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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317680/exome-wide-rare-variant-analyses-of-two-bone-mineral-density-phenotypes-the-challenges-of-analyzing-rare-genetic-variation
#1
Jianping Sun, Karim Oualkacha, Vincenzo Forgetta, Hou-Feng Zheng, J Brent Richards, Daniel S Evans, Eric Orwoll, Celia M T Greenwood
Performance of a recently developed test for association between multivariate phenotypes and sets of genetic variants (MURAT) is demonstrated using measures of bone mineral density (BMD). By combining individual-level whole genome sequenced data from the UK10K study, and imputed genome-wide genetic data on individuals from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) and the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS), a data set of 8810 individuals was assembled; tests of association were performed between autosomal gene-sets of genetic variants and BMD measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284403/the-emerging-picture-of-the-mitochondrial-protein-import-complexes-of-amoebozoa-supergroup
#2
Małgorzata Wojtkowska, Dorota Buczek, Yutaka Suzuki, Victoria Shabardina, Wojciech Makałowski, Hanna Kmita
BACKGROUND: The existence of mitochondria-related organelles (MROs) is proposed for eukaryotic organisms. The Amoebozoa includes some organisms that are known to have mitosomes but also organisms that have aerobic mitochondria. However, the mitochondrial protein apparatus of this supergroup remains largely unsampled, except for the mitochondrial outer membrane import complexes studied recently. Therefore, in this study we investigated the mitochondrial inner membrane and intermembrane space complexes, using the available genome and transcriptome sequences...
December 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237825/mitochondrial-ca2-transport-in-the-endothelium-regulation-by-ions-redox-signalling-and-mechanical-forces
#3
REVIEW
B Rita Alevriadou, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Akshar Patel, Peter B Stathopulos, Muniswamy Madesh
Calcium (Ca2+) transport by mitochondria is an important component of the cell Ca2+ homeostasis machinery in metazoans. Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria is a major determinant of bioenergetics and cell fate. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake occurs via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) complex, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein assembly consisting of the MCU Ca2+ channel, as its core component, and the MCU complex regulatory/auxiliary proteins. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular nature of the MCU complex and its regulation by intra- and extramitochondrial levels of divalent ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220072/falls-predict-fractures-independently-of-frax-probability-a-meta-analysis-of-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#4
Nicholas C Harvey, Anders Odén, Eric Orwoll, Jodi Lapidus, Timothy Kwok, Magnus K Karlsson, Björn E Rosengren, Östen Ljunggren, Cyrus Cooper, Eugene McCloskey, John A Kanis, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Helena Johansson
Although prior falls are a well-established predictor of future fracture, there is currently limited evidence regarding the specific value of falls history in fracture risk assessment relative to that of other clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. We therefore investigated, across the three Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study cohorts, whether past falls predicted future fracture independently of FRAX and whether these associations varied with age and follow-up time. Elderly men were recruited from MrOS Sweden, Hong Kong, and USA...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190461/antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-single-walled-carbon-nanotube-swcnt-porphyrin-conjugate-for-visible-light-mediated-inactivation-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Upasana Sah, Kajal Sharma, Nivedita Chaudhri, Muniappan Sankar, P Gopinath
Due to the excessive use of antibiotics over the years, the microorganisms have developed resistance to numerous drugs. The growth of multi-resistant organisms (MROs) heads due to the insufficient treatment with the currently available medications which present a great threat to the biotic component of the environment as well as to the food technology sectors. The goal of this research was to develop a nano-composite made up of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amine-functionalized porphyrin, which could further be used for the anti-microbial studies in presence of visible light showing photodynamic effect to inactivate cells...
November 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181439/rest-activity-circadian-rhythms-and-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-men
#6
Tara S Rogers, Stephanie Harrison, Christine Swanson, Jane A Cauley, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Eric Orwoll, Katie L Stone, Nancy E Lane
Background: Disrupted rest-activity circadian rhythm (RAR) patterns have been associated with poor health outcomes (i.e. diminished cognitive function, increased risk of dementia and falls). Circadian time cues in bone influence the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and bone turnover markers exhibit circadian variation; relationships between bone outcomes and RAR are emerging areas of research. We evaluated associations between RAR and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck in older men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort...
December 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167969/association-of-incident-hip-fracture-with-the-estimated-femoral-strength-by-finite-element-analysis-of-dxa-scans-in-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#7
L Yang, N Parimi, E S Orwoll, D M Black, J T Schousboe, R Eastell
Finite element model can estimate bone strength better than BMD. This study used such a model to determine its association with hip fracture risk and found that the strength estimate provided limited improvement over the hip BMDs in predicting femoral neck (FN) fracture risk only. INTRODUCTION: Bone fractures occur only when it is loaded beyond its ultimate strength. The goal of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of DXA scans, with incident hip fracture as a single condition or with femoral neck (FN) and trochanter (TR) fractures separately in older men...
