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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515345/-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-long-term-changes-in-the-upper-intestinal-microflora-during-the-chronic-stage-of-infection
#1
Emese Prandovszky, Ye Li, Sarven Sabunciyan, Curtis B Steinfeldt, Lauro Nathaniel Avalos, Kristin L Gressitt, James R White, Emily G Severance, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jianchun Xiao, Robert H Yolken
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with worldwide distribution. Felines are the definitive hosts supporting the complete life cycle of T. gondii. However, other warm-blooded animals such as rodents and humans can also be infected. Infection of such secondary hosts results in long-term infection characterized by the presence of tissue cysts in the brain and other organs. While it is known that T. gondii infection in rodents is associated with behavioral changes, the mechanisms behind these changes remain unclear...
2018: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458304/brain-reading-and-behavioral-methods-provide-complementary-perspectives-on-the-representation-of-concepts
#2
Andrew James Bauer, Marcel Adam Just
The advent of brain reading techniques has enabled new approaches to the study of concept representation, based on the analysis of multivoxel activation patterns evoked by the contemplation of individual concepts such as animal concepts. The present fMRI study characterized the representation of 30 animal concepts. Dimensionality reduction of the multivoxel activation patterns underlying the individual animal concepts indicated that the semantic building blocks of the brain's representations of the animals corresponded to intrinsic animal properties (e...
November 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405608/acute-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-cats-induced-tissue-specific-transcriptional-response-dominated-by-immune-signatures
#3
Wei Cong, Tania Dottorini, Faraz Khan, Richard D Emes, Fu-Kai Zhang, Chun-Xue Zhou, Jun-Jun He, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
RNA-sequencing was used to detect transcriptional changes in six tissues of cats, seven days after T. gondii infection. A total of 737 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs), of which 410 were up-regulated and 327 were down-regulated. The liver exhibited 151 DEGs, lung (149 DEGs), small intestine (130 DEGs), heart (123 DEGs), brain (104 DEGs), and spleen (80 DEGs)-suggesting tissue-specific transcriptional patterns. Gene ontology and KEGG analyses identified DEGs enriched in immune pathways, such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, and the cytosolic DNA sensing pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30391320/lentiviral-mediated-knock-down-of-gd3-synthase-protects-against-mptp-induced-motor-deficits-and-neurodegeneration
#4
Anandh Dhanushkodi, Yi Xue, Emily E Roguski, Yun Ding, Shannon G Matta, Detlef Heck, Guo-Huang Fan, Michael P McDonald
Converging evidence demonstrates an important role for gangliosides in brain function and neurodegenerative diseases. Exogenous GM1 is broadly neuroprotective, including in rodent, feline, and primate models of Parkinson's disease, and has shown positive effects in clinical trials. We and others have shown that inhibition of the ganglioside biosynthetic enzyme GD3 synthase (GD3S) increases endogenous levels GM1 ganglioside. We recently reported that targeted deletion of St8sia1, the gene that codes for GD3S, prevents motor impairments and significantly attenuates neurodegeneration induced by 1-methy-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340655/immunohistochemical-expression-of-cyclooxygenase-2-cox-2-is-not-associated-with-tumor-grade-in-feline-meningiomas
#5
F Samarani, C de la Fuente, A Parodi, M T Mandara, M Pumarola, S Añor
Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor in cats and occurs less frequently in the spinal cord. This study aimed to investigate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in feline meningiomas, and the possible association between COX-2 immunoreactivity and tumor grade using eight low-grade and seven high-grade meningiomas. All tumors (n=15/15) were immunoreactive to COX-2. The expression of COX-2 was not significantly correlated with tumor grade (P=0.22 and 0.34 for staining and intensity, respectively) but was significantly associated with necrosis (P=0...
