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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352186/glycolysis-promotes-caspase-3-activation-in-lipid-rafts-in-t-cells
#1
Michael A Secinaro, Karen A Fortner, Oliver Dienz, Angela Logan, Michael P Murphy, Vikas Anathy, Jonathan E Boyson, Ralph C Budd
Resting T cells undergo a rapid metabolic shift to glycolysis upon activation in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2, in contrast to oxidative mitochondrial respiration with IL-15. Paralleling these different metabolic states are striking differences in susceptibility to restimulation-induced cell death (RICD); glycolytic effector T cells are highly sensitive to RICD, whereas non-glycolytic T cells are resistant. It is unclear whether the metabolic state of a T cell is linked to its susceptibility to RICD. Our findings reveal that IL-2-driven glycolysis promotes caspase-3 activity and increases sensitivity to RICD...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351083/transcriptional-analysis-of-immune-relevant-genes-in-the-mucus-of-labeo-rohita-experimentally-infected-with-argulus-siamensis
#2
Sonali Parida, Amruta Mohapatra, Banya Kar, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Pramoda Kumar Sahoo
The knowledge of mucosa-associated molecular events that occur during infections is scarce despite the well-established importance of mucus in fish immunity. Using qRT-PCR, we analyzed the immune gene expression patterns in mucus of Labeo rohita experimentally infected with an ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Mucus samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d, and 30 d post challenge of L. rohita with metanauplii of A. siamensis. All interleukins studied herein (IL 6, IL 15, and IL 1β) showed significant upregulation of expression levels in mucus of A...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350342/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-of-the-bone-marrow-and-natural-killer-cells-cell-interactions-and-cross-modulation
#3
Mehdi Najar, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Nathalie Meuleman, Dominique Bron, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Laurence Lagneaux
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise for several different therapeutic applications. As they are able to modulate the function of several types of immune cells, BM-MSCs are highly important in the field of cell-based immunotherapy. Understanding BM-MSC-natural killer (NK) cell interactions is crucial for improving their therapeutic efficiency. Here, we observed that the type of NK cell-activating cytokine (e.g., IL-2, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-21) strongly influenced the outcomes of their interactions with BM-MSCs...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348820/effects-of-different-cytokines-on-immune-responses-of-rainbow-trout-in-a-virus-dna-vaccination-model
#4
Yongsheng Cao, Qiya Zhang, Liming Xu, Shaowu Li, Di Wang, Jingzhuang Zhao, Hongbai Liu, Jian Feng, Tongyan Lu
Seven rainbow trout cytokine genes (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-15, IL-17, IL-1β, intracellular interferon (iIFN) 1a, and IFN-γ2) were evaluated for their adjuvant effects on a DNA vaccine, called pG, containing the glycoprotein gene of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Distinct DNA constructs in expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 encoding a cytokine gene were generated. Immunofluorescence assays in rainbow trout gonadal cells demonstrated successful protein expression from all these constructs. Subsequently, fish were immunized with pG alone or together with a cytokine expression plasmid...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344110/anti-interleukin-and-interleukin-therapies-for-psoriasis-current-evidence-and-clinical-usefulness
#5
REVIEW
Ya-Chu Tsai, Tsen-Fang Tsai
Anti-interleukin (IL) therapies have emerged as a major treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This article reviews the up-to-date results of pivotal clinical trials targeting the interleukins used for the treatment of psoriasis, including IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-20, IL-22, IL-23, IL-36 and bispecific biologics IL-17A/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Cytokines involved in the circuits of psoriasis inflammation without ongoing clinical trials are also mentioned (IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-18, IL-19, IL-21, IL-24, IL-27, IL-33, IL-35, IL-37, and IL-38)...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338314/inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-papillary-tips-and-urine-of-nephrolithiasis-patients