November 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165696/which-sleep-health-characteristics-predict-all-cause-mortality-in-older-men-an-application-of-flexible-multivariable-approaches
#8
Meredith L Wallace, Katie Stone, Stephen F Smagula, Martica H Hall, Burcin Simsek, Deborah M Kado, Susan Redline, Tien N Vo, Daniel J Buysse
Objectives: Sleep is multidimensional, with domains including duration, timing, continuity, regularity, rhythmicity, quality, and sleepiness/alertness. Individual sleep characteristics representing these domains are known to predict health outcomes. However, most studies consider sleep characteristics in isolation, resulting in an incomplete understanding of which sleep characteristics are the strongest predictors of health outcomes. We applied three multivariable approaches to robustly determine which sleep characteristics increase mortality risk in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep study...
November 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124252/bone-loss-at-the-hip-and-subsequent-mortality-in-older-men-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#9
Peggy M Cawthon, Sheena Patel, Susan K Ewing, Li-Yung Lui, Jane A Cauley, Jennifer G Lyons, Lisa Fredman, Deborah M Kado, Andrew R Hoffman, Nancy E Lane, Kristine E Ensrud, Steven R Cummings, Eric S Orwoll
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with increased mortality risk, yet the impact of BMD loss on mortality is relatively unknown. We hypothesized that greater BMD loss is associated with increased mortality risk in older men. Change in femoral neck BMD was assessed in 4400 Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study participants with two to three repeat dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans over an average of 4.6 ± 0.4 (mean ± SD) years. Change in femoral neck BMD was estimated using mixed effects models; men were grouped into three categories of BMD change: maintenance (n = 1087; change ≥ 0 g/cm(2)); expected loss (n = 2768; change between 0 g/cm(2) and <1 SD below mean change [>-0...
August 2017: JBMR Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116457/correction-to-comparison-of-fracture-risk-assessment-tools-in-older-men-without-prior-hip-or-spine-fracture-the-mros-study
#10
Margaret L Gourlay, Victor S Ritter, Jason P Fine, Robert A Overman, John T Schousboe, Peggy M Cawthon, Eric S Orwoll, Tuan V Nguyen, Nancy E Lane, Steven R Cummings, Deborah M Kado, Jodi A Lapidus, Susan J Diem, Kristine E Ensrud
Owing to an oversight by the authors, the acknowledgments were incomplete.
November 7, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090329/predictors-of-change-of-trabecular-bone-score-tbs-in-older-men-results-from-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#11
J T Schousboe, T N Vo, L Langsetmo, B C Taylor, A M Kats, A V Schwartz, D C Bauer, J A Cauley, K E Ensrud
Among older men, characteristics that predict longitudinal changes in trabecular bone score (TBS) are different from characteristics that predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Most notably, weight loss is strongly associated with concomitant loss in BMD but with concomitant increases in TBS, when measured on Hologic densitometers. INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to compare and contrast predictors of changes in TBS, total hip BMD, and lumbar spine BMD. METHODS: Our study population was 3969 Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort participants (mean age 72...
October 31, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063213/high-dairy-protein-intake-is-associated-with-greater-bone-strength-parameters-at-the-distal-radius-and-tibia-in-older-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
L Langsetmo, J M Shikany, A J Burghardt, P M Cawthon, E S Orwoll, J A Cauley, B C Taylor, J T Schousboe, D C Bauer, T N Vo, K E Ensrud
Dairy protein but not plant protein was associated with bone strength of the radius and tibia in older men. These results are consistent with previous results in women and support similar findings related to fracture outcomes. Bone strength differences were largely due to thickness and area of the bone cortex. INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine the association of protein intake by source (dairy, non-dairy animal, plant) with bone strength and bone microarchitecture among older men...
October 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052793/comparison-of-fracture-risk-assessment-tools-in-older-men-without-prior-hip-or-spine-fracture-the-mros-study
#13
Margaret L Gourlay, Victor S Ritter, Jason P Fine, Robert A Overman, John T Schousboe, Peggy M Cawthon, Eric S Orwoll, Tuan V Nguyen, Nancy E Lane, Steven R Cummings, Deborah M Kado, Jodi A Lapidus, Susan J Diem, Kristine E Ensrud
Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), age plus femoral neck BMD T score, and three externally generated fracture risk tools had similar accuracy to identify older men who developed osteoporotic fractures. Risk tools with femoral neck BMD performed better than those without BMD. The externally developed risk tools were poorly calibrated. INTRODUCTION: We compared the performance of fracture risk assessment tools in older men, accounting for competing risks including mortality. METHODS: A comparative ROC curve analysis assessed the ability of the QFracture, FRAX® and Garvan fracture risk tools, and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T score with or without age to identify incident fracture in community-dwelling men aged 65 years or older (N = 4994) without hip or clinical vertebral fracture or antifracture treatment at baseline...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044162/hetero-oligomer-of-dynamin-related-proteins-participates-in-the-fission-of-highly-divergent-mitochondria-from-entamoeba-histolytica
#14
Takashi Makiuchi, Herbert J Santos, Hiroshi Tachibana, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protist and possesses mitosomes, one of the most highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs). Although unique metabolism and protein/metabolite transport machinery have been demonstrated in Entamoeba mitosomes, the mechanism of mitosomal fusion and fission remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that two dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) are cooperatively involved in the fission of Entamoeba mitosomes. Expression of a dominant negative form of EhDrpA and EhDrpB, and alternatively, repression of gene expression of EhDrpA and EhDrpB genes, caused elongation of mitosomes, reflecting inhibition of mitosomal fission...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029009/the-effect-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-on-all-cause-mortality-in-hong-kong-chinese-older-people
#15
Zhihui Lu, Jean Woo, Timothy Kwok
Background: It is unclear whether physical activity (PA) could predict all-cause mortality independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, and there are relatively few studies evaluating the combined effect of PA and cardiorespiratory fitness on mortality. Methods: We invited 1,242 Chinese older adults aged 69 to 94 years from the MrOs and MsOs cohort (Hong Kong) study for a 7-year follow-up. PA was measured by the Physical Activity Scale of the Elderly (PASE). Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), was assessed by performing symptom-limited maximal exercise testing on an electrically braked bicycle ergometer and 6-meter walk test...
