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Regional oxygenation

Efraim A Serna-Galvis, Jean A Troyon, Stefanos Giannakis, Ricardo A Torres-Palma, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione, Cesar Pulgarin
This work uncovers the implications of the estimation of exogenous inactivation rates for E. coli after the initial lag phase, and presents a strategy for the determination of the second-order inactivation rate constants (k2nd ) of these bacteria with relevant transient species promoted by solar light in natural waters. For this purpose, specific precursors were considered (nitrate ion, rose bengal, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate) as well as the respective photo-generated transient species (i.e., hydroxyl radical (•OH), singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) and triplet excited states)...
October 6, 2018: Water Research
Kohsuke Kakumoto, Kei Harada, Yukihiro Sankoda, Syunsuke Taniguchi, Kouzou Fukuyama
Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal protection can expose occlusion intolerance (OI) due to ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere hypoperfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) cerebral oximetry can monitor regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2 ) in the frontal lobes, and is used during CAS to predict cerebral blood flow insufficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate rSO2 as a predictor of OI during CAS. We retrospectively examined 146 patients who underwent CAS with proximal protection. An INVOS® NIRS oximeter was used for rSO2 measurement, which was compared with stump pressure (SP) measured by a guiding catheter during occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Abigail V Giles, Junhui Sun, Armel N Femnou, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Joni F Taylor, Raul Covian, Elizabeth Murphy, Robert S Balaban
The isolated saline-perfused heart is utilized extensively to study cardiac physiology. Previous isolated heart studies demonstrated lower tissue oxygenation than in vivo based on myoglobin oxygenation and mitochondria redox state. These data, consistent with small anoxic regions, suggest that the homeostatic balance between work and oxygen delivery is impaired. We hypothesized these anoxic regions are caused by inadequate local perfusion due to a paradoxical arteriole constriction (PAC) generated by a disrupted vasoregulatory network...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Muhammad Ismail, Ijaz Talib, Anwar Manzoor Rana, Tahira Akbar, Shazia Jabeen, Jinju Lee, Sungjun Kim
Memory devices with bilayer CeO2-x /ZnO and ZnO/CeO2-x heterostructures sandwiched between Ti top and Pt bottom electrodes were fabricated by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature. N-type semiconductor materials were used in both device heterostructures, but interestingly, change in heterostructure and electroforming polarity caused significant variations in resistive switching (RS) properties. Results have revealed that the electroforming polarity has great influence on both CeO2-x /ZnO and ZnO/CeO2-x heterostructure performance such as electroforming voltage, good switching cycle-to-cycle endurance (~ 102 ), and ON/OFF ratio...
October 11, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Norihiko Shiiya
Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) have been used to monitor brain and spinal cord ischemia. NIRS calculates oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, based on the modified Beer-Lambert law. It correlates with the change in regional tissue blood flow. However, the technology is not matured enough for the measured value to be used as an index of tissue oxygenation, so that relative change should be carefully followed. Myogenic MEP has widely been used to monitor spinal cord ischemia, since the introduction of pulse train transcranial electrical stimulation...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Mohsin Raza, Simone Sanna, Lucia Dos Santos Gómez, Eric Gautron, Abdel Aziz El Mel, Nini Pryds, Rony Snyders, Stéphanos Konstantinidis, Vincenzo Esposito
The cubic phase of pure zirconia (ZrO2) is stabilized in dense thin films through a controlled introduction of oxygen vacancies (O defects) by cold-plasma-based sputtering deposition. Here, we show that the cubic crystals present at the film/substrate interface near-region exhibit fast ionic transport, which is superior to what is obtained with similar yttrium-stabilized cubic zirconia thin films.
