeseth, Camilla Hanqvuist Stokkevåg, Sara Thörnqvist, Kristian Smeland Ytre-Hauge
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons varies with multiple physical and biological factors. Phenomenological RBE models have been developed to include such factors in the estimation of a variable RBE, in contrast to the clinically applied constant RBE of 1.1. In this study, eleven published phenomenological RBE models and two plan-based models were explored and applied to simulated patient cases.
 Method and Materials: All models were analysed with respect to the distribution and range of linear energy transfer (LET) and reference radiation fractionation sensitivity ((α/β)<sub>x</sub>) of their respective experimental databases...
August 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Julia Naoumova, Gabriel Edgardo Alfaro, Sheldon Peck
OBJECTIVES: To assess palatal vault height, tooth size, and dental arch dimensions in patients with unilateral and bilateral palatally displaced canines compared with a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 66 patients (mean age: 11.5 ± 1.0 years) with 22 unilateral palatally displaced canines (UPDCs), 22 bilateral palatally displaced canines (BPDCs), and 22 controls (C) were consecutively recruited. All three groups had dental casts that were scanned digitally using the OrthoX three-dimensional model scanner...
August 13, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Abbas Peymani, Anna Rose Johnson, Arriyan S Dowlatshahi, Johannes G G Dobbe, Samuel J Lin, Joseph Upton, Geert J Streekstra, Simon D Strackee
BACKGROUND: Madelung deformity is a congenital wrist condition characterized by volar subluxation of the wrist caused by premature growth arrest of the distal radius. Progressive symptoms can necessitate surgical intervention, yet optimal treatment strategy remains unknown. The aim of this study is to determine treatment options, surgical indications, and operative outcomes for Madelung deformity. METHODS: This study adhered to the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines...
August 13, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Kyoichi Adachi, Takumi Notsu, Tomoko Mishiro, Mayumi Okada, Eiko Okimoto, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Aim Esophageal mucosal breaks are considered to occur circumferentially in locations with high exposure to acid. In the present study, we investigated the circumferential localization of esophageal mucosal breaks based on their distance from the esophagogastric junction. Subjects and methods The vertical and circumferential localization of 625 esophageal longitudinal mucosal breaks was examined in 398 patients with mild reflux esophagitis. Results The number of mucosal breaks in which the distal end was located 0-1 cm from the esophagogastric junction was 454, while those in which the distal end was located 1-2, 2-3, and >3 cm from the junction were 125, 28, and 18, respectively...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Xiaozhong Chen
To facilitate the creation, modification, and optimization of patient-specific plates for distal femur fractures, a novel approach was proposed for the rapid and convenient design of patient-specific plates for patients' fractured femurs using feature parameterization. First, several femur parameter values were obtained for a specific patient and used to construct a restored surface model of the fractured femur. Next, combined with the particular femur anatomy and the fracture, a parameterized plate with a suitable shape was created automatically based on the parameter maps between the femur and plate...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Fernando Rizzello, Marta Mazza, Marco Salice, Carlo Calabrese, Andrea Calafiore, Massimo Campieri, Paolo Gionchetti
Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a second-generation corticosteroid that use novel drug technologies to ensure colonic targeting and potentially reducing systemic corticosteroid concentrations. It is approved for treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) who do not respond to mesalazine. The gut-selective mechanism of action has the potential to improve the safety profile of beclomethasone dipropionate compared to other conventional corticosteroids. Areas covered: We reviewed the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate in the treatment of UC...
August 11, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Glenn Isaacson, Elizabeth T Drum
Objective: To review current evidence and experience with anesthesia and airway management issues in children and young adults with arthrogryposis. Data sources: Review of existing world literature and description of personal experience at a center for children's orthopedic surgery and rehabilitation over 2 decades. Methods: Description of common problems and their solutions in this unusual and diverse group of patients. Results: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital includes more than 400 conditions that lead to congenital joint contractures affecting more than one body area...
