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sheep urine

Korakrit Poonsuk, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Jeffrey J Zimmerman
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) remains an important pathogen of livestock more than 120 years after it was identified, with annual costs from production losses and vaccination estimated at €5.3-€17 billion (US$6.5-US$21 billion) in FMDV-endemic areas. Control and eradication are difficult because FMDV is highly contagious, genetically and antigenically diverse, infectious for a wide variety of species, able to establish subclinical carriers in ruminants, and widely geographically distributed. For early detection, sustained control, or eradication, sensitive and specific FMDV surveillance procedures compatible with high through-put testing platforms are required...
October 22, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
M Karam Babaei, H Mirzaei-Alamouti, A Nikkhah
Optimal type and dietary inclusion rates of cereal grains for periparturient sheep are unknown. The objective was to determine effects of feeding diets with high (H) v. low (L) levels of ground corn grain (CN) v. combined ground wheat and barley grains (WB) on intake, rumen fermentation, colostrum and milk properties, and blood metabolites of periparturient sheep. Twenty Afshari×Merino ewes were used in a completely randomized design study from 24 days prepartum through 21 days postpartum. Ewes were kept indoors in individual boxes and received once daily at 0900 h total mixed rations...
October 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Estelle Rathahao-Paris, Sandra Alves, Nawel Boussaid, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Véronique Gayrard, Pierre-Louis Toutain, Jean-Claude Tabet, Douglas N Rutledge, Alain Paris
Direct injection-mass spectrometry can be used to perform high-throughput metabolomic fingerprinting. This work aims to evaluate a global analytical workflow in terms of sample preparation (urine sample dilution), high-resolution detection (quality of generated data based on criteria such as mass measurement accuracy and detection sensitivity) and data analysis using dedicated bioinformatics tools. Investigation was performed on a large number of biological samples collected from sheep infected or not with scrapie...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Roger G Evans, Junko Kosaka, Lindsea C Booth, Naoya Iguchi, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May
Expansion of extracellular fluid volume with crystalloid solutions is a common medical intervention, but its effects on renal cortical and medullary oxygenation are poorly understood. Therefore, we instrumented sheep under general anesthesia to enable continuous measurement of systemic and renal hemodynamics, global renal oxygen delivery and consumption, and intra-renal tissue perfusion and oxygen tension (pO2 ) in conscious animals (n=7). The effects of three sequential intermittent infusions of 500 mL of compound sodium lactate solution, administered at hourly intervals, were determined...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Erica Mondo, Richard Moser, Guangping Gao, Christian Mueller, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Ellen Sapp, Edith Pfister, Denice O'Connell, Kendra Takle, Kirsten E Erger, Wanglin Liu, Thomas J Conlon, Marian DiFiglia, Matthew J Gounis, Neil Aronin
BACKGROUND: Transgenic sheep are currently the only large animal model of Huntington's disease expressing full-length mutant human huntingtin. These transgenic sheep provide an opportunity to test adeno associated virus (AAV) therapies directly targeting the huntingtin gene. A recent study demonstrated that self-complementary (sc) AAV with artificial miRNA against human huntingtin reduced mutant human huntingtin in caudate and putamen after a single injection near the internal capsule...
