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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163547/natural-killer-cells-from-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-underexpress-the-nkp30-and-nkp44-in-obese-persons-and-are-less-active-against-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-non-expressing-neoplastic-cells
#1
Alireza Shoae-Hassani, Maryam Behfar, Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Jafar Ai, Rashin Mohseni, Amir Ali Hamidieh
There are many types of leukocytes reside in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and among them, natural killer cells (NKs) comprise a major part. We show that the NKs that reside in the SAT (adipose tissue-derived NK cells; ADNKs) of the abdominal region found with phenotypic differences from the NKs circulating in the peripheral blood derived NK cells (PBNKs). In this survey, flow cytometry phenotyping was used to study the differences between the natural cytotoxicity receptor expression on ADNKs and PBNKs of both obese and lean persons...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163473/treadmill-slope-modulates-inflammation-fiber-type-composition-androgen-and-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-overtrained-mice
#2
Alisson L da Rocha, Bruno C Pereira, Giovana R Teixeira, Ana P Pinto, Fabiani G Frantz, Lucila L K Elias, Fábio S Lira, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas, Adelino S R da Silva
Overtraining (OT) may be defined as an imbalance between excessive training and adequate recovery period. Recently, a downhill running-based overtraining (OTR/down) protocol induced the nonfunctional overreaching state, which is defined as a performance decrement that may be associated with psychological and hormonal disruptions and promoted intramuscular and systemic inflammation. To discriminate the eccentric contraction effects on interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, and SOCS-3, we compared the release of these cytokines in OTR/down with other two OT protocols with the same external load (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162948/association-between-recipient-il-15-genetic-variant-and-the-prognosis-of-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-liver-transplantation
#3
Tao Zhang, Yuan Liu, Xu Peng, Junwei Fan, Zhihai Peng
Objective: To investigate the association of donor and recipient IL-15 genetic variants with HCC recurrence and prognosis after LT. Methods: A total of 112 liver transplant patients with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. IL-15 rs10519613 and rs13122930 were genotyped in donors and recipients. Results: Recipient IL-15 rs10519613 polymorphism was found to be significantly related to HCC recurrence after LT. In multivariate analysis, tumor thrombus, UCSF criteria, and recipient IL-15 rs10519613 genotypes were independent predictive factors of HCC recurrence after LT...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159203/varicella-zoster-virus-infected-cerebrovascular-cells-produce-a-proinflammatory-environment
#4
Dallas Jones, C Preston Neff, Brent E Palmer, Kurt Stenmark, Maria A Nagel
Objective: To test whether varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of human brain vascular cells and of lung fibroblasts directly increases proinflammatory cytokine levels, consistent with VZV as a causative agent in intracerebral VZV vasculopathy and giant-cell arteritis (GCA). Methods: Conditioned supernatant from mock- and VZV-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (HBVAFs), human perineurial cells (HPNCs), human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMCs), and human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLs) were collected at 72 hours postinfection and analyzed for levels of 30 proinflammatory cytokines using the Meso Scale Discovery Multiplex ELISA platform...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146976/association-of-a-variant-in-the-gene-encoding-for-erv1-chemr23-with-reduced-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-morbidly-obese-individuals
#5
Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Ana González-Périz, Ana Isabel Martínez-Puchol, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Ricard Corcelles, Andrés Laguna-Fernández, Magnus Back, Esther Titos, Joan Clària
Obesity comorbidities are closely associated with chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation. A number of SNPs associated with inflammation has been identified, underscoring the impact of genetic determinants on this process. Here, we screened SNPs in genes with pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, STAT3 and JAK2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and SOCS3) and pro-resolving (ERV1/ChemR23) properties in 101 obese and 99 non-obese individuals. Among the SNPs analyzed, we identified that individuals carrying a C allele in the rs1878022 polymorphism of the ERV1/ChemR23 gene, which encodes for the receptor of the pro-resolving mediator RvE1, had increased ERV1/ChemR23 protein expression and reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123649/the%C3%A2-%C3%AE-c%C3%A2-family-of-cytokines-fine-tuning-signals-from-il-2-and-il-21-in-the-regulation-of-the-immune-response
#6
REVIEW
Rosanne Spolski, Daniel Gromer, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 form a family of cytokines based on the sharing of a receptor component, the common cytokine receptor γ chain, γ c, which is encoded by the gene mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). Together, these cytokines play critical roles in lymphoid development, differentiation, growth, and survival as well as mediating effector function. Here, we provide an overview of the main actions of members of this cytokine family but then primarily focus on IL-2 and IL-21, discussing their dynamic interplay and contributions to a fine-tuned immune response...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118754/critical-role-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-regulating-gene-expression-and-innate-immune-responses-to-human-rhinovirus-16
#7
Yang Xi, Niamh M Troy, Denise Anderson, Olga M Pena, Jason P Lynch, Simon Phipps, Anthony Bosco, John W Upham
