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Alain Couvineau, Stéphanie Dayot, Pascal Nicole, Valérie Gratio, Vinciane Rebours, Anne Couvelard, Thierry Voisin
Orexins (OxA and OxB) also termed hypocretins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in central nervous system (CNS) to control the sleep/wake process which is mediated by two G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, OX1R, and OX2R. Beside these central effects, orexins also play a role in various peripheral organs such as the intestine, pancreas, adrenal glands, kidney, adipose tissue and reproductive tract.In the past few years, an unexpected anti-tumoral role of orexins mediated by a new signaling pathway involving the presence of two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) in both orexin receptors subtypes, the recruitment of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis has been elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Idris A Azeez, Federico Del Gallo, Luigia Cristino, Marina Bentivoglio
In the heterogeneous hub represented by the lateral hypothalamus, neurons containing the orexin/hypocretin peptides play a key role in vigilance state transitions and wakefulness stability, energy homeostasis, and other functions relevant for motivated behaviors. Orexin neurons, which project widely to the neuraxis, are innervated by multiple extra- and intra-hypothalamic sources. A key property of the adaptive capacity of orexin neurons is represented by daily variations of activity, which is highest in the period of the animal's activity and wakefulness...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Leslie R Amodeo, Derek N Wills, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, William Nguyen, Bruno Conti, Cindy L Ehlers
Epidemiological studies suggest that binge drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and may result in neurobehavioral consequences. Animal models provide the experimental control to investigate the consequences of "binge" alcohol exposure during this neurodevelopmental epoch. The current study used an animal model that combined an intermittent pattern of alcohol vapor exposure with voluntary drinking of 20% unsweetened alcohol in adolescent male and female Wistar rats (postnatal day [PD] 22-62), in order to test for potential differences in behavioral changes, ethanol drinking, and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/OX) signaling associated with exposure status...
April 18, 2018: Alcohol
Guan-Ling Lu, Ming Tatt Lee, Lih-Chu Chiou
Orexins (also called hypocretins) are implicated in reward and addiction, but little is known about their role(s) in the association between hippocampal synaptic plasticity and drug preference. Previously, we found that exogenous orexin via OX1 and OX2 receptors can impair low frequency stimulation-induced depotentiation, i.e. restoring potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission (re-potentiation) in mouse hippocampal slices. Here, we found this re-potentiation in hippocampal slices from mice that had acquired conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine...
October 1, 2018: Addiction Biology
Tao Zhang, Xin Jiang, Min Xu, Haifang Wang, Xiao Sang, Meiling Qin, Puhua Bao, Ruiqi Wang, Chenchen Zhang, Huiping Lu, Yuzhuo Li, Jin Ren, Hung-Chun Chang, Jun Yan, Qiang Sun, Jin Xu
Mutations in fused in sarcoma (Fus) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and occasionally frontotemporal dementia. Here we report the establishment and characterization of a novel knockin (KI) rat model expressing a Fus point mutation (R521C) via CRISPR/Cas9. The mutant animals developed adult-onset learning and memory behavioral deficits, with reduced spine density in hippocampal neurons. Remarkably, sleep-wake cycle and circadian abnormalities preceded the onset of cognitive deficit. RNA-seq study further demonstrated altered expression of some key sleep and circadian regulators, such as orexin/hypocretin receptor type 2 and casein kinase 1 epsilon, in the mutant rats...
September 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Mi Ping, Zhang Qiu-Ping, Li Shi-Bao, Liu Xing-Yu, Zhang Shu-Hui, Li Meng, Chen Dong-Yan, Zhao Xin, Feng Dao-Fu, Xi-Zeng Feng
Environmental endocrine chemicals have various adverse effects on the development of vertebrates. Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF), a substitute of bisphenol A (BPA), is widely used in commercial production. The effects of BHPF on development and behavior are unclear. Melatonin plays a protective role under many unfavorable conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of BHPF on the development and behaviors of zebrafish and whether melatonin reverses effects induced by BHPF. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Derya Sargin
Orexins are neuropeptides that are exclusively produced by hypothalamic neurons, which project throughout the entire brain. Orexin, also known as hypocretins, were initially identified to play a fundamental role in food intake, arousal and the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. Recent studies identified orexins to be critical for diverse physiological processes including motivation, reward, attention, emotional regulation, stress and anxiety. Here, I review recent findings that indicate orexin has an important role in acute and chronic stress...
