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Ian R MacArthur, Colin W McInnes, Kim R Dalke, Mohamed Akra, Shantanu Banerji, Edward W Buchel, Thomas J Hayakawa
BACKGROUND:  Lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma treatment has evolved from primarily amputation procedures toward limb salvage. This series assesses whether soft tissue sarcoma tissue defects, extensive enough to require microsurgical reconstruction, can reliably result in preservation of ambulation, as well as objectively evaluate functional outcomes utilizing a patient-reported validated scale. It will also look at whether immediate functional muscle reconstructions and tendon transfers can be successful at restoring ambulation, potentially expanding the indications for limb salvage procedures...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Maryam Kherad Pezhouh, James Adam Miller, Rajni Sharma, David Borzik, Ogechukwu Eze, Kevin Waters, Maria A Westerhoff, Alyssa M Parian, Mark G Lazarev, Lysandra Voltaggio
A potential role for viral infections has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unresponsive to medical treatment. It is well known that Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection can elicit a brisk mononuclear response in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of EBV in patients with refractory IBD and compare them to non-refractory IBD cases. Surgically resected colonic specimens from 67 patients with refractory IBD (62 with ulcerative colitis, 3 patients with Crohn's disease and 2 patients with indeterminate colitis) were retrieved...
August 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Ayaka Matsuo, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Mitsuhiro Nishigori, Kenji Kangawa, Naoto Minamino
Among the three natriuretic peptides, atrial/A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain/B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are primarily produced by, and secreted from, heart tissue. They maintain cardiovascular homeostasis by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor-A. Since plasma ANP and BNP concentrations, as well as expression, are elevated in response to increased body fluid volume and pressure load on the heart wall, these peptides are widely utilized as diagnostic biomarkers for evaluating heart failure...
August 15, 2018: Peptides
Chang Young Lee, Harley Chan, Hideki Ujiie, Kosuke Fujino, Tomonari Kinoshita, Jonathan C Irish, Kazuhiro Yasufuku
BACKGROUND: We developed thoracoscopic surgical navigation system with real-time augmented image guidance to assess the potential benefits for minimally invasive resection of chest wall tumors. The accuracy of localization of tumor and resection margin, and the effect on task workload and confidence were evaluated in a chest wall tumor phantom. METHODS: After scanning a realistic tumor phantom by cone beam computed tomography and registering CT data into the system, three-dimensional contoured tumor and resection margin was displayed...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Tiago Costa Goes, Thiago Henrique Almeida Souza, Murilo Marchioro, Flavia Teixeira-Silva
The neural substrate of anxiety response (state anxiety) to a threatening situation is well defined. However, a lot less is known about brain structures implicated in the individual's predisposition to anxiety (trait anxiety). Scientific evidences lead us to suppose that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in both trait and state anxiety. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of mPFC in trait anxiety and to further evaluate its participation in state anxiety. Sixty six adult, Wistar, male rats were first tested in the free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) and were categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low)...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Dengpeng Gao, Hongyue Zhang, Yafei Xu, Yun Liu, Huiying Xu, Jianguo Cui
Fluorescent copper nanoslusters (CuNCs) as a new class of fluorophores have attracted more and more attention due to their ease of synthesis, excellent optical properties, and low cost. In this study, a novel label-free fluorescent method was developed for the detection of DNA methyltransferases based on template length-dependent of dsDNA-CuNCs. In the absence of DNA adenine methylation methyltransferase (Dam MTase), the dsDNA containing the methylation-responsive sequence could effectively template the formation of fluorescent CuNCs with bright fluorescence...
August 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Catherine F Sinclair, Maria J Téllez, Sedat Ulkatan
BACKGROUND: Continuous vagal intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) currently requires placement of a vagal nerve electrode. Herein, we present data from 100 patients (134 nerves-at-risk) monitored continuously during neck endocrine surgeries using a noninvasive, new methodology that solely utilizes endotracheal tube electrodes to simultaneously stimulate laryngeal mucosa and record a laryngeal adductor reflex continuous IONM (LAR-C-IONM) response. METHODS: The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) was elicited by electrical laryngeal mucosal stimulation on the side contralateral to the operative field using endotracheal tube electrodes...