October 11, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tamilarasan Karuppiah, Arulazhagan Pugazhendi, Sakthivel Subramanian, Mamdoh T Jamal, Rajesh Banu Jeyakumar
Single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising and sustainable technology to generate electricity. In the present study, the potential of air cathode MFC treating dye processing wastewater was investigated at various organic loads with interest focused on power densities, organic removal and coulombic efficiencies. The highest power density of about 515 mW/m2 (6.03 W/m3 ) with 56% of coulombic efficiency was procured at 1.0 (g COD/L) organic load. The high potency of TCOD (total chemical oxygen demand), SCOD (soluble chemical oxygen demand) and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) removal of about 85%, 73% and 68% respectively was achieved at the organic load of 1...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Yang Yu, Jianyang Shi, Xiyang Li, Jian Liu, Qi Geng, Haichun Shi, Yongpei Ke, Qun Sun
BACKGROUND: Gray leaf spot (GLS), which is caused by the necrotrophic fungi Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, is one of the most impactful diseases in maize worldwide. The aim of the present study is to identify the resistance genes and understand the molecular mechanisms for GLS resistance. RESULTS: Two cultivars, 'Yayu889' and 'Zhenghong532,' which are distinguished as resistant and susceptible cultivars, respectively, were challenged with the GLS disease and a RNA-seq experiment was conducted on infected plants at 81, 89, 91, and 93 days post planting (dap)...
October 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Minhyeong Seong, Jihui Lee, Hara Kang
Oxygen is an important factor mediating cell growth and survival under physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, cells have well-regulated response mechanisms in the face of changes in oxygen levels in their environment. A subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) termed the hypoxamir has been suggested to be a critical mediator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) is a negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the response to cellular stress, and is elevated in many cell types under hypoxia, with consequent inhibition of mTOR signaling...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Gayathri Krishnamoorthy, Aparna I Narayana, Dhanasekar Balkrishanan
Mastication as we all know has always been related to its primary function of digestion, but little do we know that it produces an enhancing effect on general health, especially the cognitive performance related aspects of memory. Recent studies have shown its association with activation of various brain regions, however little is known about its effects on neuronal activity in these specified regions. According to the enormous evidences collected so far, mastication has proved to be effective in conducting huge amount of sensory information to the brain, and maintaining learning and memory functions of hippocampus...
November 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
Chang-Tao Wang, Jing-Na Ru, Yong-Wei Liu, Meng Li, Dan Zhao, Jun-Feng Yang, Jin-Dong Fu, Zhao-Shi Xu
WRKY transcription factors constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play crucial roles in plant growth and development, defense regulation and stress responses. However, knowledge about this family in maize is limited. In the present study, we identified a drought-induced WRKY gene, ZmWRKY106 , based on the maize drought de novo transcriptome sequencing data. ZmWRKY106 was identified as part of the WRKYII group, and a phylogenetic tree analysis showed that ZmWRKY106 was closer to OsWRKY13...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Brent R Westbrook, Katelyn M Dreux, Gregory S Tschumper, Joseph S Francisco, Ryan C Fortenberry
Water and hydrogen sulfide will bind with every atomic cation from the first three rows of the periodic table. While some atoms bind more tightly than others, explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory computations show that energy is required to be put into the system in order to dissociate these bonds even for noble gas atoms. The most promising systems have shallow entrance potential energy surfaces (PESs) that lie above deeper wells of a different spin. These wells are shown explicitly for H2OO+, H2SS+, and H2OS+ where relaxed PESs of the heavy atom bond lengths indicate that quartet states will cross more deeply-bound doublet states allowing for relatively easy association but much more difficult dissociation...
