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Valentine Millien, Daniel Rosen, Jason Hou, Rajesh Shah
BACKGROUND: Microscopic colitis (MC), a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease, is a chronic condition of unknown etiology. Recent evidence has linked MC with intriguing changes in the stool microbiota, which may be linked to disease pathogenesis. The composition of the mucosal microbiome in patients with MC remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study comparing colonic tissue samples from patients with MC to those of healthy controls at the Michael E...
October 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Sajal Gupta, Alison Johnson, Simon Meyrick, Angharad P Davies, R Chalmers
Introduction: Cryptosporidium infection is known to cause hepato-biliary involvement, mainly in association with T-cell immune deficiency. Hepato-biliary involvement in association with milder immunosuppression is less well described. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of Cryptosporidium hominis hepato-biliary infection associated with tacrolimus in a patient with nephrotic syndrome. Case presentation: A 14 year old girl who had been on tacrolimus for nephrotic syndrome presented with diarrhea due to C...
August 2018: JMM Case Reports
Boshuai Liu, Wenjing Wang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Xiao Sun, Junnan Xiao, Defeng Li, Yalei Cui, Chengzhang Wang, Yinghua Shi
Dietary fiber (DF) is increasingly thought to regulate diversity of piglet gut microbiota to alleviate weaning stress in piglets. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DF on growth performance of piglets and composition of their gut microbiota, as well as the interaction between gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in piglets. A total of 840 piglets were allocated to three dietary treatments consisting of a control group (CG), an alfalfa meal group (AG), and a commodity concentrated fiber group (OG) in a 30-day feeding trial...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Junchen Li, Huantian Cui, Yuzi Cai, Jin Lin, Xin Song, Zijun Zhou, Wantao Xiong, Huifang Zhou, Yuhong Bian, Li Wang
Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) has been widely used for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) in traditional Chinese medicine. However, its mechanism of action in the treatment of IBS-D remains to be fully understood. Recent reports have shown that Clostridium species in the gut can induce 5-HT production in the colon, which then contributes to IBS-D. Due to the wide use of TXYF in the clinical treatment of IBS-D and the close relationship between gut microbiota and IBS-D, we hypothesize that TXYF treats IBS-D by modulating gut microbiota and regulating colonic 5-HT levels...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiaonan Yin, Yuan Yin, Chaoyong Shen, Huijiao Chen, Jiang Wang, Zhaolun Cai, Zhixin Chen, Bo Zhang
Background: Regorafenib is a novel multikinase inhibitor (MKI) approved for use in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), treatment-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other solid tumor malignancies. However, the adverse events (AEs) associated with regorafenib have not been systematically investigated. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to identify AEs associated with regorafenib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods: The databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase and abstracts presented in American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings were searched for relevant publications from January 2004 to September 2017...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Christopher V Almario, Megana L Ballal, William D Chey, Carl Nordstrom, Dinesh Khanna, Brennan M R Spiegel
OBJECTIVES: Digestive diseases account for >100 million ambulatory care visits annually in the U.S. Yet, comparatively less is known about the true burden of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in the general U.S. POPULATION: The aim of this study was to use data from the "National GI Survey"-a population-based audit of GI symptoms in >71,000 participants-to determine the prevalence and predictors of GI symptoms in community-dwelling Americans. METHODS: We conducted the National GI Survey using a mobile app called MyGiHealth, which employs a computer algorithm that systematically collects participants' GI symptoms...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Daniele Araujo Pereira, Juliana Brigolin Peron, Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Thaís Gasparini Baraldi, Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Thaiane Coelho Kasmanas, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Hélio José Montassier, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus and can cause reproductive problems in cattle. However, there is still a lack of research to clarify its pathogenicity in different gestational periods of sows and its effects in neonates. In this study, 12 gilts divided into groups (G) were experimentally inoculated with the strain BVDV-2 (SV-253) oronasally at a dose of 106 ·85 TCID50; one group was inoculated 30 days before insemination (G0; n = 2), three groups were inoculated during gestation (first (G1; n = 2), second (G2; n = 3), third (G3; n = 3)), and a fourth was the control group (G4; n = 2)...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Joan Carles, Enrique Gallardo, Montserrat Doménech, Albert Font, Joaquim Bellmunt, Mariona Figols, Begoña Mellado, Ma Isabel Sáez, Cristina Suárez, Ma José Méndez, Pablo Maroto, Raquel Luque, Teresa de Portugal, Ramón Aldabo, Teresa Bonfill, Rafael Morales-Barrera, José García, Sonia Maciá, Xavier Maldonado, Palmira Foro