November 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333381/immunohistochemical-studies-on-meningoencephalitis-in-feline-infectious-peritonitis-fip
#6
Huanan Wang, Miyuki Hirabayashi, James K Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Hiroyuki Nakayama
The present study describes the association between inflammatory cell types and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) antigen in the brain of 4 cats diagnosed as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Immunohistochemically, FIPV antigens were detected in the inflammatory foci of the leptomeninges, choroid plexus and ventricles in 3 of the 4 cats. In 3 cases, inflammatory foci mainly consisted of CD204- and Iba1-positive macrophages, and the FIPV antigens were found in the macrophages. In the other case which was negative for FIPV antigen, severe inflammation predominantly consisting of CD20-positive B lymphocytes was observed in the leptomeninges and subventricles, accompanied with diffuse proliferation of gemistocytic astrocytes...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302903/conventional-and-quantitative-mri-in-a-novel-feline-model-of-demyelination-and-endogenous-remyelination
#7
Aaron S Field, Alexey Samsonov, Andrew L Alexander, Pouria Mossahebi, Ian D Duncan
BACKGROUND: The feeding of irradiated food to healthy adult cats results in widespread, noninflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS); a return to a normal diet results in endogenous remyelination with functional recovery. This recently discovered, reversible disease might provide a compelling clinical neuroimaging model system for the development and testing of myelin-directed MRI methods as well as future remyelination therapies. PURPOSE: Identify the noninvasive imaging characteristics of this new disease model and determine whether it features measurable changes on conventional and quantitative MRI...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298687/normal-diffusivity-of-the-domestic-feline-brain
#8
Erica Barry, Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez, Wenming Luh, Richard E Daws, Ashish Raj, Philippa J Johnson
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides useful information about neuroanatomy and improves detection of neuropathology. As yet a comprehensive evaluation of the diffusivity parameters within the feline brain has not been documented. In this study, we anesthetized and performed in vivo MRI on the brain of eight neurologically normal felines. A T1-weighted structural sequence with a resolution of 0.5mm3 and a parallel diffusion weighted sequence with 61 directions and a resolution of 1.5mm3 was obtained...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104776/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-in-a-cat-with-feline-leukemia-and-feline-infectious-peritonitis-viral-infections
#9
Luca Zandonà, Romina Brunetta, Claudia Zanardello, Marta Vascellari, Luca Persico, Elena Mazzolini
A diarrheic young cat died after neurological involvement. Biochemistry pointed to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The final diagnosis was severe multifocal meningoencephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of the parasite in the brain was confirmed using immunohistochemical staining. Concomitant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and FIP were possible contributors to the clinical, fatal outcome.
August 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087902/statistical-structural-analysis-of-familial-spontaneous-epileptic-cats-using-voxel-based-morphometry
#10
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Yu, Rikako Asada, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Masae Wada, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on high resolution three-dimensional data of magnetic resonance imaging has been developed as a statistical morphometric imaging analysis method to locate brain abnormalities in humans. Recently, VBM has been used for human patients with psychological or neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Traditional volumetry using region of interest (ROI) is performed manually and the observer needs detailed knowledge of the neuroanatomy having to trace objects of interest on many slices which can cause artificial errors...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018294/apc2-controls-dendrite-development-by-promoting-microtubule-dynamics
#11
Olga I Kahn, Philipp Schätzle, Dieudonnée van de Willige, Roderick P Tas, Feline W Lindhout, Sybren Portegies, Lukas C Kapitein, Casper C Hoogenraad
Mixed polarity microtubule organization is the signature characteristic of vertebrate dendrites. Oppositely oriented microtubules form the basis for selective cargo trafficking in neurons, however the mechanisms that establish and maintain this organization are unclear. Here, we show that APC2, the brain-specific homolog of tumor-suppressor protein adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), promotes dynamics of minus-end-out microtubules in dendrites. We found that APC2 localizes as distinct clusters along microtubule bundles in dendrites and that this localization is driven by LC8-binding and two separate microtubule-interacting domains...
July 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017081/molecular-assessment-of-neospora-caninum-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-hooded-crows-corvus-cornix-in-tehran-iran
#12
Amir Abdoli, Mohsen Arbabi, Majid Pirestani, Mehran Mirzaghavami, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Javid Sadraei
Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two closely related protozoan parasites that have been detected from various species of bird hosts. However, little is known about the prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in crows. Hence, we examined the molecular frequency of N. caninum and T. gondii in the brain samples of hooded crows (Corvus cornix) that collected from different public parks of Tehran, Iran by nested-PCR method. We used the primers targeting the Nc5 and GRA6 genes for detection of N. caninum and T...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958521/hippocampal-necrosis-and-sclerosis-in-cats-a-retrospective-study-of-35-cases
#13
Andrea Klang, Sandra Högler, Nora Nedorost, Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Ákos Pákozdy, Bethan Lang, Herbert Weissenböck
Hippocampal necrosis and hippocampal sclerosis in cats is a neuropathological entity which is a major concern in feline epilepsy. The aim of our study was to identify associated pathologic brain lesions possibly serving as aetiological triggers in this condition. Therefore, the formalin-fixed and paraffin waxembedded brain tissue of 35 cats diagnosed with hippocampal necrosis or sclerosis was examined retrospectively. In 26 cats inflammatory infiltrates could be found in the hippocampus or adjacent brain regions...