Though human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are usually innocuous viruses, they can trigger serious consequences in certain individuals, especially in the setting of impaired interferon (IFN) synthesis. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are key IFN producing cells, though we know little about the role of pDC in HRV-induced immune responses. Herein, we used gene expression microarrays to examine HRV-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy people, in combination with pDC depletion, to assess whether observed gene expression patterns were pDC dependent...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118125/alt-803-transiently-reduces-siv-replication-in-the-absence-of-antiretroviral-treatment
#8
Amy L Ellis-Connell, Alexis J Balgeman, Katie R Zarbock, Gabrielle Barry, Andrea Weiler, Jack O Egan, Emily K Jeng, Thomas Friedrich, Jeffrey S Miller, Ashley T Haase, Timothy W Schacker, Hing C Wong, Eva Rakasz, Shelby L O'Connor
Developing biological interventions to control HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) could contribute to the development of a functional cure. As a potential alternative to ART, the IL-15 superagonist ALT-803 has been shown to boost the number and function of HIV-specific CD8(+) T and NK cell populations, in vitro. Four SIV(+) rhesus macaques, three of whom possessed MHC alleles associated with control of SIV, and all of whom had received SIV vaccine vectors that had the potential to elicit CD8(+) T cell responses, were given ALT-803 in three treatment cycles...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113296/mesothelin-as-a-novel-biomarker-and-immunotherapeutic-target-in-human-glioblastoma
#9
Zhenjiang Liu, Martin Rao, Thomas Poiret, Silvia Nava, Qingda Meng, Anna von Landenberg, Jiri Bartek, Shanshan Xie, Georges Sinclair, Inti Peredo, Ernest Dodoo, Markus Maeurer
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) presents the most malignant form of glioma, with a 5-year survival rate below 3% despite standard therapy. Novel immune-based therapies in improving treatment outcomes in GBM are therefore warranted. Several molecularly defined targets have been identified mediating anti-GBM cellular immune responses. Mesothelin is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) which is expressed in several solid tumors with different histology. Here, we report the immunological significance of mesothelin in human malignant glioma...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110110/changes-and-clinical-significance-of-cd8-cd122-t-cells-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#10
Renfang Han, Xiao Yang, Mengya Chen, Xu Zhang, Yaping Yuan, Xingxing Hu, Mengmeng Wang, Rui Liu, Yubo Ma, Jiajia Yang, Shengqian Xu, Zongwen Shuai, Shanqun Jiang, Faming Pan
The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between circulating T cells and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to find the role of the CD8+CD122+ T cells in the pathogenesis and progression of AS. With the method of case-control design, flow cytometry was performed to quantitatively determine the percentage of circulating CD8(+)CD122(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from established AS patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-2, interleukin-10, interleukin-15, TGF-β1, and TNF-ɑ were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108795/severity-of-copd-and-its-relationship-with-il-10
#11
Bruna S A Silva, Fábio S Lira, Dionei Ramos, Juliana S Uzeloto, Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Ana Paula C F Freire, Rebeca N Silva, Iara B Trevisan, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Ercy M C Ramos
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to compare inflammatory and metabolic responses according to severity of airflow among patients with COPD and to verify the relationship between pulmonary function, body composition, metabolic and inflammatory profile. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with mild to very severe COPD were recruited and divided according lung function in Mild-moderate (GOLD 1-2) n= 21; Severe (GOLD 3) n=25 and Very severe (GOLD 4) n=5. Patients were submitted to assessments of lung function (spirometry), functional exercise capacity (6-min walk test), body composition (Octopolar bioelectrical impedance), metabolic profile (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and albumin (colorimetric assay)) and inflammatory profile (cytokines: IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-15 (ELISA))...
November 3, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105654/critical-functions-for-stat5-tetramers-in-the-maturation-and-survival-of-natural-killer-cells
#12
Jian-Xin Lin, Ning Du, Peng Li, Majid Kazemian, Tesfay Gebregiorgis, Rosanne Spolski, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is essential for the development and maintenance of natural killer (NK) cells. IL-15 activates STAT5 proteins, which can form dimers or tetramers. We previously found that NK cell numbers are decreased in Stat5a-Stat5b tetramer-deficient double knockin (DKI) mice, but the mechanism was not investigated. Here we show that STAT5 dimers are sufficient for NK cell development, whereas STAT5 tetramers mediate NK cell maturation and the expression of maturation-associated genes. Unlike the defective proliferation of Stat5 DKI CD8(+) T cells, Stat5 DKI NK cells have normal proliferation to IL-15 but are susceptible to death upon cytokine withdrawal, with lower Bcl2 and increased active caspases...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104662/role-of-il-15-in-the-modulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-mediated-inflammation-in-asthma
#13
Mateusz Jonakowski, Jan Zioło, Marcelina Koćwin, Marcelina Przemęcka, Łukasz Mokros, Michał Panek, Janusz Szemraj, Piotr Kuna
