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Response evaluation

Anne-Sofie Ravn Ballegaard, Charlotte Bernhard Madsen, Katrine Lindholm Bøgh
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitisation to foods may occur in infancy without prior oral exposure to the offending food, leading to the assumption that food allergy sensitisation may occur through the skin. Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of use of personal care products containing hydrolysed wheat proteins, since these products have been shown to induce allergy through the skin, and even cause an abrogation of an already established oral tolerance. OBJECTIVE: To establish an animal model for food allergy skin sensitisation and compare the sensitising capacity of an unmodified and an acid-hydrolysed gluten product via slightly damaged skin in naïve versus tolerant rats...
December 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Daiane Anzilaggo, André O'Reilly Beringhs, Bianca Ramos Pezzini, Diva Sonaglio, Hellen Karine Stulzer
The drug in a solid dosage form must undergo dissolution before it is available for absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Liquisolid system (LS) is a technology used for increasing aqueous solubility of the drugs, which has an important role in the dissolution and absorption phenomena. However, many factors can influence the performance and success of LS. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate through a factorial design, the factors such as drug state (solution or dispersion), nonvolatile solvent and coating material that influence the increase simvastatin (BSC II drug) apparent aqueous solubility and LS flow properties...
November 22, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Joseph A Rosansky, Harold Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: No previous publication has evaluated whether the importance of university students' reasons for abstinence differs across prescription stimulants, prescription opioids, and two illicit forms of those medications (cocaine and heroin). METHODS: In response to a recruitment email sent to all enrolled undergraduates at a large public university, 768 students who reported no prior recreational use of these four substances rated the importance of 17 reasons for lifelong abstention from each of the four drugs...
November 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Theresa Reimers, Jochen Thies, Stefan Dietrich, Julian Quodbach, Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch
The Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative published by the Food and Drug administration (FDA) describes PAT systems as important tools to optimize pharmaceutical processes in order to ensure the final product quality. Real-time particle size measurements provide a promising approach for process automation of fluid bed granulation processes. This work focuses on the introduction and evaluation of a new time-based buffer approach for in-line spatial filtering technique (SFT) in order to provide a minimum time delay of the real-time measurement...
December 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Elmar W Tobi, Joost van den Heuvel, Bas J Zwaan, L H Lumey, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Tobias Uller
An adverse intrauterine environment is associated with long-term physiological changes in offspring. These are believed to be mediated by epigenomic marks, including DNA methylation (DNAm). Changes in DNAm are often interpreted as damage or plastic responses of the embryo. Here, we propose that stochastic DNAm variation, generated during remodeling of the epigenome after fertilization, contributes to DNAm signatures of prenatal adversity through differential survival of embryos. Using a mathematical model of re-methylation in the early embryo, we demonstrate that selection, but not plasticity, will generate a characteristic reduction in DNAm variance at loci that contribute to survival...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Deepali Thaper, Deepak K Rahi, Vijay Prabha
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus, capable of in vitro immobilisation of human and mouse spermatozoa, was already present in our laboratory. Therefore, in the present study, the factor responsible (sperm immobilisation factor, SIF) was isolated and purified. It was found to compromise not only motility, but also viability, morphology and Mg2+-ATPase activity of mouse spermatozoa. Also, SIF (250 μg mL-1), when administered intravaginally in female BALB/c mice before mating, showed 100% contraceptive effect...
December 6, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
James G Dolan, Peter J Veazie
PURPOSE: In the process of developing an evidence-based decision dashboard to support treatment decisions for patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, we found that the clinical evidence base is insufficient to provide high-quality comparative outcome data. We therefore sought to determine if clinically acceptable outcome estimates could be created using a modified version of the Sheffield Elicitation Framework (SHELF), a formal method for eliciting judgments regarding probability distributions of expected decision outcomes...
December 5, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Mohammad S Jalali, Bethany Russell, Sabina Razak, William J Gordon
Background: Connected medical devices and electronic health records have added important functionality to patient care, but have also introduced a range of cybersecurity concerns. When a healthcare organization suffers from a cybersecurity incident, its incident response strategies are critical to the success of its recovery. Objective: In this article, we identify gaps in research concerning cybersecurity response plans in healthcare. Through a systematic literature review, we develop aggregated strategies that professionals can use to construct better response strategies in their organizations...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Nora Pisanic, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Fabiola D Colquechagua, Ruthly François, Natalie Exum, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Kellogg J Schwab, Douglas A Granger, Barbara Detrick, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Holger Mayta, Gerardo J Sánchez, Robert H Gilman, Christopher D Heaney, Jan Vinjé, Margaret N Kosek
Background: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Routine norovirus diagnosis requires stool collection. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a noninvasive method to diagnose norovirus to complement stool diagnostics and to facilitate studies on transmission. Methods: A multiplex immunoassay to measure salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to 5 common norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GII.2, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17) was developed...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ismael Martínez-Cortés, Naray A Acevedo-Domínguez, Roxana Olguin-Alor, Arimelek Cortés-Hernández, Violeta Álvarez-Jiménez, Marcia Campillo-Navarro, Héctor S Sumano-López, Lilia Gutiérrez-Olvera, Daniel Martínez-Gómez, José L Maravillas-Montero, Juan J Loor, Eduardo A García-Zepeda, Gloria Soldevila
Tilmicosin is an antimicrobial agent used to treat intramammary infections against S. aureus and has clinical anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which it modulates the inflammatory process in the mammary gland is unknown. We evaluated the effect of tilmicosin treatment on the modulation of the mammary innate immune response after S. aureus infection and its effect on casein production in mammary epithelial cells. To achieve this goal, we used immortalized mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), pre-treated for 12 h or treated with tilmicosin after infection with S...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Stephanie Petty, Tom Dening, Amanda Griffiths, Donna Maria Coleston
Background and Objectives: People with dementia are vulnerable when in hospital, with serious risks to their physical and emotional well-being. Hospital staff are expected to understand and respond to the emotions of the patient; however, it is not known how this can be achieved. We provide a concise description of achievable emotion-focused care for patients with dementia. Design and Methods: Exploratory qualitative interviews were conducted with a whole U.K. hospital ward providing dementia care, constituting 47 staff members...