June 2018: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934581/linear-cyclodextrin-polymer-prodrugs-as-novel-therapeutics-for-niemann-pick-type-c1-disorder
#14
Aditya Kulkarni, Paola Caporali, Atul Dolas, Soniya Johny, Sandeep Goyal, Jessica Dragotto, Alberto Macone, Ramesh Jayaraman, Maria Teresa Fiorenza
Niemann-Pick Type C1 disorder (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. NPC has no FDA approved treatments yet, however 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) has shown efficacy for treating the disease in both mouse and feline NPC models and is currently being investigated in late stage clinical trials. Despite promising results, therapeutic use of HPβCD is limited by the need for high doses, ototoxicity and intrathecal administration. These limitations can be attributed to its poor pharmacokinetic profile...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846444/toxoplasma-gondii-isolation-biological-and-molecular-characterisation-of-samples-from-free-range-gallus-gallus-domesticus-from-countryside-southeast-brazil
#15
Tamiris Cristine Ribeiro Ferreira, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Narcisa Imaculada Brant Moreira, Claudiney Biral Santos, Júlia Gatti Ladeia Costa, Lorena Velozo Pinto, Ramon Castro de Araújo Baraviera, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor, Blima Fux
Toxoplasma gondii presents a high prevalence worldwide, infecting several animals. Felines are considered the definitive hosts and among the intermediate hosts we highlight mammals and birds. The man can become infected by ingesting tissue cysts present in birds and mammals. Biological and molecular aspects of T. gondii allows a better understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. This work is a serologic screening of 58 chickens grown (Gallus gallus domesticus) for human consumption in Espírito Santo State, by means of indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA)...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657017/assessment-of-the-antigenic-and-neuroprotective-activity-of-the-subunit-anti-toxoplasma-vaccine-in-t-gondii-experimentally-infected-mice
#16
Justyna Gatkowska, Marek Wieczorek, Bożena Dziadek, Katarzyna Dzitko, Jarosław Dziadek, Henryka Długońska
The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenic and immunoprotective activities and to determine the neuroprotective capacity of the tetravalent vaccine containing selected recombinant T. gondii antigens (ROP2 + ROP4 + SAG1 + MAG1) administered with safe adjuvants (MPL and alum) using male and female inbred mice. The tested antigenic combination provided partial protection against brain cyst formation, especially in males (reduction in cyst burden by 72%). The decrease in cyst burden was observed for the whole brain as well as for specified brain regions associated with natural defensive behaviors, emotion processing and integration of motor and sensory stimuli...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595359/feline-hyperaesthesia-syndrome-with-self-trauma-to-the-tail-retrospective-study-of-seven-cases-and-proposal-for-integrated-multidisciplinary-diagnostic-approach
#17
Pablo Amengual Batle, Clare Rusbridge, Tim Nuttall, Sarah Heath, Katia Marioni-Henry
Case series summary This was a retrospective study on the clinical features and response to treatment in seven cats with feline hyperaesthesia syndrome (FHS) and tail mutilation. FHS is a poorly understood disorder characterised by skin rippling over the dorsal lumbar area, episodes of jumping and running, excessive vocalisation, and tail chasing and self-trauma. The majority of the cats were young, with a median age of 1 year at the onset of clinical signs, male (n = 6) and with access to the outdoors (n = 5)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499762/systematic-review-of-antiepileptic-drugs-safety-and-effectiveness-in-feline-epilepsy
#18
Marios Charalambous, Akos Pakozdy, Sofie F M Bhatti, Holger A Volk
BACKGROUND: Understanding the efficacy and safety profile of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in feline epilepsy is a crucial consideration for managing this important brain disease. However, there is a lack of information about the treatment of feline epilepsy and therefore a systematic review was constructed to assess current evidence for the AEDs' efficacy and tolerability in cats. The methods and materials of our former systematic reviews in canine epilepsy were mostly mirrored for the current systematic review in cats...
March 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487747/extranodal-non-b-non-t-cell-lymphoma-with-bilateral-tympanic-bulla-involvement-in-a-cat
#19
Austin T Kerns, Kelsey A Brakel, Christopher Premanandan, Ashlie Saffire, Sarah A Moore
Case summary: A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat with clinical signs suggestive of chronic recurrent otitis media and recent seizures was presented with multifocal nervous system disease, including bilateral central and/or peripheral vestibular, cerebellar and forebrain deficits. Prior to presentation, there was inadequate improvement after 6 weeks of treatment for bilateral middle ear effusion from which a highly susceptible Staphylococcus species was cultured. This was followed by the development of seizures...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411701/a-retrospective-study-of-the-neuropathology-and-diagnosis-of-naturally-occurring-feline-infectious-peritonitis
#20
Daniel R Rissi
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important viral diseases of cats worldwide. Our study describes the neuropathology and the diagnostic features of 26 cases of FIP in domestic cats. The average age of affected individuals was 11.8 mo, and there was no sex or breed predisposition. Clinical neurologic signs were noted in 22 cases, and rabies was clinically suspected in 11 cases. Twenty cats had lesions in multiple organs, and 6 cats had lesions only in the brain. Gross neuropathologic changes occurred in 15 cases and consisted of hydrocephalus (10 cases), cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum (6 cases), cerebral swelling with flattening of gyri (2 cases), and accumulation of fibrin within ventricles (2 cases) or leptomeninges (1 case)...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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