#6
Andrew Yang Sun, Bryan Hinck, Benjamin R Cohen, Karen Keslar, Robert L Fairchild, Manoj Monga
INTRODUCTION: Intrarenal inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis, with prior work showing increased urine levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CCL-2 in stone patients. However, no studies have assessed for inflammation in the renal papillae. We sought to characterize novel papillary tip and urinary biomarkers in stone patients. METHODS: 92 patients with nephrolithiasis undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy were enrolled. Papillary tip biopsies, kidney urine, and bladder urine were collected, as well as voided urine from 8 healthy volunteers...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338160/higher-activities-of-hepatic-versus-splenic-cd8-t-cells-in-responses-to-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-and-vaccination-of-b6-mice-with-mhc-class-1-binding-antigen
#7
Mohamed Labib Salem, Randa E El Naggar, Sabry A El Naggar, Maysa A Mobasher, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Gamal Badr
The liver has unique microenvironment which is known to induce tolerance of cytolytic CD8+ T cells to hepatic and extra hepatic antigens, resulting in persistence of infection of the liver by the hepatitis B and C viruses. However, under some conditions, functional immune responses can be elicited in the liver in particular to show preferential retention of activated CD8+ T cells. It is not clear whether this retention depends on the type of the exogenous immunostimulatory or the endogenous innate immune cells...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331586/positive-effects-of-total-recovery-period-on-anti-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-are-not-linked-to-performance-re-establishment-in-overtrained-mice
#8
Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, Bruno C Pereira, Eike B Kohama, Gustavo P Morais, Larissa G de Vicente, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Leandro P de Moura, Hugo T Filho, Adelino S R da Silva
The association between excessive training sessions (i.e., overtraining/OT) and periods of inadequate recovery is linked to the nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR) state, which is defined as an unexplained decrement or stagnation of performance. The cytokine hypothesis of OT considers that pro-inflammatory cytokines are responsible by the NFOR state-induced performance decrement. Investigations using rodent models of OT verified increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in hypothalamus, liver, serum and skeletal muscle samples...
January 10, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317732/the-regulation-of-seventeen-inflammatory-mediators-are-associated-with-patient-outcomes-in-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#9
Li-Fen Hu, Ting Wu, Bo Wang, Yuan-Yuan Wei, Qin-Xiang Kong, Ying Ye, Hua-Fa Yin, Jia-Bin Li
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) as an emerging infection disease results in high morbidity and mortality in China. In this study, the circulating levels of 36 inflammatory mediators in 33 SFTS patients on days 3-7, 8-12 and 13-20 post-illness were measured by a multiplex Luminex® system dynamically. Among the patients, 15 severe patients recovered, 11 severe patients died within three weeks. We found IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-15, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, G-CSF, eotaxin, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and fractalkine were significantly upregulated in SFTS patients...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315893/mechanisms-regulating-expansion-of-cd8-t-cells-during-hiv-1-infection
#10
REVIEW
A Nasi, F Chiodi
Abnormal immune activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells, especially of memory and effector phenotypes, take place during HIV-1 infection, and these abnormal features persist during administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to infected patients. The molecular mechanisms for CD8+ T-cell expansion remain poorly characterized. In this article, we review the literature addressing features of CD8+ T-cell immune pathology and present an integrated view on the mechanisms leading to abnormal CD8+ T-cell expansion during HIV-1 infection...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311382/tissue-resident-cytolytic-innate-lymphocytes-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Briana G Nixon, Ming O Li
