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sheep urine

H-S Braun, K T Schrapers, K Mahlkow-Nerge, F Stumpff, J Rosendahl
Results of recent in vitro experiments suggest that essential oils (EO) may not only influence ruminal fermentation but also modulate the absorption of cations like Na+, Ca2+ and NH4 + across ruminal epithelia of cattle and sheep through direct interaction with epithelial transport proteins, such as those of the transient receptor potential family. The aim of the current study was to examine this hypothesis by testing the effect of a blend of essential oils (BEO) on cation status and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows...
July 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Koji Hosokawa, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Emiel Hendrik Post, Jacques Creteur, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Acute ethanol intoxication has been shown to have contrasting effects on outcomes in sepsis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of acute ethanol intoxication on hemodynamics, renal function, brain perfusion and lactate/pyruvate in an ovine sepsis model. METHODS: Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated female sheep were randomized to an ethanol group (n = 7), which received 1 g/kg ethanol diluted in intravenous (i.v.) saline infusion or a control group (n = 7), which received the same volume of i...
June 19, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Diego Figueiredo da Costa, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva, Gabriel Martins, Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas, Marcia Almeida de Melo, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo, Walter Lilenbaum, Clebert José Alves
Leptospirosis is a disease that negatively affects the productive and reproductive indices of ruminants. Sheep are considered highly resistant to infection, although susceptibility may vary among breeds. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility between sheep breeds to the experimental infection by leptospires of the Pomona serogroup. Pomona serogroup, Kennewicki serovar strain (1 × 107 bacteria) was inoculated via the conjunctival route in 12 sheep divided into two groups, one comprising Santa Inês ewes and the other comprising crossbred sheep...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kathryn J Allan, Jo E B Halliday, Mark Moseley, Ryan W Carter, Ahmed Ahmed, Marga G A Goris, Rudy A Hartskeerl, Julius Keyyu, Tito Kibona, Venance P Maro, Michael J Maze, Blandina T Mmbaga, Rigobert Tarimo, John A Crump, Sarah Cleaveland
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease that affects more than one million people worldwide each year. Human infection is acquired through direct or indirect contact with the urine of an infected animal. A wide range of animals including rodents and livestock may shed Leptospira bacteria and act as a source of infection for people. In the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania, leptospirosis is an important cause of acute febrile illness, yet relatively little is known about animal hosts of Leptospira infection in this area...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B Wang, M Jia, L Y Fang, L S Jiang, Y L Li
The objective of this study was to evaluate anti-methanogenic activity of eucalyptus oil (EUC) and anise oil (ANI) in vitro and in vivo using sheep as a model. In vitro study was conducted using batch culture technique, each of EUC and ANI were added at 0, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/L of fermentation media with substrate containing 60% corn-based concentrate and 40% hay (DM basis). Total gas production (GP) linearly (P < 0.01) decreased with increasing ANI, whereas the GP was not affected with EUC addition...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A C S Dos Santos, S A Santos, G G P Carvalho, L D S Mariz, M S L Tosto, S C Valadares Filho, J A G Azevedo
The main objective of this study was to establish a protocol to validate urine spot samples to estimate N excretion and microbial synthesis in goat and sheep; and to study factors that affect daily creatinine and purine derivatives urinary excretion. Also a performance trial was carried out to compare goat and sheep slaughtered after different feedlot periods. Twelve Boer goats (20.6 kg±3.4 initial BW) and twelve Dorper sheep (18.4 kg±2.3 initial BW), all 4-month-old, males, were used. Eight animals (four goats and four sheep) were randomly allocated to be slaughtered at 28, 56 and 84 days in feedlot...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Weilin L Shelver, David J Smith
Zilpaterol is a β-adrenergic agonist feed additive approved in the United States to increase weight gain and improve feed efficiency of cattle. A zilpaterol immunochromatographic assay was developed as an economical and user-friendly rapid detection method for zilpaterol and validated using urine and tissue samples derived from animal studies. The assay sensitivity was 1.7-23.2 ng g-1 or mL-1 across a variety of feed and animal matrices and did not cross-react with clenbuterol or ractopamine. No sample pre-treatment of cattle and sheep urine was needed, but horse urine and feed required dilution; skeletal muscle required solvent extraction prior to testing...
June 6, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Shuaijuan Han, Tianjiao Zhou, Bingjie Yin, Pingli He
The work describes a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ractopamine. The ELISA is based on an indirect competitive approach. In the presence of ractopamine, gold(III) ions are oxidized by H2 O2 to form red AuNPs. On the other hand, the AuNP in solution are purple-blue due to aggregation if the sample does not contain ractopamine. The absorption, best measured at 560 nm, increases linearly in the 2 to 512 ng·mL-1 ractopamine concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 0...
March 7, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Nao K Ishikawa, Eiko Touno, Yumi Higashiyama, Makoto Sasamoto, Misaki Soma, Naoto Yoshida, Ayumi Ito, Teruyuki Umita
Antibiotics administered to livestock are partly excreted with urine and feces. As livestock excrement is used as manure on agricultural fields, soil may be contaminated by excreted antibiotics, potentially resulting in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the amount of antibiotic administered to livestock that could spread to agricultural fields through manure application. This study reveals the excretion ratio of tylosin from sheep. After developing an analysis procedure for tylosin in urine and feces from sheep, a tylosin excretion study was performed with two sheep...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paolo Calzavacca, Lindsea C Booth, Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Simon R Bailey, Louise M Burrell, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May
INTRODUCTION: Supra-clinical doses of clonidine appear beneficial in experimental sepsis, but there is limited understanding of the effects of clonidine at clinically relevant doses. METHODS: In conscious sheep, with implanted renal and pulmonary artery flow probes, sepsis was induced by infusion of live Escherichia coli. At 24 hours, a high clinical dose of clonidine (HCDC) [1.0 μg/kg/h], a low clinical dose of clonidine (LCDC) [0.25 μg/kg/h] or vehicle, was infused for 8 hours...
