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Richard B Lipton, Sagar Munjal, Aftab Alam, Dawn C Buse, Kristina M Fanning, Michael L Reed, Todd J Schwedt, David W Dodick
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the baseline methods for the Migraine in America Symptoms and Treatment (MAST) Study and evaluate gender differences in sociodemographics and headache features; consultation and diagnosis patterns; and patterns of acute and preventive treatment use for migraine among study participants. BACKGROUND: The MAST Study is a longitudinal, internet-based panel study of symptoms, approaches to management, and unmet treatment needs among US adults with migraine...
October 20, 2018: Headache
Hongyan Wang, Xuehan Gao, Xiaolin Zhang, Wenjian Gong, Ziheng Peng, Bingshuang Wang, Li Wang, Saishuo Chang, Peiru Ma, Shijie Wang
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown an association with glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and treatment response. This study aimed to undertake a literature review and meta-analysis of GST gene polymorphisms, including GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val, and the treatment response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature search was undertaken of the main medical publication databases for publications, up to March 2017, on the association between GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 IIe105Val polymorphisms and the clinical outcome in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy...
October 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Shakeb Hasan, Saikat Datta, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee
Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), or portosystemic encephalopathy, represents a reversible decrease in neurologic function caused by liver disease, and treatment has traditionally been with non-absorbable disaccharides along with antibiotics and supportive measures. The present study was undertaken to evaluate if their combination therapy were superior to the established therapy in management of HE. Methods: Ninety six (96) patients of hepatic encephalopathy were randomly assigned to receive either lactulose and rifaximin in standard dosage or lactulose only and their response to therapy was monitored using standard assessment tools...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cancan Zhou, Weikun Qian, Jiguang Ma, Liang Cheng, Zhengdong Jiang, Bin Yan, Jie Li, Wanxing Duan, Liankang Sun, Junyu Cao, Fengfei Wang, Erxi Wu, Zheng Wu, Qingyong Ma, Xuqi Li
OBJECTIVES: Gemcitabine is a standard treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer patients but can cause chemoresistance during treatment. The chemoresistant cells have features of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Resveratrol has been reported to overcome the resistance induced by gemcitabine. However, the mechanism by which resveratrol enhances chemosensitivity remains elusive. Here, we explored the mechanism by which resveratrol enhanced chemosensitivity and the role of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in gemcitabine-induced stemness...
October 19, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Aurelie Leplus, Inger Lauritzen, Christophe Melon, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Denys Fontaine, Frederic Checler
Recent studies have suggested deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a promising therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Particularly, the stimulation of the forniceal area was found to slow down the cognitive decline of some AD patients, but the biochemical and anatomical modifications underlying these effects remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of chronic forniceal stimulation on amyloid burden, inflammation, and neuronal loss in a transgenic Alzheimer rat model TgF344-AD, as well as in age-matched control rats...
October 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Teresa Faddetta, Loredana Abbate, Giovanni Renzone, Antonio Palumbo Piccionello, Antonella Maggio, Elisabetta Oddo, Andrea Scaloni, Anna Maria Puglia, Giuseppe Gallo, Francesco Carimi, Sergio Fatta Del Bosco, Francesco Mercati
Our results provide a comprehensive overview how the alloplasmic condition might lead to a significant improvement in citrus plant breeding, developing varieties more adaptable to a wide range of conditions. Citrus cybrids resulting from somatic hybridization hold great potential in plant improvement. They represent effective products resulting from the transfer of organelle-encoded traits into cultivated varieties. In these cases, the plant coordinated array of physiological, biochemical, and molecular functions remains the result of integration among different signals, which derive from the compartmentalized genomes of nucleus, plastids and mitochondria...
October 19, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Emer R McGrath, Christopher T Doughty, Anthony A Amato
The major forms of autoimmune myopathies include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), myositis associated with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), and inclusion body myositis (IBM). While each of these conditions has unique clinical and histopathological features, they all share an immune-mediated component. These conditions can occur in isolation or can be associated with systemic malignancies or connective tissue disorders (overlap syndromes). As more has been learned about these conditions, it has become clear that traditional classification schemes do not adequately group patients according to shared clinical features and prognosis...
