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Dario Cecilio-Fernandes, Wouter Kerdijk, André J Bremers, Wytze Aalders, René A Tio
PURPOSE: It is assumed that case-based questions require higher order cognitive processing, whereas questions that are not case-based require lower order cognitive processing. In this study, we investigated to what extent case-based questions and questions that are not case-based, relate to Bloom's taxonomy. METHODS: In this article, 4800 questions of the Progress Test were classified whether it was a case-based question and the level of Bloom's taxonomy. Lower-order questions require students to remember or/and basically understand the knowledge...
2018: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Viviana Manzulli, Antonio Fasanella, Antonio Parisi, Luigina Serrecchia, Adelia Donatiello, Valeria Rondinone, Marta Caruso, Sabine Zange, Alina Tscherne, Nicola Decaro, Carmine Pedarra, Domenico Galante
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis , is a non-contagious infectious disease that affects a wide range of animal species (primarily ruminants), as well as humans. Due to the often fatal outcome in human cases, the quick administration of definitely effective antimicrobials is crucial either as prophylaxis or for the therapy of clinical cases. In this study, a total of 110 B. anthracis strains, temporally, geographically and genetically different, isolated during anthrax outbreaks in Italy from 1984 to 2017, were screened for their susceptibility towards 16 clinically relevant antimicrobial agents using the broth microdilution method...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Chang-Min Lee, Doo-Won Song, Woong-Bin Ro, Min-Hee Kang, Hee-Myung Park
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for identifying the genetic causes of various diseases. This study conducted to identify genomic variation in Maltese dog genomes associated with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) development and evaluate the association of each biological condition with DMVD in Maltese dogs. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from 48 Maltese dogs (32 with DMVD and 16 controls). Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Thais Helena de Pontes Ellery, Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio, Antônio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, Bruna Yhang da Costa Silva, Júlio Augusto Gurgel Alves, Fabrício Da Silva Costa, Edward Araujo Júnior, Maria Luísa Pereira de Melo
OBJECTIVE:  To assess the association between dietary glycemic index (GI) and excess weight in pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS:  A cross-sectional study in a sample of 217 pregnant women was conducted at the maternal-fetal outpatient clinic of the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil, for routine ultrasound examinations in the period between 11 and 13 weeks + 6 days of gestation. Weight and height were measured and the gestational body mass index (BMI) was calculated...
December 12, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Susanne Paries, Svenja Funcke, Michael Lierz
OBJECTIVE: Tortoise picornavirus (ToPV) has been speculated to play an important role in the frequently seen disease pattern of juvenile shell softening. This study aimed to determine ToPV prevalence among German tortoise collections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 334 animals selected from 27 different collections were included. Seven species of four genera of the family Testudinidae ( Testudo graeca, T. hermanni, T. marginata, T. horsfieldii, Centrochelys sulcata, Stigmochelys pardalis, Chelonoidis carbonarius ) were sampled...
October 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Teresa M S A Böhm, Christoph J Klinger, Natalie Gedon, Laura Udraite, Katja Hiltenkamp, Ralf S Mueller
OBJECTIVE: Edible insects (like mealworms, locusts and crickets) contain energy, protein, fatty acids, minerals and trace elements and have been found to be high quality food sources. They could provide a new food source for patients with adverse food reactions, as well as being of ecological and ethical interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new commercially available, insect protein-based diet on the clinical signs in those dogs via Canine Atopic Dermatitis Lesion Index (CADLI), Pruritus Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) and coat quality score...
October 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Juan Valdés-Stauber, Sabine Krämer, Susanne Bachthaler
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of the inpatient psychosomatic treatment has been documented in various settings. The question of the sustainability of the improvement achieved as well as the prognostic factors is of interest for public health. OBJECTIVE: Primary outcome variables reflect the stability or change in the clinical status of patients one year after the discharge from the inpatient psychosomatic treatment. Secondary outcome variables reflect differences in utilization of medical services between the year before and after admission...