February 27, 2018: Shock
W J Clough, P R Little, A Hodge, V C Chapman, D K Holz
AIMS: To evaluate a multivalent leptospiral and clostridial vaccine for prevention of renal colonisation and urinary shedding in sheep, following experimental challenge with New Zealand strains of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type Hardjobovis and L. interrogans serovar Pomona. METHODS: Two separate but similarly designed studies were conducted. In both studies, Romney-cross lambs, aged 9-11 weeks, were randomly allocated to a vaccinated group and a control group...
May 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Labrini V Athanasiou, Panagiotis D Katsoulos, Eleni G Katsogiannou, Zoe S Polizopoulou, Myrto Diamantaki, Constantinos Kamatsos, Georgios Christodoulopoulos
BACKGROUND: Urine pH is an integral part of a complete urinalysis, and is commonly measured in veterinary practice using semiquantitative reagent strips. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the urine pH of dogs and sheep, using visual interpretation of dipstick reactions, and using a pH-meter as the reference method. Agreement between the 2 methods was also assessed. An additional objective was to compare the urine pH before and after centrifugation...
June 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Gregory S Doran, Alistair K Smith, Jim T Rothwell, Scott H Edwards
The anaesthetic lidocaine is metabolised quickly to produce a series of metabolites, including several hydroxylated metabolites, which are further metabolised by addition of a glucuronic acid moiety. Analysis of these glucuronide metabolites in urine is performed indirectly by cleaving the glucuronic acid group using β-glucuronidase. However, direct analysis of intact glucuronide conjugates is a more straightforward approach as it negates the need for long hydrolysis incubations, and minimises the oxidation of sensitive hydrolysis products, while also distinguishing between the two forms of hydroxylated metabolites...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Qute Choi, Hyun Jin Kim, Jong Wan Kim, Gye Cheol Kwon, Sun Hoe Koo
BACKGROUND: The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve routine workflow of clinical microbiology laboratories. Although there were many evaluation reports about the inoculation of various body fluid samples, few evaluations have been reported for blood. In this study, we evaluated the performance of automated inoculating system, Previ Isola for various routine clinical samples including blood. METHODS: Blood culture, body fluid, and urine samples were collected...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Mohammad Aasif Dar, Wahiduzzaman, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
Owing to the urine concentrating mechanism of kidney cells, urea concentration is very high (3.0-5.0M) in mammalian kidneys which may denature many kidney proteins. Methylamines are known to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins at 2:1 molar ratio of urea to methylamines. It is known that mammalian kidney cells also contain stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol and sorbitol). A question arises: Do these non-methylmine osmolytes have ability to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on kidney proteins? To answer this question, we took two kidney proteins, namely, sheep serum albumin and Human carbonic anhydrase II...
February 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
E B de Sousa, G C Dos Santos, M E L Duarte, V Moura, D P Aguiar
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of disability worldwide, due to progressive articular cartilage loss and degeneration. According to recent research, OA is more than just a degenerative disease due to some metabolic components associated to its pathogenesis. However, no biomarker has been identified to detect this disease at early stages or to track its development. Metabolomics is an emerging field and has the potential to detect many metabolites in a single spectrum using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques or mass spectrometry (MS)...
September 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Carmen Tejada-Casado, David Moreno-González, Monsalud Del Olmo-Iruela, Ana M García-Campaña, Francisco J Lara
A new method based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS/MS) has been developed for the identification and simultaneous quantification of thirteen benzimidazoles in animal urine. In order to obtain an appropriate separation with the highest sensitivity, different electrophoretic parameters were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the separation was performed using ammonium perfluorooctanoate as volatile surfactant and electrophoretic buffer (50mM, pH 9). To increase the sensitivity, a stacking mode named sweeping was applied, using water as injection solvent at 50mbar for 75s, obtaining sensitivity enhancement factors from 50 to 181...
December 1, 2017: Talanta
John Glasson, Rhys Hill, Michael Summerford, Dianne Olden, Fotula Papadopoulos, Stephen Young, Steven Giglio
BACKGROUND: The application of image analysis technologies for the interpretation of microbiological cultures is evolving rapidly. The primary aim of this study was to establish whether the image analysis system named Automated Plate Assessment System (APAS; LBT Innovations Ltd., Australia) could be applied to screen urine cultures. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences between traditional plate reading (TPR) and the reading of cultures from images, or digital plate reading (DPR)...
November 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
M V Nemeth, M R Wilkens, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to investigate how controlled UVB irradiation in combination with reduced nutritional vitamin D (vitD) supply affects vitD status and Ca metabolism of growing goats and sheep. The hypothesis was that, like dairy cows, goats and sheep are able to compensate for the missing nutritional supply of vitD through endogenous production in the skin, with the consequence of a high vitD status and a balanced Ca homeostasis. Sixteen lambs and 14 goat kids aged 3 and a half months were housed in an UVB free environment and fed hay and a vitD-free concentrate over a period of 13 wk...
October 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Patrick Erdman, Brian Anderson, J Christopher Zacko, Kirk Taylor, Keri Donaldson
CONTEXT: - Urinary tract infections are characterized by the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract. They represent one of the most common infections in hospitalized and clinic patients. OBJECTIVES: - To model the parameters of the Sysmex UF-1000i to the gold standard, urine culture, and to compare the detection of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrates to urine cultures and UF-1000i results. DESIGN: - Data were compared from urine samples collected in sterile containers for bacterial culture and microscopic analysis...
November 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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