December 4, 2018: Gerontologist
Daisuke Sugiura, Eriko Betsuyaku, Ichiro Terashima
Background and Aims: Sink-source imbalance could cause an accumulation of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; soluble sugar and starch) in source leaves. We aimed to clarify interspecific differences in how sink-source imbalance and TNC causes the downregulation of photosynthesis among three legume plants. The TNC in source leaves was altered by short-term manipulative treatments, and its effects on photosynthetic characteristics were evaluated. Methods: Soybean, French bean and azuki bean were grown under high nitrogen availability...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Botany
Antônio Carlos Ferreira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Marise Fagundes Silveira, Mariângela Carneiro
INTRODUCTION: Quality of life (QoL) is important for people living with HIV/AIDS, particularly as the disease progresses. This study evaluated the QoL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), as well as its predictors, in one of the most impoverished regions of Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with patients older than 18 years with HIV/AIDS from two specialized HIV/AIDS care centers in the city of Montes Claros between 2013 and 2014. Sample size was calculated considering the estimates of mean scores for various dimensions of the European Portuguese version of the World Health's Organization Quality of Life Instrument in HIV Infection (WHOQOL-HIV Bref)...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Joel Christian Roque-Henriquez, Juan Carlos Bazo-Alvarez, Agueda Muñoz Del Carpio Toia, Wilfredo Mormontoy-Laurel
OBJECTIVE.: To assess the reliability and validity of the translated and culturally-adapted Institutional Review Board Researcher Assessment Tool (IRB-RAT) for Peruvian research ethics committees (RECs). MATERIALS AND METHODS.: The IRB-RAT is an instrument that determines how RECs are perceived by researchers based on eight factors, using two formats: 1) importance in the work of the researcher and 2) descriptive of the REC being evaluated. Its original English version was translated and culturally adapted into Spanish, with the support of experts and representatives of the target population...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Daisy Flores-Cortez, Eduardo Villalobos-Pacheco, Armando Rojo-Mejia, Manuel Palomino-Yamamoto, Yngerman Martin Ramirez
OBJECTIVES.: To evaluate the protective effect of Zea mays L., purple variety (purple corn) against inflammatory response and osteoarticular damage in rats with experimental arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Sixty-five Holtzman rats were used, assigned to seven groups: G1 (n=5): control; G2 (n=10): pristane (PIA) + distilled water; G3 (n=10): PIA + methotrexate 0.1 mg/kg; G4 (n=10): PIA + indomethacin 0.6 mg/kg; G5 (n=10): PIA + Zea mays 100 mg/kg; G6 (n=10): PIA + Zea mays 1000 mg/kg, and G7 (n=10): PIA + methotrexate 0...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Stephanie Castro-Arechaga, Lucia Ronceros-Salas, Sthefanny Vega-Centeno, Mariela Moreno, Alonso Soto
OBJECTIVE: To know the five-year survival and its associated factors in patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of patients with ALL treated with chemotherapy in a Peruvian hospital for 13 years was studied. The dependent variables were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Possible factors that might be associated with diagnosis and response to treatment were evaluated using the Cox proportional risk method...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Karin Cristina da Silva Modena, Adriana Maria Calvo, Carla Renata Sipert, Thiago José Dionísio, Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro, Maria Teresa Atta, Carlos Ferreira Santos
This study evaluated in vitro cell viability and metabolism, nitric oxide release and production of chemokines by cultured human dental pulp fibroblasts (DPF) under contact with HEMA and Single Bond. Cultures of DPF were established by means of an explant technique. Once plated, cells were kept under contact with increasing concentrations of HEMA (10, 100 and 1000 nM) or Single Bond (SB) [10-fold serially diluted in culture medium (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 v/v)] and also with polymerized SB components. Cytotoxicity was assessed by Trypan Blue exclusion method and MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Caroline Christine Santa-Rosa, Marcela Marçal Thebit, Kamilla Faria Maciel, Luciana Carla Neves de Brito, Leda Quercia Vieira, Antônio Paulino Ribeiro-Sobrinho
The present study aims to evaluate the longitudinal effects of induced experimental infections in gnotoxenic animals on the expression of inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in periradicular tissues. The null hypothesis tested was that Enterococcus faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum had no effect on CCR5, CCL5, CXCL10, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCR2 and CCR1 expression. Two groups of five animals (n = 5) aged between 8 and 12 weeks were used in this study. The animals were anaesthetized, and coronary access was performed in the first molar on the right and left sides...
November 29, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Heloisa Helena Ponchio Pachá, Josimerci Ittavo Lamana Faria, Kleber Aparecido de Oliveira, Lúcia Marinilza Beccaria
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between presence/absence of Pressure Ulcer, socio-demographic factors and hospitalization. METHOD: Case-control study, performed through multiple logistic regression based on information from the adverse event reporting system and the hospital information system, between September/2014 and August/2015. RESULTS: Among the risk factors, after adjustment, age greater than or equal to 60 years, hospitalization due to infectious, parasitic and neoplastic diseases, periods of hospitalization longer than seven days and being hospitalized in ICU other than ICU covenant were highlighted...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
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