2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Anna-Katharina Riedi, Christina Nathues, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer, Karl Nuss, Mireille Meylan
BACKGROUND: Obstructive urolithiasis is a common disease associated with a guarded prognosis in small ruminants. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: The results of physical examination, laboratory analyses, and clinical management of male small ruminants presented to 2 referral clinics were investigated to identify variables significantly associated with disease outcome, so as to provide better recommendations to animal owners regarding the management of these patients. ANIMALS: Two-hundred ten small ruminants (130 sheep and 80 goats) with confirmed diagnosis of obstructive urolithiasis...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
K R VanValin, O N Genther-Schroeder, R N Carmichael, C P Blank, E L Deters, S J Hartman, E K Niedermayer, S B Laudert, Stephanie L Hansen
The objective of this study was to assess whether supplemental Zn source or concentration would affect ruminant Zn retention and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-six weaned crossbred Polypay wethers, were sorted by BW to 3 periods and stagger started on a common diet (22 mg Zn/kg DM) for a 52-d depletion period. Day 52 BW was used to assign Zn treatments (3 lambs/treatment/period): no supplemental Zn (CON), or supplemental Zn (40 mg Zn/d) from Zn sulfate (ING; Zinc Nacional, Monterrey, SA, Mexico), Zn methionine (ORG; Zinpro 120; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN), or Zn hydroxychloride (HYD; IntelliBond Z; Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Shubhashis Chakrabarty, Weilin L Shelver, Heldur Hakk, David J Smith
Ambient ionization mass spectrometric methods including desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and atmospheric solid analysis probe (ASAP) have great potential for applications requiring real-time screening of target molecules in complex matrixes. Such techniques can also rapidly produce repeatable semiquantitative data, with minimal sample preparation, relative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, a commercial ASAP probe was used to conduct both ASAP-MS and modified DESI (MDESI) MS analyses...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Amrita Das, Xikai Cui, Vasanta Chivukula, Suri S Iyer
We have developed innovative assays that can detect enzymes rapidly. Paracetamol- or catechol-bearing compounds, when exposed to their respective enzymes, released paracetamol or catechol, which can be detected using a standard glucose meter. This approach was used to detect a number of diverse analytes that include enzymes such as β-galactosidase and α-mannosidase and pathogens such as influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and E. coli rapidly. The limit of detection for all analytes was extremely low and clinically relevant for influenza viruses...
October 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ana Carolina S Chagas, Amanda Figueiredo, Flávio A S Politi, Isabela J Moro, Sérgio N Esteves, Humberto R Bizzo, Paola E Gama, Francisco C M Chaves
The excessive use of anthelmintics to control nematodes has resulted in anthelminthic resistance. Essential oils (EOs) are a rich source of bioactive molecules that can be assessed for their ability to control resistant parasite populations. The aims of this study were to screen EOs from 10 plant species in vitro for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus , evaluate the cytotoxicity of those EOs in a human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), and test the most promising EO candidate in vivo in Santa Inês sheep...
September 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Helena Fieseler, Romy Weck, Matthias Kaiser, Hendrik Müller, Joachim Spilke, Norbert Mielenz, Gerd Möbius, Alexander Starke
OBJECTIVE: The assessment of pain in sheep is a clinical challenge, because being a prey species, they tend to mask it. Since pain in animals cannot be measured directly, various methods are applicable to detect its effects on physiological, biochemical and ethological processes. Clinicians experienced in behavioural assessment are able to reliably determine the level of pain endured by an animal. The objective of this study was to identify behaviours that reflect acute and chronic pain as well as stress in sheep...
August 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Monika Saini, Naresh L Selokar, Prabhat Palta, Manmohan S Chauhan, Radhey S Manik, Suresh K Singla
The first birth of a cloned animal produced through the Handmade cloning (HMC) technique was reported more than 15 years ago in cattle. This method of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has subsequently been evolving as a much simpler alternative to the classical micromanipulator-based SCNT. Several farm animal species such as cattle, buffalo, pigs, sheep, and goats have been successfully cloned using HMC. In buffalo, HMC technique is now well established, and several births of cloned calves have been reported by us...
August 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
H-S Braun, K T Schrapers, K Mahlkow-Nerge, F Stumpff, J Rosendahl
Results of recent in vitro experiments suggest that essential oils (EO) may not only influence ruminal fermentation but also modulate the absorption of cations like Na+, Ca2+ and NH4 + across ruminal epithelia of cattle and sheep through direct interaction with epithelial transport proteins, such as those of the transient receptor potential family. The aim of the current study was to examine this hypothesis by testing the effect of a blend of essential oils (BEO) on cation status and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows...
July 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Koji Hosokawa, Fuhong Su, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Emiel Hendrik Post, Jacques Creteur, Jean-Louis Vincent
BACKGROUND: Acute ethanol intoxication has been shown to have contrasting effects on outcomes in sepsis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of acute ethanol intoxication on hemodynamics, renal function, brain perfusion and lactate/pyruvate in an ovine sepsis model. METHODS: Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated female sheep were randomized to an ethanol group (n = 7), which received 1 g/kg ethanol diluted in intravenous (i.v.) saline infusion or a control group (n = 7), which received the same volume of i...