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has an essential role in bronchitis and the induction of bronchial remodelling, which are critical processes in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the role of interleukin (IL)-15 in asthma inflammation remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of TGF-β1 mRNA expression on IL-15 mRNA expression in asthmatic patients and to assess the role of IL-15 in the clinical course of asthma. The study included 221 participants, comprising 130 patients with asthma and 91 healthy volunteers...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101107/cytokines-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Thomas A Waldmann
Cytokines that control the immune response were shown to have efficacy in preclinical murine cancer models. Interferon (IFN)-α is approved for treatment of hairy cell leukemia, and interleukin (IL)-2 for the treatment of advanced melanoma and metastatic renal cancer. In addition, IL-12, IL-15, IL-21, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been evaluated in clinical trials. However, the cytokines as monotherapy have not fulfilled their early promise because cytokines administered parenterally do not achieve sufficient concentrations in the tumor, are often associated with severe toxicities, and induce humoral or cellular checkpoints...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101105/cytokine-mediated-regulation-of-cd8-t-cell-responses-during-acute-and-chronic-viral-infection
#15
Masao Hashimoto, Se Jin Im, Koichi Araki, Rafi Ahmed
The common γ-chain cytokines, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, and IL-15, regulate critical aspects of antiviral CD8 T-cell responses. During acute infections, IL-2 controls expansion and differentiation of antiviral CD8 T cells, whereas IL-7 and IL-15 are key cytokines to maintain memory CD8 T cells long term in an antigen-independent manner. On the other hand, during chronic infections, in which T-cell exhaustion is established, precise roles of these cytokines in regulation of antiviral CD8 T-cell responses are not well defined...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097651/a-new-concept-of-the-old-inhibitor-nsc-74859-in-alleviating-cardiac-allograft-rejection-and-extending-allograft-survival-in-mice
#16
Yiquan Lai, Feng Kuang, Zhonggui Shan, Huaqing Liu
BACKGROUND STAT1/4 has been suggested to be involved in cardiac allograft rejection. However, no direct evidence regarding STAT3 has been established in cardiac allograft rejection. Here, we hypothesized that inhibition of STAT3 attenuates cardiac allograft rejection. MATERIAL AND METHODS To test our hypothesis, homotopic mouse heart transplantation was carried out in syngeneic C57BL/6 to C57BL/6 strain mice with or without oral gavage with NSC 74859, an inhibitor of STAT3. The immune response was investigated using real-time PCR for CD4 and CD8 surface makers of T cells and CD14 of monocytes and cytokines, including IL-2, IL-15, and IL-6 of allografts at 3, 6, and 9 days after transplantation...
November 3, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097254/interleukin-15-derived-from-guanylin-gc-c-expressing-macrophages-inhibits-fatty-acid-synthase-in-adipocytes
#17
Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Takanori Ida, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa, Yukari Date
Recently we found that guanylin (Gn) and its receptor, guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), are uniquely expressed in the mesenteric macrophages of some diet-resistant rats and that double-transgenic (dTg) rats overexpressing Gn and GC-C in macrophages demonstrate reduced fatty acid synthase and fat accumulation in fat tissue even when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Lipid accumulation and fatty acid synthase mRNA levels in cocultured dTg rat adipocytes and macrophages were reduced compared with those in adipocytes cultured with WT rat macrophages...
October 31, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096958/increased-memory-t-cell-populations-in-pb-exposed-children-from-an-e-waste-recycling-area
#18
Junjun Cao, Xijin Xu, Yu Zhang, Zhijun Zeng, Machteld N Hylkema, Xia Huo
Chronic exposure to heavy metals could affect cell-mediated immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the status of memory T cell development in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area. Blood lead (Pb) levels, peripheral T cell subpopulations, and serum levels of cytokines (IL-2/IL-7/IL-15), relevant to generation and homeostasis of memory T cells were evaluated in preschool children from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group) and Haojiang (reference group). The correlations between blood Pb levels and percentages of memory T cell subpopulations were also evaluated...
October 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072547/serum-concentrations-of-ang-2-and-flt-1-may-be-predictive-of-pregnancy-outcome-in-women-with-pregnancies-of-uncertain-viability-a-phase-i-exploratory-prognostic-factor-study
#19
Alison Richardson, Shilpa Deb, Bruce Campbell, Nick Raine-Fenning
The aim of this study was to determine whether serum concentrations of Ang-1, Ang-2, Flt-1, IL-15 and/or TRAIL can be used to predict outcome in women with pregnancies of uncertain viability (PUVs). Women presenting to the Early Pregnancy Unit at the Queen's Medical Centre in Nottingham between 17.06.14 and 01.09.15 were prospectively recruited. Serum concentrations of Ang-1, Ang-2, Flt-1, IL-15 and TRAIL were measured in women with PUVs. Women were followed-up according to departmental protocols until viability was determined...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071664/the-relationship-between-plasma-interleukin-15-levels-and-sarcopenia-in-outpatient-older-people
#20
Ahmet Yalcin, Kamile Silay, Ahmet Rifat Balik, Gamze Avcioğlu, Almila Senat Aydin
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome in which there is a decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a myokine released by skeletal muscle, has effects on both muscle and adipose tissue. We evaluated the relationship between plasma IL-15 level and sarcopenia. METHODS: We evaluated a total of 160 outpatient older people, and 80 of whom had sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria...
October 25, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
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