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Eva Asselmann, Johannes Hertel, Carsten-Oliver Schmidt, Georg Homuth, Matthias Nauck, Christiane A Pané-Farré, Beesdo-Baum Katja, Hans-Jörgen Grabe
BACKGROUND: It remains unresolved whether childhood adversities interact with genetic variation in regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) rs4606 in predicting various anxiety and depressive disorders and whether diagnostic specificity exists in these interactions. METHODS: The genotype of RGS2 rs4606 was determined for N = 2,263 adults with European ancestry from the Study of Health in Pomerania. Lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, were assessed with the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI)...
August 14, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Tuncay Küme, Ferzane Mercan, Hatice Topsakal, Çiğdem Karakükcü, Mehmet Şeneş, Aslı Pınar, Mukaddes Gürler, Hakan Kalafat, Belgin Ünal, Alain G Verstraete, Yeşim Hamurtekin, Ahmet Aydınlı, Yasemin Şenol, Muhammed Ertuğrul Eğin, Alper Cihan, Elif Güler Kazancı, Eyüp Gümüş
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the results of inspections in the last 3 years on drug abuse testing in medical laboratories according to the last regulations in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The on-site inspections of medical laboratories for drugs abuse testing performed in Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Centers in 2014-2016 are described, and laboratory processes and performance were evaluated. The performance of 35 laboratories in 2014, 62 laboratories in 2015, 94 laboratories in 2016 were scored as the sum of the scores for all answers in the inspection form...
August 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Hilmi Erdem Sumbul, Ayse Selcan Koc
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether there is an increase in aortic intima-media thickness values measured from the abdominal aorta in addition to the traditional carotid intima-media thickness in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and to determine the parameters closely related to aortic intima-media thickness. METHODS: This perspective study included 65 primary hyperparathyroidism patients and 30 healthy-controls. Routine laboratory tests for the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism and vascular ultrasound examinations were performed...
August 14, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Erin Rothwell, Erin Johnson, Bob Wong, Nancy C Rose, Gwen Latendresse, Roger Altizer, Jose Zagal, Marcela Smid, Abby Watson, Jeffrey R Botkin
PURPOSE:  This project developed and evaluated the efficacy of a game decision aid among pregnant women about prenatal screening in a randomized controlled study. METHOD:  Participants were recruited from an obstetric clinic of an academic urban medical center and randomized ( n  = 73) to one of two study groups: the control group ( n  = 39) that used a brochure or the intervention group ( n  = 34) that also used a game decision aid. RESULT:  Participants who played the game had higher knowledge scores ( m  = 21...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
John Mark McLain, Wateen H Alami, Zachary T Glovak, Chris R Cooley, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Helen A Baghdoyan, Michael D Karlstad, Ralph Lydic
Study Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that sleep fragmentation (SF) delays wound healing in obese B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J (db/db) mice with impaired leptin signaling and type 2 diabetes compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Methods: Adult male mice (n=34) were anesthetized and bilateral full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the back of each mouse. Half of the db/db and B6 mice were housed in SF-cages equipped with a bar that moved across the cage floor every 2 min, 12 h/day for 23 days...