June 2018: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Yuan Hua, Shi-Heng Tao, Bao-Zhen Hua
A new species of Panorpidae, Panorpabashanicola sp. n. , is described and illustrated from the Bashan Mountains in central China. The new species is characterized by the following characters: vertex black, with two pale longitudinal stripes and four pale rounded spots; vein 1A ending before the origin of Rs; meso- and metanotum pale, and the pale color extending to tergum III in V-shape; male epandrium emarginate distally in deep U-shape; hypovalves without basal stalk, completely represented by a pair of short hypovalves, extending to distal third of gonocoxite, with five black stout setae in distal portion; paramere simple, S-shaped; a bundle of long hairs between dorsal and ventral valves of aedeagus; dorsal valves of aedeagus much longer than ventral valves and curved ventrally, with distal portion foot-shaped; female medigynium twice as long as wide, with stout axis extending over one-third its length beyond main plate...
2018: ZooKeys
Alexander W Fischer, Kirstin Albers, Lucia M Krott, Britta Hoffzimmer, Markus Heine, Hartwig Schmale, Ludger Scheja, Philip L S M Gordts, Joerg Heeren
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is associated with impaired receptor dependent hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), promoting hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis. Next to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and syndecan-1, the LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1) stimulated by insulin action contributes to the rapid clearance of TRL in the postprandial state. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the adaptor protein phosphotyrosine interacting domain-containing protein 1 (PID1) regulates LRP1 function, thereby controlling hepatic endocytosis of postprandial lipoproteins...
July 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Hikono Aiki, Takuro Wada, Kousuke Iba, Gosuke Oki, Hitoshi Sohma, Toshihiko Yamashita, Yasuo Kokai
BACKGROUND: The peripheral nervous system has greater regenerative potential than the CNS. This fact suggests the existence of molecules that act as key factors in nerve regeneration during molecular changes in the peripheral nervous system. METHODS: The right sciatic nerve of female Sprague-Dawley rats was exposed and transected at the mid-thigh level. Animals were sacrificed at 5, 10 or 35 days after nerve transection. Proximal and distal nerve segments (1-cm in length) were dissected...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Hugo Partsch
Aim Self-application of properly performed compression bandages is generally considered as problematic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the pressure of self-applied short stretch adjustable compression wrap compression systems (Juxta fit™) and to compare the results with the pressure achieved by bandaging other legs using the same material. Methods In the two training courses for nurses, specifically interested in leg ulcer treatment, the new bandage type of adjustable compression wrap was explained and workshops were organized, in which the interface pressure achieved by Juxta fit™ was measured...
August 12, 2018: Phlebology
André Luis Bombeiro, Bruna Toledo Nunes Pereira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Peripheral nerve injuries severely impair patients' quality of life since full recovery is seldom achieved. Upon axonal disruption, the distal nerve stump undergoes fragmentation, and myelin breaks down; the subsequent regeneration progression is dependent on cell debris removal. In addition to tissue clearance, macrophages release angiogenic and neurotrophic factors that contribute to axon growth. Based on the importance of macrophages for nerve regeneration, especially during the initial response to injury, we treated mice with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) at various intervals after sciatic nerve crushing...
August 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
R C Hartmann, M Fensterseifer, O A Peters, J A P de Figueiredo, Gomes, G Rossi-Fedele
The assessment of root canal curvature is essential for clinical and research purposes. This systematic review presents an overview of the published techniques for the measurement of root canal curvature features using imaging, and to provide a critique of their clinical application. A database search in PubMed, PubMed Central, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source and Virtual Health Library was conducted, using appropriate key words to identify measurement methods for root canal curvatures...
August 11, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Andreas M Fichter, Lucas M Ritschl, Rali Georg, Andreas Kolk, Marco R Kesting, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Thomas Mücke
BACKGROUND:  Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography is routinely used to evaluate skin and organ perfusion and to assess patency rates of microvascular anastomoses. This study uses ICG angiography as a novel approach to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate bone perfusion of microvascular fibula grafts intraoperatively and to assess the effect of fibula segment length and number of osteotomies on bone perfusion. METHODS:  All patients planned for mandible reconstruction using a microvascular fibula graft between January 2013 and May 2017 were considered for this study...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Joseph Aklinski, Sirin Gandhi, Mark C Preul, Michael T Lawton
BACKGROUND: The side-to-side anastomosis is one of the difficult bypass configurations that may be used in various complex cerebral vascular and neoplastic cases. Few pure arterial models exist for practicing this bypass subtype. OBJECTIVE: To provide an optimized side-to-side anastomosis training model using rat common carotid arteries (CCA). METHODS: Bilateral CCAs were exposed in the neck of 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The arteries were juxtaposed in parallel, using temporary aneurysm clips applied proximally and distally...
August 7, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
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