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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432326/a-novel-mechanism-linking-memory-stem-cells-with-innate-immunity-in-protection-against-hiv-1-infection
#1
Yufei Wang, Trevor Whittall, Stuart Neil, Gary Britton, Mukesh Mistry, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Thomas Lehner
HIV infection affects 37 million people and about 1.7 million are infected annually. Among the phase III clinical trials only the RV144 vaccine trial elicited significant protection against HIV-1 acquisition, but the efficacy and immune memory were inadequate. To boost these vaccine functions we studied T stem cell memory (TSCM) and innate immunity. TSCM cells were identified by phenotypic markers of CD4(+) T cells and they were further characterised into 4 subsets. These expressed the common IL-2/IL-15 receptors and another subset of APOBEC3G anti-viral restriction factors, both of which were upregulated...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431490/new-challenges-in-therapeutic-vaccines-against-hiv-infection
#2
Lorna Leal, Constanza Lucero, Josep M Gatell, Teresa Gallart, Montserrat Plana, Felipe García
There is a growing interest in developing curative strategies for HIV infection. Therapeutic vaccines are one of the most promising approaches. We will review the current knowledge and the new challenges in this research field. Areas covered: PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov databases were searched to review the progress and prospects for clinical development of immunotherapies aimed to cure HIV infection. Dendritic cells (DC)-based vaccines have yielded the best results in the field. However, major immune-virologic barriers may hamper current vaccine strategies...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426533/hiv-dna-content-in-different-cd4-t-cell-subsets-correlates-with-cd4-cd8-ratio-or-length-of-efficient-treatment
#3
Lara Gibellini, Simone Pecorini, Sara de Biasi, Elena Bianchini, Margherita Digaetano, Marcello Pinti, Gianluca Carnevale, Vanni Borghi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Cossarizza, Milena Nasi
OBJECTIVES: HIV establishes a latent infection at different degrees within naïve (TN) or central (TCM) and effector memory (TEM) CD4+ T cell. Studying patients in whom HIV production was suppressed by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), our main aim was to find which factors are related or can influence intracellular viral reservoir in different CD4+ T cell subsets. METHODS: We enrolled 32 HIV+ patients successfully treated for > 2 years, with a CD4+ T cell count > 500 cells/μL and plasma viremia undetectable from at least one year...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424683/novel-strategy-to-expand-super-charged-nk-cells-with-significant-potential-to-lyse-and-differentiate-cancer-stem-cells-differences-in-nk-expansion-and-function-between-healthy-and-cancer-patients
#4
Kawaljit Kaur, Jessica Cook, So-Hyun Park, Paytsar Topchyan, Anna Kozlowska, Nick Ohanian, Changge Fang, Ichiro Nishimura, Anahid Jewett
Natural killer (NK) cells are known to target cancer stem cells and undifferentiated tumors. In this paper, we provide a novel strategy for expanding large numbers of super-charged NK cells with significant potential to lyse and differentiate cancer stem cells and demonstrate the differences in the dynamics of NK cell expansion between healthy donors and cancer patients. Decline in cytotoxicity and lower interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by osteoclast (OC)-expanded NK cells from cancer patients correlates with faster expansion of residual contaminating T cells within purified NK cells, whereas healthy donors' OCs continue expanding super-charged NK cells while limiting T cell expansion for up to 60 days...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413023/a-chemoattractant-guided-walk-through-lymphopoiesis-from-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-mature-b-lymphocytes
#5
Vivian Y Lim, Sandra Zehentmeier, Chris Fistonich, João P Pereira
B lymphocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in specialized bone marrow niches composed of rare mesenchymal lineage stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These niches are defined by function and location: MSPCs are mostly perisinusoidal cells that together with a small subset of sinusoidal endothelial cells express stem cell factor, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-15, and the highest amounts of CXCL12 in bone marrow. Though rare, MSPCs are morphologically heterogeneous, highly reticular, and form a vast cellular network in the bone marrow parenchyma capable of interacting with large numbers of hematopoietic cells...