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel improves survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PC). This randomized phase II trial aimed to assess the activity of weekly docetaxel with radiotherapy (RT) plus androgen deprivation in patients with high-risk localized PC, examining the benefit of nine weekly docetaxel administrations to RT plus 3 years of LHRH analogues. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 132 patients were accrued. Patients characteristics included T3-T4 (81.1%), Gleason score (GS) ≥ 8 (77...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Xinpeng Jiang, Shuang Xia, Xinmiao He, Hong Ma, Yanzhong Feng, Ziguang Liu, Wentao Wang, Ming Tian, Heshu Chen, Fugang Peng, Liang Wang, Peng Zhao, Junwei Ge, Di Liu
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remains a massive burden in developing countries with increasing morbidity and mortality rates; it is also an important pathogen in the farming industry and is a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea. Our previous study showed that nanometer-sized inclusion bodies (IBs) of the fimbrial adhesin subunit protein (FaeG), mutation heat-stable enterotoxin a (mSTa), heat-labile enterotoxin b (LTb), and STb (nontargeting) fusion protein as an oral vaccine induced both systemic and mucosal immune responses...
October 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Juan J Díaz, Beatriz Espín, Oscar Segarra, Gloria Domínguez-Ortega, Javier Blasco-Alonso, Beatriz Cano, Ana Rayo, Ana Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, epidemiological and management characteristics of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) cases in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multicenter observational retrospective study. FPIES cases diagnosed in specialized units in Spain over 12 months in 2017 (January to December) according to the recently published international diagnostic criteria were included. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients (53...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen, Camilla Adler Sørensen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Dorthe Rejkjær Holm, Alice Friis-Møller, Jørgen Engberg, Hengameh C Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Carsten Struve, Anette M Hammerum, Lone Jannok Porsbo, Randi Føns Petersen, Andreas Munk Petersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is frequently isolated from sporadic cases of diarrhea and in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in several regions of the world. The pathophysiology of EAEC continues to be enigmatic, and the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in EAEC-associated diarrhea has been discussed. Since the level of antibiotic resistance is increasing, it is essential to restrict the use of antibiotics to prevent further resistance development. We aimed to investigate EAEC strains in adult Danish patients suffering from diarrhea and from healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yoon Jin Choi, Dong Ho Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim
In order to evaluate the effect of daily consumption of fruit and vegetable juice on the human intestinal microbial community, we compared changes in the gut microbiota and extracellular vesicles in human feces and bowel, and skin symptoms at the baseline and 3 weeks post juice consumption of 22 participants. After 3 weeks of juice consumption, a significant increase in the richness of microbiota (α-diversity, P  < 0.05) was observed. It was accompanied by an abundance in Faecalibacterium (bacterial: from 1...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Michael H Guo, Reesa L Monir, Ashleigh Wright, Neal P Holland
BACKGROUND Serotonin syndrome is a common yet potentially life-threatening condition caused by increased serotonergic activity, usually from serotonergic pharmaceutical agents. Primary features of serotonin syndrome include mental status changes, autonomic hyperactivity, and neuromuscular abnormalities. However, the presentation of serotonin syndrome is often quite variable, leading to its under-diagnosis. CASE REPORT A 50-year-old female with chronic kidney disease on peritoneal dialysis presented to the Emergency Department with severe, diffuse body pain...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
W H Hou, P Wei, J L Xie, Y Y Zheng, Y L Zhang, X G Zhou
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of gastrointestinal mantle cell lymphoma (GI-MCL). Methods: Clinical data of 38 GI-MCL patients diagnosed at Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2002 to January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed morphologically and immunophenotypically. IgH/CCND1 gene fusion was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). For comparison, 60 cases of non-GI-MCL were randomly selected to extract the differences inclinicopathological features and patient survival between the two groups...