August 11, 2018: Sleep
Xing-He Wang, Wei Li, Xing-Hui Wang, Mei-Yu Han, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiu-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Qi Sun, Xiao-Xu Cui
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is very harmful for broiler production and public health. The water-soluble castoff in gluten production, i.e., the water-soluble substances of wheat (WSW) that contains 14% pentosan has positive effect on animal nutrient absorption, immunity, and antioxidation. Our study aims to investigate the preventive effects of WSW against AFB1-induced broiler liver injury. One day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly separated to 4 groups and were, respectively, fed with control diet, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard and 214 ml/kg WSW, and diet with 214 ml/kg WSW continuously for 28 d...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Thomas G Beach, Geidy E Serrano, Thomas Kremer, Marta Canamero, Sebastian Dziadek, Hadassah Sade, Pascal Derkinderen, Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Franck Letournel, David G Munoz, Charles L White, Julie Schneider, John F Crary, Lucia I Sue, Charles H Adler, Michael J Glass, Anthony J Intorcia, Jessica E Walker, Tatiana Foroud, Christopher S Coffey, Dixie Ecklund, Holly Riss, Jennifer Goßmann, Fatima König, Catherine M Kopil, Vanessa Arnedo, Lindsey Riley, Carly Linder, Kuldip D Dave, Danna Jennings, John Seibyl, Brit Mollenhauer, Lana Chahine
Immunohistochemical (IHC) α-synuclein (Asyn) pathology in peripheral biopsies may be a biomarker of Parkinson disease (PD). The multi-center Systemic Synuclein Sampling Study (S4) is evaluating IHC Asyn pathology within skin, colon and submandibular gland biopsies from 60 PD and 20 control subjects. Asyn pathology is being evaluated by a blinded panel of specially trained neuropathologists. Preliminary work assessed 2 candidate immunoperoxidase methods using a set of PD and control autopsy-derived sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of the 3 tissues...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Miguel Angel Tejada Neyra, Ulf Neuberger, Annekathrin Reinhardt, Gianluca Brugnara, David Bonekamp, Martin Sill, Antje Wick, David T W Jones, Alexander Radbruch, Andreas Unterberg, Jürgen Debus, Sabine Heiland, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Christel Herold-Mende, Stefan Pfister, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, David Capper, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Kickingereder
Background: This study aims to evaluate the impact of tumor location on key molecular alterations on a single voxel level in patients with newly-diagnosed glioma. Methods: A consecutive series of n=237 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma and n=131 patients with lower-grade glioma was analyzed. Volumetric tumor segmentation was performed on preoperative MRI with a semi-automated approach and images were registered to the standard Montreal Neurological Institute-152 space...
August 9, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Sam Norton, Benjamin Ellis, Beatriz Santana Suárez, Samana Schwank, Ray Fitzpatrick, Andrew Price, James Galloway
Objectives: The Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ) is a recently developed Patient Reported Outcome Measure for use across patients with musculoskeletal conditions. This study provides a validation of the MSK-HQ examining construct validity and reliability in inflammatory arthritis. Methods: 287 adults with inflammatory arthritis completed the MSK-HQ and other Patient Reported Outcome Measures at baseline and after 3 months. Construct validity was assessed using item response theory methods...
August 10, 2018: Rheumatology
Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Jaka Razinger, Matthias Lutz, Jürg Grunder, Gregor Urek
The cabbage maggot (also known as cabbage root fly [CRF]; Delia radicum L.) is a serious pest of brassicas. The pest's soil-dwelling larvae are especially damaging to young brassica transplants. In light of toxic soil insecticide phase-out novel biocontrol management solutions are sought for. Our research is focused on the development of a biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with insect pathogenic fungi. This article presents the results of a laboratory investigation of cauliflower × microbe × CRF interactions...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Abhishek Zanwar, Sanat Phatak, Amita Aggarwal
Objective: To measure disease activity in children with enthesitis-related arthritis the Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Disease Activity Index (JSpADA) was developed and retrospectively validated. We prospectively validated JSpADA and also assessed performance of adult SpA scores. Methods: Children with enthesitis-related arthritis (ILAR criteria) less than 18 years of age were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and different disease activity measures (JSpADA, BASDAI, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-ESR, juvenile arthritis DAS-10 joints), and Childhood HAQ, physician global assessment and patient global assessment were recorded at baseline...