2017: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411832/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-associations-outcomes-and-pathobiology-thirty-years-of-progress-but-still-much-to-be-done
#6
Robert S Stern, Sherrie J Divito
Although rare, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis remain among the most devastating of acute conditions involving the skin. In the past 30 years, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the causes and pathobiology of this often life-threatening condition. Su et al demonstrate associations between IL 15 serum levels and the outcome of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Their findings provide ideas for further investigations that may help us better understand the role of cytokines in this T-cell mediate disease and provides clues to possible new therapies...
May 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409755/serum-cytokine-concentrations-chorioamnionitis-and-the-onset-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-premature-infants
#7
M Kaneko, M Sato, K Ogasawara, T Imamura, K Hashimoto, N Momoi, M Hosoya
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between serum cytokine concentrations and chorioamnionitis (CAM) and CAM-related bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. METHODS: Serum was collected at 0 and 7 days after birth from 36 premature infants born at <32 weeks of gestation. We examined the relationships between 30 cytokine concentrations and CAM, BPD, and other perinatal factors. RESULTS: On day 0, GM-CSF, IL-15, IL-17, IL-2, IL-2R, VEGF, and MIG concentrations were significantly higher in the CAM group (n = 17) than in the non-CAM group (n = 19)...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408342/chronic-ethanol-intake-induces-partial-microglial-activation-that-is-not-reversed-by-long-term-ethanol-withdrawal-in-the-rat-hippocampal-formation
#8
Catarina Cruz, Manuela Meireles, Susana M Silva
Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Activation of microglia leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial-mediated neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the alcohol-induced neuropathological mechanisms. The present study aimed to examine the effect of chronic ethanol exposure and long-term withdrawal on microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Male rats were submitted to 6 months of ethanol treatment followed by a 2-month withdrawal period...
April 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408199/interleukin-15-and-cisplatin-co-encapsulated-thermosensitive-polypeptide-hydrogels-for-combined-immuno-chemotherapy
#9
Xilong Wu, Yundi Wu, Hongbo Ye, Shuangjiang Yu, Chaoliang He, Xuesi Chen
In situ-forming thermosensitive hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(γ-ethyl-l-glutamate) diblock copolymers (mPEG-b-PELG) were prepared for the co-delivery of interleukin-15 (IL-15) and cisplatin (CDDP). The polypeptide-based hydrogels as local drug delivery carriers could reduce the systemic toxicity, degrade thoroughly within 3weeks after subcutaneous injection into rats and display an acceptable biocompatibility. When incubated with mouse melanoma B16 cells, only the CDDP-treated groups had significant effects on the S phase cell-cycle arrest in melanoma cells...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406147/transcriptome-analyses-of-differential-gene-expression-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius-between-silky-fowl-and-white-leghorn
#10
Deping Han, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jianfei Chen, Guoying Hua, Junying Li, Xuegong Deng, Xuemei Deng
Hyperpigmentation in Silky Fowl (SF) results in aberrant immune cell development. However, how melanocytes regulate B-cell proliferation in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) is unclear. To resolve this conundrum, we collected BFs from three-week-old SF and White Leghorn (WL) female chickens for RNA sequencing. The BF development was relatively weaker in SF than in WL. The transcriptome analyses identified 4848 differentially expressed genes, 326 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and 67 microRNAs in the BF of SF. The genes associated with melanogenesis was significantly higher, but that of the genes associated with the cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and JAK-STAT signalling pathway was significantly lower in SF than in WL...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405496/il-12-il-15-and-il-18-pre-activated-nk-cells-target-resistant-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-delay-leukemia-development-in-vivo
#11
Margherita Boieri, Aina Ulvmoen, Amanda Sudworth, Clare Lendrem, Matthew Collin, Anne M Dickinson, Lise Kveberg, Marit Inngjerdingen