December 12, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Johanna G Winkler, Eva J Brandl, H Joachim Bretz, Andreas Heinz, Meryam Schouler-Ocak
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess asylum seekers' views on their legal situations, asylum procedures and living conditions, and the relationship of these factors towards psychological stress. METHODS: 650 asylum seekers in Berlin received a questionnaire. RESULTS: 76,3 % (N = 496) completed the questionnaires in full. According to psychological test criteria, 74,6 % (N = 370) of these respondents indicated symptoms of mental disorders...
December 12, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
Marietta Iacucci, Kenneth McQuaid, X Sean Gui, Yasushi Iwao, Brendan C Lethebe, Mark Lowerison, Takayuki Matsumoto, Uday N Shivaji, Samuel C L Smith, Venkataraman Subramanian, Toshio Uraoka, Silvia Sanduleanu, Subrata Ghosh, Ralf Kiesslich
BACKGROUND:  Characterization of colonic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains challenging. We developed an endoscopic classification of visual characteristics to identify colitis-associated neoplasia using multimodal advanced endoscopic imaging (Frankfurt Advanced Chromoendoscopic IBD LEsions [FACILE] classification). METHODS:  The study was conducted in three phases: 1) development - an expert panel defined endoscopic signs and predictors of dysplasia in IBD and, using multivariable logistic regression created the FACILE classification; 2) validation - using 60 IBD lesions from an image library, two assessments of diagnostic accuracy for neoplasia were performed and interobserver agreement between experts using FACILE was determined; 3) reproducibility - the reproducibility of the FACILE classification was tested in gastroenterologists, trainees, and junior doctors after completion of a training module...
December 12, 2018: Endoscopy
Scott L Zuckerman, Behrang Amini, Sun-Ho Lee, Ganesh Rao, Claudio E Tatsui, Laurence D Rhines
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the prognostic importance of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan findings in patients undergoing en bloc resection of sacral chordomas. OBJECTIVE: To (1) report in-depth imaging characteristics of sacral chordomas, (2) describe the patterns of local and distant recurrence, and (3) determine imaging predictors of overall survival (OS) and local recurrence (LR). METHODS: This retrospective case series was obtained from a prospectively maintained spine database from 1995 to 2016...
December 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Cheryl Cohen, Akhona Tshangela, Ziyaad Valley-Omar, Preetha Iyengar, Claire von Mollendorf, Sibongile Walaza, Orienka Hellferscee, Marietjie Venter, Neil Martinson, Gethwana Mahlase, Meredith McMorrow, Benjamin J Cowling, Florette K Treurnicht, Adam L Cohen, Stefano Tempia
Background: Differential transmission from HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals may impact influenza burden. We estimated the household secondary infection risk (SIR) and serial interval (SI) for influenza transmission from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected index cases and identified associated factors. Methods: Index cases were the first symptomatic person in a household with influenza-like illness, testing influenza positive on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alpha Oumar Diallo, Asha Krishnaswamy, Stuart K Shapira, Matthew E Oster, Mary G George, Jenna C Adams, Elizabeth R Walker, Paul Weiss, Mohammed K Ali, Wendy Book
Background: The prevalence of moderate or complex (moderate-complex) congenital heart defects (CHDs) among adults is increasing due to improved survival, but many patients experience lapses in specialty care or their CHDs are undocumented in the medical system. There is, to date, no efficient approach to identify this population. Objective: To develop and assess the performance of a risk score to identify adults aged 20-60 years with undocumented specific moderate-complex CHDs from electronic health records (EHR)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
N Alperin, J Wiltshire, S H Lee, A R Ramos, R Hernandez-Cardenache, T Rundek, R Curiel Cid, D Loewenstein
Study Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the extent to which sleep quality impacts amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI)-related brain regions in a cognitively normal cohort of individuals. Methods: Seventy four participants were rigorously evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests and a detailed clinical assessment to verify normal cognitive status. We then screened for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
December 12, 2018: Sleep
Katharina Kessler, Silke Hornemann, Klaus J Petzke, Margrit Kemper, Mariya Markova, Natalia Rudovich, Tilman Grune, Achim Kramer, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Olga Pivovarova-Ramich