August 18, 2018: Head & Neck
Johannes Breyer, Ralph M Wirtz, Philipp Erben, Sebastien Rinaldetti, Thomas S Worst, Robert Stoehr, Markus Eckstein, Danijel Sikic, Stefan Denzinger, Maximilian Burger, Arndt Hartmann, Wolfgang Otto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate on the role of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) mRNA expression and its prognostic value in stage pT1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data and Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded tissues (FFPE) from transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) of stage pT1 NMIBC treated with an organ preserving approach was analysed retrospectively. Total RNA was isolated by commercial RNA extraction kits and mRNA expression of FOXM1, MKI67, KRT20 and KRT5 was measured by single step RT-qPCR using RNA-specific TaqMan Assays...
August 18, 2018: BJU International
Rui Prado-Costa, João Rebelo, João Monteiro-Barroso, Ana Sofia Preto
Ultrasound elastography (USE) is a recent technology that has experienced major developments in the past two decades. The assessment of the main mechanical properties of tissues can be made with this technology by characterisation of their response to stress. This article reviews the two major techniques used in musculoskeletal elastography, compression elastography (CE) and shear-wave elastography (SWE), and evaluates the studies published on major electronic databases that use both techniques in the context of tendon pathology...
August 17, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Gessyka Rayana S Pereira, Stephania F Taveira, Marcilio Cunha-Filho, Ricardo Neves Marreto
The effects of excipients on the accuracy of tablet subdivision are severely underinvestigated. In this study, placebo tablets were prepared using a combined mixture design of fillers and binders to evaluate the effect of these excipients on subdivision accuracy. The responses assessed were mass loss, mass variation, tablet fragmentation, and increased friability. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP) gave rise to more uniform and denser tablets than microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), thus resulting in greater subdivision accuracy...
August 17, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Christian Thomas, Maximilian P Brandt, Stephanie Baldauf, Igor Tsaur, Sebastian Frees, Hendrik Borgmann, Wolfgang Jäger, Georg Bartsch, Meike Schneider, Robert Dotzauer, Andreas Neisius, Axel Haferkamp
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to define clinical factors for successful treatment response and re-exposure to docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: An mCRPC database of patients receiving first-line docetaxel and rechallenge courses was established. Several clinical factors were evaluated for prediction of treatment response. Multivariate cox-regression analysis was used to define pre-treatment and treatment factors for survival...
August 17, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Jorge L Medina, Eliza A Sebastian, Andrea B Fourcaudot, Rossella Dorati, Kai P Leung
An inflammatory response is the normal response to a burn-induced injury. The burn-associated inflammation can lead to further tissue damage as the tissue tries to repair the damage. Prolonged or excessive inflammation is associated with increased fibrosis of burn wounds and the development of hypertrophic scars. The high incidence of hypertrophic scar formation is one of the many challenges to treating deep partial-thickness burns. Prophylactic treatment to improve burn-induced hypertrophic scarring is lacking...
August 17, 2018: Inflammation
Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux de Moura, Igor Braga Ribeiro, Mariana Souza Varela Frazão, Luiz Henrique Mazzonetto Mestieri, Diogo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura, Creusa Maria Roveri Dal Bó, Vitor Ottoboni Brunaldi, Eduardo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura, Gabriel Cairo Nunes, Fábio Alberto Castillo Bustamante, Manoel Dos Passos Galvão Neto, Sergio Eiji Matuguma, Wanderley Marques Bernardo, Marco Aurélio Santo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a disease that is highly prevalent in Brazil, and the associated comorbidities represent a major global public health challenge. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is a potent neurotoxin and inhibitor of gastric smooth muscle activity. In theory, BTX-A administration should promote early satiety and weight loss because it delays gastric emptying by inhibiting acetylcholine-mediated peristalsis, which is primarily responsible for gastric motility. Because results in the literature are discrepant, the efficacy of intragastric injections of BTX-A as a primary treatment for obesity remains unknown...