September 25, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Natalie Nevárez, Luis de Lecea
The hypocretins (Hcrts) are two alternatively spliced neuropeptides (Hcrt1/Ox-A and Hcrt2/Ox-B) that are synthesized exclusively in the hypothalamus. Data collected in the 20 years since their discovery have supported the view that the Hcrts play a broad role in the control of arousal with a particularly important role in the maintenance of wakefulness and sleep-to-wake transitions. While this latter point has received an overwhelming amount of research attention, a growing literature has begun to broaden our understanding of the many diverse roles that the Hcrts play in physiology and behavior...
2018: F1000Research
Jiann W Yeoh, Morgan H James, Cameron D Adams, Jaideep S Bains, Takeshi Sakurai, Gary Aston-Jones, Brett A Graham, Christopher V Dayas
The perifornical/lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) orexin (hypocretin) system is involved in drug-seeking behavior elicited by drug-associated stimuli. Cocaine exposure is associated with presynaptic plasticity at LHA orexin cells such that excitatory input to orexin cells is enhanced acutely and into withdrawal. These changes may augment orexin cell reactivity to drug-related cues during abstinence and contribute to relapse-like behavior. Studies in hypothalamic slices from drug-naïve animals indicate that agonism of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) reduces presynaptic glutamate release onto orexin cells...
September 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Clarissa D Staton, Jazmine D W Yaeger, Delan Khalid, Fadi Haroun, Belissa S Fernandez, Jessica S Fernandez, Bali K Summers, Tangi R Summers, Monica Sathyanesan, Samuel S Newton, Cliff H Summers
Knockdown of orexin/hypocretin 2 receptor (Orx2 ) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) affects anxious and depressive behavior. We use a new behavioral paradigm, the Stress Alternatives Model (SAM), designed to improve translational impact. The SAM induces social stress in adult male mice by aggression from larger mice, allowing for adaptive decision-making regarding escape. In this model, mice remain (Stay) in the oval SAM arena or escape from social aggression (Escape) via routes only large enough for the smaller mouse...
September 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Morgan H James, Hannah E Bowrey, Colin M Stopper, Gary Aston-Jones
Behavioral economics is a powerful, translational approach for measuring drug demand in both humans and animals. Here, we asked if demand for cocaine in rats with limited drug experience could be used to identify individuals most at risk of expressing an addiction phenotype following either long- or intermittent-access self-administration schedules, both of which model the transition to uncontrolled drug seeking. Because the orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) is particularly effective at reducing drug-seeking in highly motivated individuals, we also asked whether demand measured after prolonged drug experience could predict SB efficacy...
September 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Daniela Latorre, Ulf Kallweit, Eric Armentani, Mathilde Foglierini, Federico Mele, Antonino Cassotta, Sandra Jovic, David Jarrossay, Johannes Mathis, Francesco Zellini, Burkhard Becher, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Ramin Khatami, Mauro Manconi, Mehdi Tafti, Claudio L Bassetti, Federica Sallusto
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder caused by the loss of neurons that produce hypocretin. The close association with HLA-DQB1*06:02, evidence for immune dysregulation and increased incidence upon influenza vaccination together suggest that this disorder has an autoimmune origin. However, there is little evidence of autoreactive lymphocytes in patients with narcolepsy. Here we used sensitive cellular screens and detected hypocretin-specific CD4+ T cells in all 19 patients that we tested; T cells specific for tribbles homologue 2-another self-antigen of hypocretin neurons-were found in 8 out of 13 patients...
October 2018: Nature
Patricia Franco, Yves Dauvilliers, Clara Odilia Inocente, Aurore Guyon, Carine Villanueva, Veronique Raverot, Sabine Plancoulaine, Jian-Sheng Lin
OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized in humans by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Greater than fifty percent of narcoleptic patients have an onset of symptoms prior to the age of 18. Current general agreement considers the loss of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons as the direct cause of narcolepsy notably cataplexy. To assess whether brain histamine (HA) is also involved, we quantified the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of HA and tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA), the direct metabolite of HA between children with orexin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and controls...
