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Regional oxygenation

Kenichi Takechi, Sakiko Kitamura, Ichiro Shimizu, Toshihiro Yorozuya
BACKGROUND: Decreased perfusion in the lower extremities is one of the several adverse effects of placing patients in a lithotomy or Trendelenburg position during surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of patient positioning in lower limb perfusion patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: This observation study comprised 30 consenting males with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status classes I and II (age range, ≥20 to < 80 years)...
August 18, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Jie Yang, Wei Li, Lihua Luo, Mengshi Jiang, Chunqi Zhu, Bing Qin, Hang Yin, Xiaoling Yuan, Xiaoyi Yin, Junlei Zhang, Zhenyu Luo, Yongzhong Du, Jian You
Chemotherapy has become a critical treatment for many cancer types. However, its efficacy is hindered by chemoresistance and limited drug accumulation induced by the hypoxic tumor environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for useful strategies to alleviate tumor hypoxia and enhance chemotherapy response in solid tumors. Herein, we report the development of a multifunctional liposome simultaneously loading an oxygen carrier (hemoglobin, Hb) and an anti-tumor drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to enhance chemotherapeutic effects against hypoxic tumors...
August 11, 2018: Biomaterials
Ken Hashimoto, Aya Kodama, Miki Sugino, Tomoko Yobimoto, Takeshi Honda, Akira Hanashima, Yoshihiro Ujihara, Satoshi Mohri
Loss of cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity after birth is a major obstacle for therapeutic heart regeneration in adult mammals. We and others have recently shown the importance of hypoxic in utero environments for active foetal cardiomyocyte proliferation. Here, we report the unexpected expression of novex-3, the short splice variant of the giant sarcomeric protein connectin (titin), in the cardiomyocyte nucleus specifically during the hypoxic foetal stage in mice. This nuclear localisation appeared to be regulated by the N-terminal region of novex-3, which contains the nuclear localisation signal...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sivanandan S Harilal, Brian E Brumfield, Nick Glumac, Mark C Phillips
Uranium, because of its pyrophoricity, oxidizes rapidly in an oxygen-containing high-temperature environment. However, so far, the identification of uranium oxide (UO) emission from a laser-produced plasma system is limited to a spectral feature around 593.55 nm. The aim of this study is to elucidate UO emission features in the visible spectral regime from uranium plasmas generated in an environment with varying oxygen concentrations. The plasmas are produced by focusing nanosecond laser pulses on a uranium metal target in a controlled ambient environment...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Masaru Ishida, Shigeru Miyagawa, Atsuhiro Saito, Satsuki Fukushima, Akima Harada, Emiko Ito, Fumiya Ohashi, Tadashi Watabe, Jun Hatazawa, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Yoshiki Sawa
BACKGROUND: Somatic stem cell (SC) therapy can improve cardiac performance following ischemic injury. In this study, we investigated whether induced pluripotent SC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) are more effective than somatic SCs, such as skeletal myoblasts (SM) and mesenchymal (M)SCs, in promoting functional recovery upon transplantation in a porcine model of myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Myocardial injury was induced by ameroid ring placement in immunosuppressed female mini-pigs; after 1 month, epicardial cell transplantation was performed with iPS-CMs (n = 7), SMs (n = 7), and MSCs (n = 7)...
August 17, 2018: Transplantation
Zhenzhen Hu, Feng Wang, Zhen Wu, Hao Gu, Na Dong, Xiuqin Jiang, Jinjin Xu, Zhiwei Wu, Daniel S Wechsler, Datong Zheng
Endothelial cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanism is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that hypoxia increased Mxi1-0 expression, and the Mxi1-0 siRNA could inhibit caspase-8 activation and apoptosis in HUVECs induced by hypoxia. In addition, hypoxia induced FOXO3 activation, while Mxi1-0 expression and apoptosis were inhibited by transfection with FOXO3 siRNA. Using ChIP assay, we confirmed that FOXO3a binds to the Mxi1-0 promoter region...