August 17, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Nan Zhang, Dewei Zhao, Na Liu, Yunfeng Wu, Jiahui Yang, Yuefei Wang, Huanxin Xie, Ye Ji, Changlong Zhou, Jinpeng Zhuang, Yaming Wang, Jinglong Yan
Surgical repair of bone defects remains challenging, and the search for alternative procedures is ongoing. Devices made of Mg for bone repair have received much attention owing to their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. We developed a new type of scaffold made of a Mg-Zn-Ca alloy with a shape that mimics cortical bone and can be filled with morselized bone. We evaluated its durability and efficacy in a rabbit ulna-defect model. Three types of scaffold-surface coating were evaluated: group A, no coating; group B, a 10-μm microarc oxidation coating; group C, a hydrothermal duplex composite coating; and group D, an empty-defect control...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
José Q García-Maldonado, Alejandra Escobar-Zepeda, Luciana Raggi, Brad M Bebout, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro López-Cortés
Bacterial and archaeal community structure of five microbial communities, developing at different salinities in Baja California Sur, Mexico, were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. The response of the microbial community to artificial changes in salinity-sulfate concentrations and to addition of trimethylamine was also evaluated in microcosm experiments. Ordination analyses of the microbial community structure showed that microbial composition was distinctive for each hypersaline site. Members of bacteria were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla, while Halobacteria of the Euryarchaeota phylum was the most represented class of archaea for all the environmental samples...
August 17, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Narges Saderi, Mina Rajabi, Babak Akbari, Masoumeh Firouzi, Zahra Hassannejad
In the field of nerve tissue engineering, nanofibrous scaffolds could be a promising candidate when they are incorporated with electrical cues. Unique physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) make them an appropriate component for increasing the conductivity of scaffolds to enhance the electrical signal transfer between neural cells. The aim of this study was fabrication of AuNPs-doped nanofibrous scaffolds for peripheral nerve tissue engineering. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan mixtures with different concentrations of chitosan (0...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Leah M Mayo, Anna Asratian, Johan Lindé, Lovisa Holm, Daniel Nätt, Gaëlle Augier, Niclas Stensson, Haley A Vecchiarelli, Georgia Balsevich, Robert J Aukema, Bijar Ghafouri, Primavera A Spagnolo, Francis S Lee, Matthew N Hill, Markus Heilig
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating condition with limited treatment options. Extinction of fear memories through prolonged exposure therapy, the primary evidence-based behavioral treatment for PTSD, has only partial efficacy. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) produces elevated levels of anandamide (AEA) and promotes fear extinction, suggesting that FAAH inhibitors may aid fear extinction-based treatments. A human FAAH 385C->A substitution encodes an FAAH enzyme with reduced catabolic efficacy...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi, Zhipeng Liu, Tiebing Liang, Annalisa Crudele, Massimiliano Raponi, Jingmei Lin, Naga P Chalasani, Wanqing Liu
BACKGROUND: FADS1 gene encodes delta 5 desaturase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Minor alleles of FADS1 locus polymorphisms are associated with reduced FADS1 expression and intra-hepatic fat accumulation. However, the relationship between FADS1 expression and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk remains to be explored. METHODS: We analyzed FADS1 transcription levels and their association with intra-hepatic fat and histology in children, and we performed pathway enrichment analysis on transcriptomic profiles associated with FADS1 polymorphisms...
August 4, 2018: Pediatric Research
Masanobu Yamazato, Akio Ishida, Yoriko Yamazato, Takuto Nakamura, Yusuke Ohya
Bone marrow-derived cells exert anti-inflammatory actions and can migrate into the brain. However, their role in the development of neurogenic hypertension remains unclear. A hyperactive renin-angiotensin system and inflammation in the brain are mechanisms that contribute to angiotensin II-initiated neurogenic hypertension. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived cells in the brain attenuate the overactive brain renin-angiotensin system and inflammation, thereby reducing neurogenic hypertension. We cultured plastic-adherent bone marrow-derived cells for 3 weeks...
August 17, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Peter N Tsambarlis, Raymond Yong, Laurence A Levine
Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) was approved for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) in December of 2013. Recently, further research has supported its use. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the effects of CCH on penile curvature associated with Peyronie's disease at our high volume institution. Since the approval of CCH for PD, 45 men have undergone between 1 and 4 treatment cycles (mean 3.13, standard deviation (SD) = 0.87) at our institution. Primary as well as secondary curvature, if any, was measured before beginning therapy and after each cycle of therapy...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
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