NK cells have shown promise in therapy of hematological cancers, in particular against acute myeloid leukemia. In contrast, the more NK cell-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is difficult to treat with NK-cell-based therapies, and we hypothesized that pre-activation of NK cells could overcome this resistance. We show in pediatric and adult patients with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) perturbed NK cell effector functions at diagnosis. Using an in vivo rat model for T-ALL, Roser leukemia (RL), suppressed NK cell effector functions were observed...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396661/phenotype-of-nk-like-cd8-t-cells-with-innate-features-in-humans-and-their-relevance-in-cancer-diseases
#12
Alice Barbarin, Emilie Cayssials, Florence Jacomet, Nicolas Gonzalo Nunez, Sara Basbous, Lucie Lefèvre, Myriam Abdallah, Nathalie Piccirilli, Benjamin Morin, Vincent Lavoue, Véronique Catros, Eliane Piaggio, André Herbelin, Jean-Marc Gombert
Unconventional T cells are defined by their capacity to respond to signals other than the well-known complex of peptides and major histocompatibility complex proteins. Among the burgeoning family of unconventional T cells, innate-like CD8(+) T cells in the mouse were discovered in the early 2000s. This subset of CD8(+) T cells bears a memory phenotype without having encountered a foreign antigen and can respond to innate-like IL-12 + IL-18 stimulation. Although the concept of innate memory CD8(+) T cells is now well established in mice, whether an equivalent memory NK-like T-cell population exists in humans remains under debate...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395298/cytokines-and-chemokines-involved-in-acute-retinal-necrosis
#13
Lenneke de Visser, Joke H de Boer, Ger T Rijkers, Karin Wiertz, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Rob de Boer, Anton M van Loon, Aniki Rothova, Jolanda D F de Groot-Mijnes
Purpose: To investigate which cytokines and chemokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and whether cytokine profiles are associated with clinical manifestations, such as visual outcome. Methods: Serum and aqueous humor (AH) samples of 19 patients with ARN were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay. Infectious controls consisted of 18 patients with rubella virus-associated Fuchs' uveitis and 20 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis all confirmed by intraocular fluid analyses...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395279/serum-lymphocyte-associated-cytokine-concentrations-change-more-rapidly-over-time-in-multiple-system-atrophy-compared-to-parkinson-disease
#14
Keri Csencsits-Smith, Jessika Suescun, Kan Li, Sheng Luo, Diane L Bick, Mya Schiess
OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammatory processes contribute to the eventual death of motor neurons and the development of symptoms in both idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Given the faster rate of progression and more severe symptoms associated with MSA, we hypothesized that markers of inflammation would be more evident in the peripheral blood of MSA than PD patients, and that evidence of this inflammation might assist early diagnosis of MSA versus PD. METHODS: We performed multiplex analysis to determine the concentrations of 37 immune-associated cytokines and chemokines isolated from the plasma of patients with PD (n = 25) and MSA (n = 14) and compared our results to those of age-matched controls (n = 15)...
April 11, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385189/suppression-of-nk-and-cd8-t-cells-reduces-astrogliosis-but-accelerates-cerebellar-dysfunction-and-shortens-life-span-in-a-mouse-model-of-sandhoff-disease
#15
Elizabeth J White, Bernardo L Trigatti, Suleiman A Igdoura
Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease, resulting from the deficiency of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A and B enzyme activity. The Hexb-/- mouse model recapitulates human disease and leads to fatal neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. IL-15 is important for the proliferation of NK, NK T, and CD8(+) cytotoxic/memory T cells. In order to determine how changes to IL-15-dependent immune cell populations would alter the course of Sandhoff disease in mice, we generated a Hexb-/-Il-15-/- double knockout mouse and used motor behaviour tests, analyzed peripheral blood and brain leukocyte immunophenotypes, cytokine secretion, as well as examined markers of microgliosis, astrogliosis and apoptosis...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381295/cytokine-response-to-the-rsv-antigen-delivered-by-dendritic-cell-directed-vaccination-in-congenic-chicken-lines
#16
Jitka Mucksová, Jiří Plachý, Ondřej Staněk, Jiří Hejnar, Jiří Kalina, Barbora Benešová, Pavel Trefil
Systems of antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells represent an important novel strategy in chicken vaccine development. In this study, we verified the ability of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) antigens fused with streptavidin to be targeted by specific biotinylated monoclonal antibody (anti-CD205) into dendritic cells and induce virus-specific protective immunity. The method was tested in four congenic lines of chickens that are either resistant or susceptible to the progressive growth of RSV-induced tumors...