June 19, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Diego Figueiredo da Costa, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva, Gabriel Martins, Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas, Marcia Almeida de Melo, Sérgio Santos de Azevedo, Walter Lilenbaum, Clebert José Alves
Leptospirosis is a disease that negatively affects the productive and reproductive indices of ruminants. Sheep are considered highly resistant to infection, although susceptibility may vary among breeds. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility between sheep breeds to the experimental infection by leptospires of the Pomona serogroup. Pomona serogroup, Kennewicki serovar strain (1 × 107 bacteria) was inoculated via the conjunctival route in 12 sheep divided into two groups, one comprising Santa Inês ewes and the other comprising crossbred sheep...
September 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kathryn J Allan, Jo E B Halliday, Mark Moseley, Ryan W Carter, Ahmed Ahmed, Marga G A Goris, Rudy A Hartskeerl, Julius Keyyu, Tito Kibona, Venance P Maro, Michael J Maze, Blandina T Mmbaga, Rigobert Tarimo, John A Crump, Sarah Cleaveland
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease that affects more than one million people worldwide each year. Human infection is acquired through direct or indirect contact with the urine of an infected animal. A wide range of animals including rodents and livestock may shed Leptospira bacteria and act as a source of infection for people. In the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania, leptospirosis is an important cause of acute febrile illness, yet relatively little is known about animal hosts of Leptospira infection in this area...
June 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bing Wang, Miao Jia, Luoyun Fang, Linshu Jiang, Yanling Li
The objective of this study was to evaluate antimethanogenic activity of eucalyptus oil (EUC) and anise oil (ANI) in vitro and in vivo using sheep as a model. In vitro study was conducted using batch culture technique, each of EUC and ANI were added at 0, 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/L of fermentation media with substrate containing 60% corn-based concentrate and 40% hay (DM basis). Total gas production (GP) linearly (P < 0.01) decreased with increasing ANI, whereas the GP was not affected with EUC addition. Supplementation of ANI and EUC linearly (P < 0...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
A C S Dos Santos, S A Santos, G G P Carvalho, L D S Mariz, M S L Tosto, S C Valadares Filho, J A G Azevedo
The main objective of this study was to establish a protocol to validate urine spot samples to estimate N excretion and microbial synthesis in goat and sheep; and to study factors that affect daily creatinine and purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion. Also a performance trial was carried out to compare goat and sheep slaughtered after different feedlot periods. Twelve Boer goats (20.6 kg ± 3.4 initial BW) and 12 Dorper sheep (18.4 kg ± 2.3 initial BW), all 4-mo-old, males, were used. Eight animals (4 goats and 4 sheep) were randomly allocated to be slaughtered at 28, 56, and 84 d in feedlot...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Weilin L Shelver, David J Smith
Zilpaterol is a β-adrenergic agonist feed additive approved in the United States to increase weight gain and improve feed efficiency of cattle. A zilpaterol immunochromatographic assay was developed as an economical and user-friendly rapid detection method for zilpaterol and validated using urine and tissue samples derived from animal studies. The assay sensitivity was 1.7-23.2 ng g-1 or mL-1 across a variety of feed and animal matrices and did not cross-react with clenbuterol or ractopamine. No sample pre-treatment of cattle and sheep urine was needed, but horse urine and feed required dilution; skeletal muscle required solvent extraction prior to testing...
August 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Shuaijuan Han, Tianjiao Zhou, Bingjie Yin, Pingli He
The work describes a gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for ractopamine. The ELISA is based on an indirect competitive approach. In the presence of ractopamine, gold(III) ions are oxidized by H2 O2 to form red AuNPs. On the other hand, the AuNP in solution are purple-blue due to aggregation if the sample does not contain ractopamine. The absorption, best measured at 560 nm, increases linearly in the 2 to 512 ng·mL-1 ractopamine concentration range, and the detection limit is as low as 0...
March 7, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
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