Background: A diet in which fat is mainly eaten in the morning and carbohydrates mainly in the evening (compared with the reverse order) was recently shown to worsen glycemic control in people with prediabetes. Objective: We investigated the effects of these dietary patterns on energy metabolism, and on the daily profiles of circulating lipids, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Design: In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 29 nonobese men (with normal glucose tolerance, n = 18; or impaired fasting glucose/glucose tolerance, n = 11) underwent 2 isocaloric 4-wk diets: 1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 1330 and fat-rich meals between 1630 and 2200 (HC/HF); or 2) the inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC)...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Qi Dai, Xiangzhu Zhu, JoAnn E Manson, Yiqing Song, Xingnan Li, Adrian A Franke, Rebecca B Costello, Andrea Rosanoff, Hui Nian, Lei Fan, Harvey Murff, Reid M Ness, Douglas L Seidner, Chang Yu, Martha J Shrubsole
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that enzymes that synthesize and metabolize vitamin D are magnesium dependent. Recent observational studies found that magnesium intake significantly interacted with vitamin D in relation to vitamin D status and risk of mortality. According to NHANES, 79% of US adults do not meet their Recommended Dietary Allowance of magnesium. Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation differentially affects vitamin D metabolism dependent on baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hayase Mizukami, Jun-Dal Kim, Saori Tabara, Weizhe Lu, Chulwon Kwon, Misaki Nakashima, Akiyoshi Fukamizu
Males and females share the same genetic code, but gene expression profile often displays differences between two sexes. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) have been used to experiment as a useful tool to test gene function. They have also been characterized by gender-based differences in expressed genes such as Y-linked Sry or X-linked Hprt. However, there is no report on sex differences in global gene expression. Here, using the next-generation RNA sequencing, we compared the comprehensive transcriptome of MEFs derived from two sexes...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Whitney D McGilvray, Hailey Wooten, Amanda R Rakhshandeh, Amy Petry, Anoosh Rakhshandeh
Previous studies have reported an increase in the utilization of threonine (Thr) during immune system stimulation (ISS). However, increased utilization of an amino acid (AA) during ISS may not reflect an increased dietary requirement, as endogenous sources may supply AA to meet the need for enhanced utilization. The current study evaluated the impact of ISS on components of dietary Thr requirements, i.e. maintenance requirement and the efficiency of Thr utilization. Thirty-nine gilts (initial BW 32 ± 2.1 kg) of commercially relevant genetics were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed one of six experimental diets in which Thr was the first limiting among other AA...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Lucian P Smith, Jon A Yamato, Mary K Kuhner
Motivation: CNValidator assesses the quality of somatic copy number calls based on coherency of haplotypes across multiple samples from the same individual. It is applicable to any copy number calling algorithm which makes calls independently for each sample. This test is useful in assessing the accuracy of copy number calls, as well as choosing among alternative copy number algorithms or tuning parameter values. Results: On a data set of somatic samples from individuals with Barrett's Esophagus, CNValidator provided feedback on the correctness of sample ploidy calls and also detected data quality issues...
December 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
Swaine L Chen
Motivation: Stirling numbers enter into the calculation of several population genetics statistics, including Fu's Fs. However, as alignments become large (>∼50 sequences), the Stirling numbers required rapidly exceed the standard floating point range. Another recursive method for calculating Fu's Fs suffers from floating point underflow issues. Results: I implemented an estimator for Stirling numbers that has the advantage of being uniformly applicable to the full parameter range for Stirling numbers...
December 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
Joseph Mingrone, Edward Susko, Joseph Bielawski
Motivation: Likelihood ratio tests are commonly used to test for positive selection acting on proteins. They are usually applied with thresholds for declaring a protein under positive selection determined from a chi-square or mixture of chi-square distributions. While it is known that such distributions are not strictly justified due to the statistical irregularity of the problem, the hope has been that the resulting tests are conservative and do not lose much power in comparison with the same test using the unknown, correct threshold...
December 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
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