August 14, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Veronica Guadagni, Ford Burles, Michele Ferrara, Giuseppe Iaria
The human ability to vicariously share someone else's emotions (i.e., emotional empathy) relies on an extended neural network including regions in the anterior cingulate and insular cortex. Here, we tested the hypothesis that good sleep quality is associated with increased activation in the brain areas underlying emotional empathy. To this aim, we assessed subjective sleep quality in a large sample of healthy young volunteers, and asked participants to complete a computerized emotional empathy task. Then, we asked 16 participants to complete the same task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hiroyuki Shimogawa, Yasujiro Murata, Atsushi Wakamiya
BF2 -bridged azafulvene dimers designed to be strong electron-accepting units were selectively synthesized using a bulky base. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the high electron-accepting ability of this structure stems from the contribution of the π-conjugation mode of the azafulvene dimer upon formation of B-N coordination bonds. As a result of the low-lying LUMO energy of this electron-accepting unit, the corresponding D-A-D dye exhibits an intense NIR absorption band at 922 nm, which tails up to 1150 nm, while significant absorption bands in the visible region are absent...
August 17, 2018: Organic Letters
Naohiro Manago, Yohei Takara, Fuminori Ando, Naoki Noro, Makoto Suzuki, Hitoshi Irie, Hiroaki Kuze
We have developed a method to monitor the slant column density of nitrogen dioxide in the lower troposphere using a compact hyperspectral camera with a high spectral resolution of 1 nm at the full width half-maximum. Measurements of skylight spectra were conducted in wavelength regions of 460-490 nm and 550-610 nm to retrieve the slant column densities of nitrogen dioxide, in addition to water vapor and oxygen dimer. The results of ground-based measurements are shown for the cases of urban air pollution and aircraft emission near an airport runway...
July 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Miguel Martínez-Maestro, Christian Labadie, Harald E Möller
Dynamic metabolic changes were investigated by functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) during sustained stimulation of human primary visual cortex. Two established paradigms, consisting of either a full-field or a small-circle flickering checkerboard, were employed to generate wide-spread areas of positive or negative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses, respectively. Compared to baseline, the glutamate concentration increased by 5.3% ( p = 0.007) during activation and decreased by -3...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Scarlett E Graham, Anthony A Chariton, Wayne G Landis
Predictive modeling can inform natural resource management by representing stressor-response pathways in a logical way and quantifying the effects on selected endpoints. This study demonstrates a risk assessment model using the Bayesian network-relative risk model (BN-RRM) approach to predict water quality and; for the first time, eukaryote environmental DNA (eDNA) data as a measure of benthic community structure. Environmental DNA sampling is a technique for biodiversity measurements that involves extracting DNA from environmental samples, amplicon sequencing a targeted gene, in this case the 18s rDNA gene which targets eukaryotes, and matching the sequences to organisms...
August 17, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Hannah K Marchant, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Moritz Holtappels, Gaute Lavik, Jon Graf, Frank Schreiber, Marc Mussmann, Marc Strous, Marcel M M Kuypers
Coastal oceans receive large amounts of anthropogenic fixed nitrogen (N), most of which is denitrified in the sediment before reaching the open ocean. Sandy sediments, which are common in coastal regions, seem to play an important role in catalysing this N-loss. Permeable sediments are characterized by advective porewater transport, which supplies high fluxes of organic matter into the sediment, but also leads to fluctuations in oxygen and nitrate concentrations. Little is known about how the denitrifying communities in these sediments are adapted to such fluctuations...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Iryna Antonyshyn, Olga Sichevych, Karsten Rasim, Alim Ormeci, Ulrich Burkhardt, Sven Titlbach, Stephan A Schunk, Marc Armbrüster, Yuri Grin
The chemical behavior of CaAg as catalyst for ethylene epoxidation was studied using a combination of experimental (X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy), and quantum chemical techniques as well as real-space chemical bonding analysis. Under oxidative ethylene epoxidation conditions, the CaAg (010) surface possesses an outstanding stability during long-term experiments. It is caused by the formation of an ordered, stable and dense CaO passivation layer with a small amount of embedded Ag atoms...