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical components of tissues in the body, providing a first line of defense against challenges to host integrity. In contrast to strictly cytokine-producing helper ILCs, resident innate lymphocyte populations with cytolytic potential have been identified in multiple tissues in both mouse and human. These cells express the transcription factor Tbet, NK cell receptors, granzymes, perforin, and death receptors, and can directly kill tumor cells. Signals in the tumor microenvironment may promote this response, including the cytokine IL-15 and stress-associated ligands for activating NK receptors...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308327/enhancement-of-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-of-cetuximab-by-a-chimeric-protein-encompassing-interleukin-15
#12
Maria Carmen Ochoa, Luna Minute, Ascensión López, Elisabeth Pérez-Ruiz, Celia Gomar, Marcos Vasquez, Susana Inoges, Iñaki Etxeberria, Inmaculada Rodriguez, Saray Garasa, Jan-Peter Andreas Mayer, Peter Wirtz, Ignacio Melero, Pedro Berraondo
Enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of tumor-targeted monoclonal antibodies. Increasing the numbers and antitumor activity of NK cells is a promising strategy to maximize the ADCC of standard-of-care tumor-targeted antibodies. For this purpose, we have preclinically tested a recombinant chimeric protein encompassing the sushi domain of the IL15Rα, IL-15, and apolipoprotein A-I (Sushi-IL15-Apo) as produced in CHO cells. The size-exclusion purified monomeric fraction of this chimeric protein was stable and retained the IL-15 and the sushi domain bioactivity as measured by CTLL-2 and Mo-7e cell proliferation and STAT5 phosphorylation in freshly isolated human NK and CD8+ T cells...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307521/decreased-cd122-on-cd56dim-nk-associated-with-its-impairment-in-asymptomatic-chronic-hbv-carriers-with-high-levels-of-hbv-dna-hbsag-and-hbeag
#13
Wenzheng Han, Qin Ni, Kezhou Liu, Yunliang Yao, Dejian Zhao, Xia Liu, Yu Chen
AIMS: NK cells play important roles in inhibiting HBV replication and preventing HBV infection. However, NK-cell dysfunction has not been fully studied in asymptomatic chronic HBV carriers (ASC). This study aims to assess decreased expression of CD122 associated with impaired NK cells and the restoration of NK cells with IL-2 and IL-15 stimulation. MAIN METHODS: The experiments were performed by flow cytometer, cytotoxicity assay, ELISA and Western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: The reduced CD122 on CD56+ NK cells and CD56dim NK cells is associated with high levels of HBV DNA, HBsAg or HBeAg in ASCs, in which CD56dim NK-cell impairment is observed...
January 4, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306151/enhancement-of-immune-response-of-piglets-to-pcv-2-vaccine-by-porcine-il-2-and-fusion-il-4-6-gene-entrapped-in-chitosan-nanoparticles
#14
Yi Chen, Tingyu Song, Yong-Le Xiao, Xiaoping Wan, Luyi Yang, Jinghai Li, Guangzhi Zeng, Pengfei Fang, Ze-Zhou Wang, Rong Gao
In order to develop a novel effective immunomodulator to enhance pig resistance against post-weaning multi systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a recombinant plasmid co-expressing pig interleukin-2 (IL-2) and fusion interleukin-4/6 (IL-4/6) genes, designated VRIL4/6-2, was constructed and encapsulated in chitosan (CS) nanoparticles prepared by the ionotropic gelation method. Then 21-day old piglets were divided into two groups and intramuscularly injected respectively with VPIL4/6-2-CS and saline along with the porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) vaccine...
December 29, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305140/innate-like-cytotoxic-function-of-bystander-activated-cd8-t-cells-is-associated-with-liver-injury-in-acute-hepatitis-a
#15
Jihye Kim, Dong-Yeop Chang, Hyun Woong Lee, Hoyoung Lee, Jong Hoon Kim, Pil Soo Sung, Kyung Hwan Kim, Seon-Hui Hong, Wonseok Kang, Jino Lee, So Youn Shin, Hee Tae Yu, Sooseong You, Yoon Seok Choi, Insoo Oh, Dong Ho Lee, Dong Hyeon Lee, Min Kyung Jung, Kyung-Suk Suh, Shin Hwang, Won Kim, Su-Hyung Park, Hyung Joon Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin
Acute hepatitis A (AHA) involves severe CD8+ T cell-mediated liver injury. Here we showed during AHA, CD8+ T cells specific to unrelated viruses became activated. Hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected cells produced IL-15 that induced T cell receptor (TCR)-independent activation of memory CD8+ T cells. TCR-independent activation of non-HAV-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in patients, as indicated by NKG2D upregulation, a marker of TCR-independent T cell activation by IL-15. CD8+ T cells derived from AHA patients exerted innate-like cytotoxicity triggered by activating receptors NKG2D and NKp30 without TCR engagement...