April 5, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379958/il-15-regulates-migration-invasion-angiogenesis-and-genes-associated-with-lipid-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Krizia Rohena-Rivera, María M Sánchez-Vázquez, Diana A Aponte-Colón, Ingrid S Forestier-Román, Mario E Quintero-Aguiló, Magaly Martínez-Ferrer
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer. In the United States it is second leading cause of cancer related deaths in men. PCa is often treated via radical prostatectomy (RP). However, 15-30% of the patients develop biochemical recurrence (i.e. increased serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels). Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a secreted cytokine found over expressed in patients with recurrence-free survival after RP. In our study, we aim to determine the role of IL-15 in PCa using in vitro and in vivo models, and gene expression analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378389/nkg2d-stimulation-of-cd8-t-cells-during-priming-promotes-their-capacity-to-produce-cytokines-in-response-to-viral-infection-in-mice
#18
Inga Kavazović, Maja Lenartić, Vedrana Jelenčić, Slaven Jurković, Niels A W Lemmermann, Stipan Jonjić, Bojan Polić, Felix M Wensveen
NKG2D is an activating receptor that is expressed on most cytotoxic cells of the immune system, including NK cells, γδ and CD8(+) T cells. It is still a matter of debate whether and how NKG2D mediates priming of CD8(+) T cells in vivo, due to a lack of studies where NKG2D is eliminated exclusively in these cells. Here we studied the impact of NKG2D on effector CD8(+) T-cell formation. NKG2D-deficiency that is restricted to murine CD8(+) T cells did not impair antigen-specific T-cell expansion following mCMV and LCMV infection, but reduced their capacity to produce cytokines...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373098/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-nasal-and-bronchial-cytokines-and-chemokines-following-experimental-rhinovirus-infection-in-allergic-asthma-increased-interferons-ifn-%C3%AE-and-ifn-%C3%AE-and-type-2-inflammation-il-5-and-il-13
#19
Trevor T Hansel, Tanushree Tunstall, Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo, Betty Shamji, Ajerico Del-Rosario, Jaideep Dhariwal, Paul D W Kirk, Michael P H Stumpf, Jens Koopmann, Aurica Telcian, Julia Aniscenko, Leila Gogsadze, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Luminita Stanciu, Nathan Bartlett, Michael Edwards, Ross Walton, Patrick Mallia, Toby M Hunt, Trevor L Hunt, Duncan G Hunt, John Westwick, Matthew Edwards, Onn Min Kon, David J Jackson, Sebastian L Johnston
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbations. OBJECTIVES: We studied nasal and bronchial mucosal inflammatory responses during experimental rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. METHODS: We used nasosorption on days 0, 2-5 and 7 and bronchosorption at baseline and day 4 to sample mucosal lining fluid to investigate airway mucosal responses to rhinovirus infection in patients with allergic asthma (n=28) and healthy non-atopic controls (n=11), by using a synthetic absorptive matrix and measuring levels of 34 cytokines and chemokines using a sensitive multiplex assay...
March 28, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361874/il-15-sustains-il-7r-independent-ilc2-and-ilc3-development
#20
Michelle L Robinette, Jennifer K Bando, Wilbur Song, Tyler K Ulland, Susan Gilfillan, Marco Colonna
The signals that maintain tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in different microenvironments are incompletely understood. Here we show that IL-7 receptor (IL-7R) is not strictly required for the development of any ILC subset, as residual cells persist in the small intestinal lamina propria (siLP) of adult and neonatal Il7ra(-/-) mice. Il7ra(-/-) ILC2 primarily express an ST2(-) phenotype, but are not inflammatory ILC2. CCR6(+) ILC3, which express higher Bcl-2 than other ILC3, are the most abundant subset in Il7ra(-/-) siLP...
March 31, 2017: Nature Communications
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