October 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Taraneh Rajaei, Hamid Farajifard, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Narges Valizadeh, Houshang Rafatpanah
One of the prominent features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is the excessive recruitment of leukocytes to the central nervous system (CNS), which leads to an inflammatory response-with chemokines and their receptors playing the main role in this recruitment. The aim of the study was to examine the relation of CXCR1 and CXCR2, both of which are involved in the trafficking of lymphocytes into the CNS, with the outcome of HTLV-1 infection. The mRNA levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls (HCs)...
October 20, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Bradlee L Heckmann, Bart Tummers, Douglas R Green
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays critical roles in development, homeostasis, and both control and progression of a plethora of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies. Besides classical apoptosis, several different forms of PCD have now been recognized, including necroptosis. The way a cell dies determines the reaction of the surrounding environment, and immune activation in response to cell death proceeds in a manner dependent on which death pathways are activated. Apoptosis and necroptosis are major mechanisms of cell death that typically result in opposing immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Florencia Correa-Fiz, Giovanni Franzo, Anna Llorens, Joaquim Segalés, Tuija Kekarainen
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is a virus characterized by a high evolutionary rate, promoting the potential emergence of different genotypes and strains. Despite the likely relevance in the emergence of new PCV-2 variants, the subtle evolutionary patterns of PCV-2 at the individual-host level or over short transmission chains are still largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the within-host genetic variability of PCV-2 subpopulations to unravel the forces driving PCV-2 evolution. A longitudinal weekly sampling was conducted on individual animals located in three farms after the first PCV-2 detection...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Shteingauz, Yaara Porat, Tali Voloshin, Rosa S Schneiderman, Mijal Munster, Einav Zeevi, Noa Kaynan, Karnit Gotlib, Moshe Giladi, Eilon D Kirson, Uri Weinberg, Adrian Kinzel, Yoram Palti
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields), an approved treatment modality for glioblastoma, are delivered via non-invasive application of low-intensity, intermediate-frequency, alternating electric fields. TTFields application leads to abnormal mitosis, aneuploidy, and increased cell granularity, which are often associated with enhancement of autophagy. In this work, we evaluated whether TTFields effected the regulation of autophagy in glioma cells. We found that autophagy is upregulated in glioma cells treated with TTFields as demonstrated by immunoblot analysis of the lipidated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3-II)...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
M Toledano, R Osorio, M-C Pérez-Álvarez, E Osorio, C-D Lynch, M Toledano-Osorio
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate nanohardness and viscoelastic behavior of dentin surfaces treated with two canal sealer cements for dentin remineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dentin surfaces were subjected to: i) 37% phosphoric acid (PA) or ii) 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) conditioning prior to the application of two experimental hydroxyapatite-based cements, containing sodium hydroxide (calcypatite) or zinc oxide (oxipatite), respectively...
October 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Wei Yu, Jiabin Fu, Yan Liu, Yuchi Wu, Dianming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration is a pathological process that involves an inflammation response. As a classical cellular feature, several studies have demonstrated that inflammation can promote nucleus pulposus (NP) cell apoptosis. Therefore, attenuation of NP cell apoptosis may be a potential way to retard disc degeneration. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) against NP cell apoptosis in an inflammation environment, and the potential signaling transduction pathway...