September 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024797/nlrx1-modulates-differentially-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-during-fusobacterium-nucleatum-infection
#16
Shu-Chen Hung, Pei-Rong Huang, Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Kalina R Atanasova, Ozlem Yilmaz, David M Ojcius
NOD-like receptors (NLRs) play a large role in regulation of host innate immunity, yet their role in periodontitis remains to be defined. NLRX1, a member of the NLR family that localizes to mitochondria, enhances mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation. mROS can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, yet the role of NLRX1 in NLRP3 inflammasome activation has not been examined. In this study, we revealed the mechanism by which NLRX1 positively regulates ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation through mROS in gingival epithelial cells (GECs)...
October 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978464/ampk-maintains-cellular-metabolic-homeostasis-through-regulation-of-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#17
Rebecca C Rabinovitch, Bozena Samborska, Brandon Faubert, Eric H Ma, Simon-Pierre Gravel, Sylvia Andrzejewski, Thomas C Raissi, Arnim Pause, Julie St-Pierre, Russell G Jones
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously produced as a by-product of mitochondrial metabolism and eliminated via antioxidant systems. Regulation of mitochondrially produced ROS is required for proper cellular function, adaptation to metabolic stress, and bypassing cellular senescence. Here, we report non-canonical regulation of the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by mitochondrial ROS (mROS) that functions to maintain cellular metabolic homeostasis. We demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS are a physiological activator of AMPK and that AMPK activation triggers a PGC-1α-dependent antioxidant response that limits mitochondrial ROS production...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942368/dxa-derived-hip-shape-is-related-to-osteoarthritis-findings-from-in-the-mros-cohort
#18
B G Faber, D Baird, C L Gregson, J S Gregory, R J Barr, R M Aspden, J Lynch, M C Nevitt, N E Lane, E Orwoll, J H Tobias
OBJECTIVE: Statistical shape modelling (SSM) of radiographs has been used to explore relationships between altered joint shape and hip osteoarthritis (OA). We aimed to apply SSM to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) hip scans, and examine associations between resultant hip shape modes (HSMs), radiographic hip OA (RHOA), and hip pain, in a large population based cohort. METHOD: SSM was performed on baseline hip DXA scans from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study...
September 21, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934150/frailty-and-its-contributory-factors-in-older-adults-a-comparison-of-two-asian-regions-hong-kong-and-taiwan
#19
Ruby Yu, Wan-Chi Wu, Jason Leung, Susan C Hu, Jean Woo
This study aimed to compare the prevalence of frailty across three Chinese populations: Hong Kong, Taiwan-urban and Taiwan-rural. Contributing factors to disparities in frailty were also examined. Data were derived from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) and Women (MsOs) (Hong Kong) Study (n = 4000) and the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (n = 2392). Frailty was defined as an index calculated from 30 multiple deficits. The ratio of the frailty index to life expectancy at birth (FI/LE) was used as an indicator of compression of morbidity...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880398/association-of-incident-clinically-undiagnosed-radiographic-vertebral-fractures-with-follow-up-back-pain-symptoms-in-older-men-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-mros-study
#20
Howard A Fink, Stephanie Litwack-Harrison, Kristine E Ensrud, Jian Shen, John T Schousboe, Peggy M Cawthon, Jane A Cauley, Nancy E Lane, Brent C Taylor, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Deborah M Kado, Steven R Cummings, Lynn M Marshall
Prior data in women suggest that incident clinically undiagnosed radiographic vertebral fractures (VFs) often are symptomatic, but misclassification of incident clinical VF may have biased these estimates. There are no comparable data in men. To evaluate the association of incident clinically undiagnosed radiographic VF with back pain symptoms and associated activity limitations, we used data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years...
November 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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