December 30, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304171/mcp-1-kc-like-and-il-8-as-critical-mediators-of-pathogenesis-caused-by-babesia-canis
#16
Asier Galán, Iva Mayer, Renata Barić Rafaj, Krešo Bendelja, Velimir Sušić, José Joaquín Cerón, Vladimir Mrljak
Canine babesiosis caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia canis is a tick-borne disease characterized by a host response that involves both cellular and humoral immunity. This study focuses on the secretion of cytokines Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Keratinocyte Chemotactic-like (KC-like), Interleukins (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18 and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) in babesiosis caused by Babesia canis upon treatment with Imizol®. We assessed time dependent changes in cytokine levels and tested whether these changes correlate with pathogenesis of the disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296921/interleukins-12-and-15-induce-cytotoxicity-and-early-nk-cell-differentiation-in-type-3-innate-lymphoid-cells
#17
Ana Raykova, Paolo Carrega, Frank M Lehmann, Robert Ivanek, Vanessa Landtwing, Isaak Quast, Jan D Lünemann, Daniela Finke, Guido Ferlazzo, Obinna Chijioke, Christian Münz
Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) fulfill protective functions at mucosal surfaces via cytokine production. Although their plasticity to become ILC1s, the innate counterparts of type 1 helper T cells, has been described previously, we report that they can differentiate into cytotoxic lymphocytes with many characteristics of early differentiated natural killer (NK) cells. This transition is promoted by the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 12 (IL-12) and IL-15, and correlates with expression of the master transcription factor of cytotoxicity, eomesodermin (Eomes)...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296227/effects-of-three-il-15-variants-on-nci-h446-cell-proliferation-and-expression-of-cell-cycle-regulatory-molecules
#18
Jun-Ying Ding, Zhi-Hua Wang, Zheng-Zheng Zhang, Xu-Ran Cui, Yan-Ying Hong, Qing-Quan Liu
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a cytokine exhibiting antitumor characteristic similar to that of IL-2. However, in human tissues and cells, IL-15 expression and secretion is very limited, suggesting IL-15 functions mainly intracellularly. In the present study, we assessed the effects of transfecting NCI-H446 small cell lung cancer cells with genes encoding three IL-15 variants: prototypical IL-15, mature IL-15 peptide, and modified IL-15 in which the IL-2 signal peptide is substituted for the native signal peptide...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289655/construction-immune-protection-and-innate-immune-response-of-shuffled-polyvalent-ompas-vaccines
#19
Sheng-Nan Wang, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Xiao-Peng Ling, Xiao Chu, Xuan-Xian Peng, Hui Li
Our previous studies demonstrated that molecular breeding via DNA shuffling directs the evolution of polyvalent vaccines with desired traits, which leads to generation of polyvalent ompA vaccines using Vibrio alginolyticus VA0764 primers. Here, we replaced VA0764 primers with Edwardsiella tarda ompA primers to generate new polyvalent ompA vaccines by DNA shuffling of the same five ompA genes from four species of bacteria E. tarda, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus and Escherichia coli. We identified four polyvalent vaccine candidates from a eukaryotic expressing library EompAs-FE containing 82 ompAs using active immune protection against V...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286001/environmental-stimuli-shape-microglial-plasticity-in-glioma
#20
Stefano Garofalo, Alessandra Porzia, Fabrizio Mainiero, Silvia Di Angelantonio, Barbara Cortese, Bernadette Basilico, Francesca Pagani, Giorgio Cignitti, Giuseppina Chece, Roberta Maggio, Eve Tremblay, Julie Savage, Kanchan Bisht, Vincenzo Esposito, Giovanni Bernardini, Thomas Seyfried, Jakub Mieczkowski, Karolina Stepniak, Bozena Kaminska, Angela Santoni, Cristina Limatola
In glioma, microglia and infiltrating macrophages are exposed to factors that force them to produce cytokines and chemokines, contributing to tumor growth and maintaining a pro-tumorigenic, immunosuppressed microenvironment. We demonstrate that housing glioma-bearing mice in enriched environment (EE) reverts the immunosuppressive phenotype of infiltrating myeloid cells, by modulating inflammatory gene expression. Under these conditions, branching and patrolling activity of myeloid cells is increased, and their phagocytic activity is promoted...
December 29, 2017: ELife
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