August 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Xiaopeng Song, Bhaswati Roy, Gregg C Fonarow, Mary A Woo, Rajesh Kumar
Heart failure (HF) patients show inability to regulate autonomic functions in response to autonomic challenges. The autonomic deficits may stem from brain tissue injury in central autonomic regulatory areas, resulting from ischemic and hypoxic processes accompanying the condition. However, the direct evaluation of correlations between brain structural injury and functional timing and magnitude of neural signal patterns within affected areas, which may lead to impaired autonomic outflow, is unclear. In this study, we evaluate neural responses to the Valsalva maneuver with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in 29 HF patients and 35 control subjects and brain structural changes using diffusion tensor imaging-based mean diffusivity in a subsample of 19 HF and 24 control subjects...
September 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sari Peura, Moritz Buck, Sanni L Aalto, Sergio E Morales, Hannu Nykänen, Alexander Eiler
Oxygen-stratified lakes are typical for the boreal zone and also a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in the region. Due to shallow light penetration, restricting the growth of phototrophic organisms, and large allochthonous organic carbon inputs from the catchment area, the lake metabolism is expected to be dominated by heterotrophic organisms. In this study, we test this assumption and show that the potential for autotrophic carbon fixation and internal carbon cycling is high throughout the water column...
August 14, 2018: MBio
S Klesse, R Weigt, K Treydte, M Saurer, L Schmid, R T W Siegwolf, D C Frank
Stable isotopes ratios in tree rings have become an important proxy for paleoclimatology, particularly in temperate regions. Yet, temperate forests are often characterized by heterogeneous stand structures, and the effects of stand dynamics on carbon (δ13 C) and oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) in tree rings are not well explored. In this study we investigated long-term trends and offsets in δ18 O and δ13 C of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in relation to tree age, size and distance to the upper canopy at seven temperate sites across Europe...
August 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Zaiqiao Sun, Shufeng Hao, Yi Gong, Ming Zhang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Ngoc Tuan Tran, Yueling Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Shengkang Li
Dual oxidases (DUOXs) were originally identified as NADPH oxidases (NOXs), found to be associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production at the plasma membrane and crucial in host biological processes. In this study, SpDUOX1 and SpDUOX2 of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) were identified and studied. Both SpDUOX1 and SpDUOX2 are transmembrane proteins, including an N-signal peptide region and a peroxidase homology domain in the extracellular region, transmembrane regions, and three EF (calcium-binding region) domains, a FAD-binding domain, and a NAD binding domain in the intracellular region...
August 11, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Eisuke Sakakibara, Ryu Takizawa, Yuki Kawakubo, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Toshiaki Kono, Kasumi Hamada, Shiho Okuhata, Satoshi Eguchi, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Kiyoto Kasai
OBJECTIVE: The genetic and environmental influences on prefrontal function in childhood are underinvestigated due to the difficulty of measuring prefrontal function in young subjects, for which near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a suitable functional neuroimaging technique that facilitates the easy and noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in the superficial cerebral cortices. METHOD: Using a two-channel NIRS arrangement, we measured changes in bilateral prefrontal blood oxygenation during a category version of the verbal fluency task (VFT) in 27 monozygotic twin pairs and 12 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs ages 5-17 years...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Venkidasamy Baskar, Safia Nayeem, Sree Preethy Kuppuraj, Thiruvengadam Muthu, Sathishkumar Ramalingam
Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in various domestic products and their usage is constantly increasing which in turn can raise several environmental health issues. Like other abiotic stresses, nanomaterials also affect the growth of crop plants. Solanum melongena is a common vegetable crop grown in the tropics and subtropics regions with medicinal properties. In this study, S. melongena was analyzed for its response to three commercially important metallic nanoparticles, namely NiO, CuO, and ZnO, at four different concentrations (100, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L)...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Hans O Richter, M Forsman, G H Elcadi, R Brautaset, John E Marsh, C Zetterberg
Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigue and regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load. Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range: 18-44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left and right eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods: (i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl ); (ii) added convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict ( Conv ); (iii) added cognitive load only ( Cog ) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load and accommodation/vergence conflict ( Cc )...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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