September 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jaime E Heiss, Akihiro Yamanaka, Thomas S Kilduff
Until recently, hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons were the only known wake-promoting neuronal population in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), but subpopulations of inhibitory neurons in this area and glutamatergic neurons in the nearby supramammillary nucleus (SuM) have recently been found that also promote wakefulness. We performed chemogenetic excitation of LH neurons in mice and observed increased wakefulness that lasted more than 4 h without unusual behavior or EEG anomalies. The increased wakefulness was similar in the presence or absence of the dual orexin receptor blocker almorexant (ALM)...
July 2018: ENeuro
Morgan H James, Colin M Stopper, Benjamin A Zimmer, Nikki E Koll, Hannah E Bowrey, Gary Aston-Jones
BACKGROUND: The orexin (hypocretin) system is important for reward-driven motivation but has not been implicated in the expression of a multiphenotype addicted state. METHODS: Rats were assessed for economic demand for cocaine before and after 14 days of short access, long access, or intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine. Rats were also assessed for a number of other DSM-5-relevant addiction criteria following differential access conditions. Orexin system function was assessed by quantification of numbers and activity of orexin cells, pharmacological blockade of the orexin-1 receptor, and subregion-specific knockdown of orexin cell populations...
August 7, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Marie Barbier, Dominique Fellmann, Pierre-Yves Risold
Projections from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) into the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) show a very complex pattern. After injection of an anterograde tracer ( Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin-PHAL) into the medial and intermediate parts of the CEA, we observed that labeled axons converged onto the caudal lateral LHA but provided distinct patterns in rostral tuberal regions. These projections were compared to that of neurons containing the peptides "melanin-concentrating hormone" (MCH) or hypocretin (Hcrt)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lisa L Koorneef, Marit Bogaards, Marcel J T Reinders, Onno C Meijer, Ahmed Mahfouz
Metabolic status impacts on the emotional brain to induce behavior that maintains energy balance. While hunger suppresses the fear circuitry to promote explorative food-seeking behavior, satiety or obesity may increase fear to prevent unnecessary risk-taking. Here we aimed to unravel which metabolic factors, that transfer information about the acute and the chronic metabolic status, are of primary importance to regulate fear, and to identify their sites of action within fear-related brain regions. We performed a de novo analysis of central and peripheral metabolic factors that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier using genome-wide expression data across the mouse brain from the Allen Brain Atlas (ABA)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Maiju K Rinne, Teppo O Leino, Ainoleena Turku, Pauli M Turunen, Yana Steynen, Henri Xhaard, Erik A A Wallén, Jyrki P Kukkonen
One promising series of small-molecule orexin receptor agonists has been described, but the molecular pharmacological properties, i.e. ability and potency to activate the different orexin receptor-regulated signal pathways have not been reported for any of these ligands. We have thus here assessed these properties for the most potent ligand of the series, 4'-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl-3'-[N-(3-{[2-(3-methylbenzamido)ethyl]amino}phenyl sulfamoyl]-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-carboxamide (Nag 26). Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing human orexin receptor subtypes OX1 and OX2 were used...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Linnea R Freeman, Gary Aston-Jones
Orexin neurons (Orx; also referred to as hypocretin) are found exclusively in the hypothalamus, and release the neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B (also referred to as hypocretin 1 and 2) throughout the CNS. With its widespread targets, the orexin system is involved in a number of functions including, but not limited to stress, reward, wakefulness, and food seeking. Our laboratory has previously proposed that the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and perifornical (PFA) orexin neurons function in stress and arousal whereas those in lateral hypothalamus (LH) participate in reward processes (Harris and Aston-Jones, 2006)...
September 1, 2018: Brain Research
Pierre-Hervé Luppi
This article focuses on the contributions made by Michel Jouvet concerning the systems responsible for the muscle atonia of paradoxical sleep (REM sleep). He was the first to describe the brainstem system mechanisms responsible for muscle atonia during paradoxical sleep using pontine cats and localized pontine lesions. Also discussed is the research going on in the eighties, when Michel Jouvet was hunting for the hypnogenetic factor. At that time, he thought that it was secreted by the hypophysis; but it finally turned out to be controlled by the hypocretin/orexin and melanin concentrating hormone neurones located in the lateral hypothalamus...
September 2018: Sleep Medicine
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