October 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
J R Goffin, G Nicholas, M Mates, D Tu, E Chen, S A Laurie, R Juergens, A Robinson, G Goss, M Reaume, S Sun, K Christink, C Maize, S MacFarlan, X Sun, H Ritter, L Seymour, P A Bradbury
Introduction Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a potent inhibitor of MEK1/2, thereby inhibiting phosphorylation of ERK2. We investigated the toxicity and the recommended phase II dose of the combination of selumetinib with two platinum based first line chemotherapy combinations in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods This was a phase I trial of escalating doses of selumetinib with carboplatin (AUC 6), paclitaxel (200 mg/m2 ) (cohort 1) or pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 ) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2 ) (cohort 2) in patients with chemotherapy naïve, advanced or metastatic NSCLC...
October 13, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Mami Oba, Yuki Naoi, Mika Ito, Tsuneyuki Masuda, Yukie Katayama, Shoichi Sakaguchi, Tsutomu Omatsu, Tetsuya Furuya, Hiroshi Yamasato, Fujiko Sunaga, Shinji Makino, Tetusya Mizutani, Makoto Nagai
Porcine Teschoviruses (PTVs) are associated with polioencephalomyelitis and various diseases, including reproductive and gastrointestinal disorders, of pigs and wild boars, and are also detected in the feces of healthy pigs. The genus Teschovirus contains a single species Teschovirus A that currently includes 13 serotypes. In the present study, we identified novel PTVs that are distantly related to Teschovirus A and were found in fecal samples of pigs with or without diarrhea in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid (aa) sequences of the complete coding region revealed that these newly identified viruses did not cluster with any strains of PTVs or other strains within the picornavirus supergroup 1, suggesting that the viruses may not belong to Teschovirus A or any genus of the family Picornaviridae...
October 11, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
G D Sclar, G Penakalapati, B A Caruso, E A Rehfuess, J V Garn, K T Alexander, M C Freeman, S Boisson, K Medlicott, T Clasen
The WHO defines health not as the absence of disease but as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being." To date, public health research on sanitation has focused mainly on the impact of sanitation on infectious diseases and related sequelae, such as diarrhea and malnutrition. This review focuses on the mental and social well-being implications of sanitation. We systematically searched leading databases to identify eligible studies. Qualitative studies were assessed using a 17-point checklist adapted from existing tools, while quantitative studies were assessed using the Liverpool Quality Appraisal Tool...
September 19, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
G Broukhanski, P Budylowski
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore forming rod-shaped bacterium which causes mild to severe diarrhea. Spores play a key role in transmission of C. difficile in hospital environment. To investigate ability of spores to stay on fomites and to assess levels of contamination it is essential to prevent loss of spores collected for the analysis. Working with C. difficile spores we noticed a significant loss after vortexing of spore suspensions and investigated if it can be prevented by using a specific brand or type of microcentrifuge tubes...
October 10, 2018: Anaerobe
A Kaveh, E Merat, S Samani, S Danandeh, S Soltan Nezhad
Abortion in dairy cattle is generally defined as the loss of fetus on days 47-265 of pregnancy and can significantly reduce the income and capital gain of farmers and producers. Therefore, sufficient economical support and preventive measurements are essential for this issue. In this study, genetic materials were extracted from the abomasum rennet, as well as homogenous preparations of brain, kidney, spleen, liver, and lung tissues of 128 aborted fetuses. Afterward, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests were performed to identify the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Neospora caninum parasite, and serovars of Leptospira species...
December 2017: Archives of Razi Institute
Kristin M Whitworth, Raymond R R Rowland, Vlad Petrovan, Maureen Sheahan, Ada G Cino-Ozuna, Ying Fang, Richard Hesse, Alan Mileham, Melissa S Samuel, Kevin D Wells, Randall S Prather
The alphacoronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are sources of high morbidity and mortality in neonatal pigs, a consequence of dehydration caused by the infection and necrosis of enterocytes. The biological relevance of amino peptidase N (ANPEP) as a putative receptor for TGEV and PEDV in pigs was evaluated by using CRISPR/Cas9 to edit exon 2 of ANPEP resulting in a premature stop codon. Knockout pigs possessing the null ANPEP phenotype and age matched wild type pigs were challenged with either PEDV or TGEV...
October 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
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