August 9, 2018: Rheumatology
M Luke Marinovich, Kylie E Hunter, Petra Macaskill, Nehmat Houssami
Background: Tomosynthesis approximates a 3D mammogram of the breast, reducing parenchymal overlap that masks cancers or creates false "lesions" on 2D mammography, and potentially enabling more accurate detection of breast cancer. We compared breast cancer screening detection and recall in asymptomatic women for tomosynthesis vs 2D mammography. Methods: A systematic review and random effects meta-analysis were undertaken. Electronic databases (2009-July 2017) were searched for studies comparing tomosynthesis and 2D mammography in asymptomatic women who attended population breast cancer screening and reporting cancer detection rate (CDR) and recall rate...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Yiyang Wang, Zihao Wang, Yuanyuan Shan
Ovomucin is known to be critical for keeping the high quality and freshness of thick albumen, but there is lack of understanding on the dynamics changes of this important protein during storage. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ovomucin content and egg freshness during storage. Firstly, the viscoelasticity of albumen was shown to be much higher than that of ovomucin-depleted albumen from rheological analysis results, indicating that ovomucin is an important component in maintaining the natural viscoelasticity of albumen...
August 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Kelli A Lytle, Debra A Harteneck, Michael D Jensen
Background: α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD), a soluble dietary fiber, may improve abnormal plasma lipids and promote weight loss. Preliminary evidence suggests that it may exert these effects by binding dietary fat and reducing absorption; this has not been tested in humans. Objective: The primary objective was to test whether supplemental α-CD increases fecal content of dietary lipid in humans. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study completed at the Mayo Clinic...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk
Objectives: This study identifies sociodemographic predictors of prescription opioid use among older adults (age 65+) during the peak decade of U.S. opioid prescription, and tests whether pain level and Medicaid coverage mediate the association between low wealth and opioid use. Predictors of prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, and of opinions of both drug classes, are also examined. Method: Regressions of opioid and NSAID use on sociodemographic characteristics, pain level, and insurance type were conducted using Health and Retirement Study 2004 core and 2005 Prescription Drug Study data (n=3,721)...
August 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Darius Kavaliauskas, Chunlai Chen, Wei Liu, Barry S Cooperman, Yale E Goldman, Charlotte R Knudsen
The GTPase elongation factor EF-Tu delivers aminoacyl-tRNAs to the mRNA-programmed ribosome during translation. Cognate codon-anticodon interaction stimulates GTP hydrolysis within EF-Tu. It has been proposed that EF-Tu undergoes a large conformational change subsequent to GTP hydrolysis, which results in the accommodation of aminoacyl-tRNA into the ribosomal A-site. However, this proposal has never been tested directly. Here, we apply single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to study the conformational dynamics of EF-Tu when bound to the ribosome...
August 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Lindsay D Oliver, John D Haltigan, James M Gold, George Foussias, Pamela DeRosse, Robert W Buchanan, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
Background: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) often feature social cognitive deficits. However, little work has focused on the factor structure of social cognition, and results have been inconsistent in schizophrenia. This study aimed to elucidate the factor structure of social cognition across people with SSDs and healthy controls. It was hypothesized that a 2-factor model, including lower-level "simulation" and higher-level "mentalizing" factors, would demonstrate the best fit across participants...
August 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Kathryn McNamara, Christopher Peters, Igor Burstyn
Objectives: To evaluate the likelihood of exceeding the occupational exposure limit (OEL) for annual ionizing radiation doses among transient workers at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station, and to propose a method for forecasting exposures among transient workers in general. Methods: We obtained personal dosimeter data from the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station for the period of January-December 2014, comprising 1955 monthly dose measurements from 498 transient workers...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Dominique L Braun, Benjamin Hampel, Eileen Martin, Roger Kouyos, Katharina Kusejko, Christina Grube, Markus Flepp, Marcel Stöckle, Anna Conen, Charles Béguelin, Patrick Schmid, Julie Delaloye, Mathieu Rougemont, Enos Bernasconi, Andri Rauch, Huldrych F Günthard, Jürg Böni, Jan S Fehr
Background: The proportion of undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in high-risk populations, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is unclear. Identification of potential HCV transmitters is important to reach World Health Organization HCV elimination targets. Methods: Between October 2015 and May 2016, we performed a systematic HCV RNA-based screening among HIV-infected MSM participating in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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