October 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Maki Jitsumura, Andrew Laurence Cunningham, Matthew David Hitchings, Saiful Islam, Angharad P Davies, Paula E Row, Andrew D Riddell, James Kinross, Tom S Wilkinson, G J Jenkins, John G Williams, Dean Anthony Harris
BACKGROUND: The interaction of the gut microbiota with the human host is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immunological diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC). Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a method of restoring gut microbial diversity is of increasing interest as a therapeutic approach in the management of UC. The current literature lacks consensus about the dose of FMT, route of administration and duration of response. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blinded randomised trial will explore the feasibility of FMT in 30 treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed distal UC limited to the recto-sigmoid region (up to 40 cm from the anal verge)...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Andrea I Cappa, Matilde de Paola, Paula Wetten, Gerardo A De Blas, Marcela A Michaut
Oocyte in vitro maturation does not entirely support all the nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that occur physiologically and it is poorly understood whether in vitro maturation affects the competence of cortical granules to secret their content during cortical reaction. Here, we characterize cortical granule exocytosis (CGE) in live mouse oocytes activated by strontium chloride using the fluorescent lectin FITC-LCA. We compared the kinetic of CGE between ovulated ( in vivo matured, IVO) and in vitro matured (IVM) mouse oocytes...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Denny Meyer, Madawa W Jayawardana, Samuel D Muir, David Yen-Teh Ho, Olivia Sackett
BACKGROUND: Workplace programs designed to improve the health and psychological well-being of employees are becoming increasingly popular. However, there are mixed reports regarding the effectiveness of such programs and little analysis of what helps people to engage with such programs. OBJECTIVE: This evaluation of a particularly broad, team-based, digital health and well-being program uses mixed methods to identify the elements of the program that reduce work stress and promote psychological well-being, sleep quality, and productivity of employees...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Fengfei Wang, Zheng Zheng, Jitian Guan, Dan Qi, Shuang Zhou, Xin Shen, Fushun Wang, David Wenkert, Batool Kirmani, Touradj Solouki, Ekokobe Fonkem, Eric T Wong, Jason H Huang, Erxi Wu
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal disease without effective therapy. Identification of new biomarkers for prognosis would enable more rational selections of strategies to cure patients with GBM and prevent disease relapse. METHODS: Seven datasets derived from GBM patients using microarray or next generation sequencing in R2 online database ( were extracted and then analyzed using JMP software. The survival distribution was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and the significance was determined using log-rank statistics...
October 16, 2018: EBioMedicine
Grégoire Faivre, Hugo Kielwasser, Mickaël Bourgeois, Marie Panouilleres, François Loisel, Laurent Obert
BACKGROUND: Burnout syndrome is one of the manifestations of distress in healthcare workers and is characterised by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP), and a sense of low personal accomplishment (PA). The surgical residency is a period of intense training that imposes major challenges on future surgeons, who may therefore be at high risk for burnout syndrome. Nevertheless, no data on burnout syndrome in orthopaedic and trauma surgery (OTS) residents in France is available...
October 16, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
George R Schade, Yak-Nam Wang, Samantha D'Andrea, Joo Ha Hwang, W Conrad Liles, Tatiana D Khokhlova
Boiling histotripsy (BH) is an experimental focused ultrasound technique that produces non-thermal mechanical ablation. We evaluated the feasibility, short-term histologic effects and the resulting acute inflammatory response to BH ablation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the Eker rat. Genotyped Eker rats were monitored for de novo RCCs with serial ultrasound (US) imaging. When tumors were ≥8mm, rats underwent ultrasound-guided extracorporeal ablation of the tumor with BH, a pulsed focused US technique that produces non-thermal mechanical ablation of targeted tissues, or a sham US procedure...
October 16, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Maximus Berger, Suzie Lavoie, Patrick D McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Connie Markulev, Hok-Pan Yuen, Miriam Schaefer, Zoltán Sarnyai, G Paul Amminger
Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis have an elevated risk of developing psychosis and other psychiatric outcomes. Risk biomarkers can assist in delineating individual risk and allow better prediction of longer-term outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine if allostatic load (AL), a multisystem index of neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, immune and metabolic dysregulation, is associated with clinical outcomes in youth at UHR for psychosis. AL was measured in 106 participants of the NEURAPRO study (n = 70 female, n = 36 male; mean age 17...
October 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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