October 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Adrien Lücker, Timothy W Secomb, Matthew J P Barrett, Bruno Weber, Patrick Jenny
Brain metabolism is highly dependent on continuous oxygen supply. Cortical microvascular networks exhibit heterogeneous blood flow, leading to non-uniform tissue oxygenation and capillary hemoglobin saturation. We recently proposed capillary outflow saturation heterogeneity (COSH) to represent effects of heterogeneity on oxygen supply to tissue regions most vulnerable to hypoxia, and showed that diffusive oxygen exchange among red blood cells within capillaries and among capillaries (diffusive interaction) significantly reduces COSH in simplified geometrical configurations...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yaqun Teng, Tribhuwan Yadav, Meihan Duan, Jun Tan, Yufei Xiang, Boya Gao, Jianquan Xu, Zhuobin Liang, Yang Liu, Satoshi Nakajima, Yi Shi, Arthur S Levine, Lee Zou, Li Lan
Actively transcribed regions of the genome are protected by transcription-coupled DNA repair mechanisms, including transcription-coupled homologous recombination (TC-HR). Here we used reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce and characterize TC-HR at a transcribed locus in human cells. As canonical HR, TC-HR requires RAD51. However, the localization of RAD51 to damage sites during TC-HR does not require BRCA1 and BRCA2, but relies on RAD52 and Cockayne Syndrome Protein B (CSB). During TC-HR, RAD52 is recruited by CSB through an acidic domain...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Yoshiaki Matsumoto, Yasufumi Asao, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Aya Yoshikawa, Tomoko Ishii, Ken-Ichi Nagae, Shuichi Kobayashi, Itaru Tsuge, Susumu Saito, Masahiro Takada, Yoshihiro Ishida, Masako Kataoka, Takaki Sakurai, Takayuki Yagi, Kenji Kabashima, Shigehiko Suzuki, Kaori Togashi, Tsuyoshi Shiina, Masakazu Toi
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive blood vessel imaging. A PAI system comprising a hemispherical detector array (HDA) has been reported previously as a method providing high morphological reproducibility. However, further improvements in diagnostic capability will require improving the image quality of PAI and fusing functional and morphological imaging. Our newly developed PAI system prototype not only enhances the PA image resolution but also acquires ultrasonic (US) B-mode images at continuous positions in the same coordinate axes...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Erik A Sperling, Richard G Stockey
Animals originated and evolved during a unique time in Earth history-the Neoproterozoic Era. This paper aims to discuss (1) when landmark events in early animal evolution occurred, and (2) the environmental context of these evolutionary milestones, and how such factors may have affected ecosystems and body plans. With respect to timing, molecular clock studies-utilizing a diversity of methodologies-agree that animal multicellularity had arisen by ∼800 million years ago (Ma) (Tonian period), the bilaterian body plan by ∼650 Ma (Cryogenian), and divergences between sister phyla occurred ∼560-540 Ma (late Ediacaran)...
October 1, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Kevin Fh Lee, Michael D Wood, David M Maslove, John G Muscedere, J Gordon Boyd
Delirium is common during critical illness and is associated with morbidity and mortality, but its pathophysiology is unknown. We tested whether dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation (CA) contributes to the development of delirium. Adult patients ( n = 40) with respiratory failure and/or shock were prospectively enrolled. Continuous recordings of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) were obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during the first 72 h of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. CA function was estimated by the cerebral oximetry index (COx), which is the time-varying correlation between rSO2 and mean arterial pressure (MAP)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Stephan Heunis, René Besseling, Rolf Lamerichs, Anton de Louw, Marcel Breeuwer, Bert Aldenkamp, Jan Bergmans
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) allows visualisation of ongoing brain activity of the subject in the scanner. Denoising algorithms aim to rid acquired data of confounding effects, enhancing the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Further image processing and analysis methods, like general linear models (GLM) or multivariate analysis, then present application-specific information to the researcher. These processes are typically applied to regions of interest but, increasingly, rtfMRI techniques extract and classify whole brain functional networks and dynamics as correlates for brain states or behaviour, particularly in neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive disorders...
September 28, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Anna Bandurska-Luque, Steffen Löck, Robert Haase, Christian Richter, Klaus Zöphel, Nasreddin Abolmaali, Annekatrin Seidlitz, Steffen Appold, Mechthild Krause, Jörg Steinbach, Jörg Kotzerke, Daniel Zips, Michael Baumann, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: This secondary analysis of the prospective study on repeat [18 F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO)-PET in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) assessed the prognostic value of synchronous hypoxia in primary tumor (Tu) and lymph node metastases (LN), and evaluated whether the combined reading was of higher prognostic value than that of primary tumor hypoxia only. METHODS: This analysis included forty-five LN-positive HNSCC patients...
October 4, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Zilong Li, Xinjian Zhang, Shuai Liu, Sheng Zeng, Liming Yu, Guang Yang, Junli Guo, Yong Xu
Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered a major culprit for a host of cardiovascular diseases. In vascular endothelial cells, ROS production is mediated by NAPDH oxidases (NOX). In the present study we investigated the role of the chromatin remodeling protein BRG1 in NOX trans-activation as well as its implication in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. We report that in response to hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) BRG1 was recruited to the NOX promoter regions in both immortalized endothelial cells and primary microvascular endothelial cells...
October 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
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