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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323866/elevated-fecal-peptidase-d-at-onset-of-colitis-in-galphai2-mice-a-mouse-model-of-ibd
#1
Daniel Bergemalm, Robert Kruse, Maria Sapnara, Jonas Halfvarson, Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist
BACKGROUND: The identification of novel fecal biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is hampered by the complexity of the human fecal proteome. On the other hand, in experimental mouse models there is probably less variation. We investigated the fecal protein content in mice to identify possible biomarkers and pathogenic mechanisms. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected at onset of inflammation in Galphai2-/- mice, a well-described spontaneous model of chronic colitis, and from healthy littermates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317204/cockroach-allergen-serine-proteinases-isolation-sequencing-and-signalling-via-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-par2
#2
Danny J Polley, Koichiro Mihara, Rithwik Ramachandran, Harissios Vliagoftis, Bernard Renaux, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Michael O Daines, Scott Boitano, Morley D Hollenberg
BACKGROUND: Allergy to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a significant asthma risk factor for inner-city communities. Cockroach, like other allergens, contains trypsin-like enzyme activity that contributes to allergenicity and airway inflammation by activating proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). To date, the enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity of German cockroach allergen have not been characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify, isolate and characterize the trypsin-like proteinases in German cockroach allergen extracts used for clinical skin tests...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303089/protease-activated-receptor-2-par2-induces-long-term-depression-in-the-hippocampus-through-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4
#3
Efrat Shavit-Stein, Avital Artan-Furman, Ekaterina Feingold, Marina Ben Shimon, Zeev Itzekson-Hayosh, Joab Chapman, Andreas Vlachos, Nicola Maggio
Protease activated receptors (PARs) are involved in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity in the brain. While it is well-accepted that PAR1 mediates long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic strength, the role of PAR2 in synaptic plasticity remains not well-understood. In this study, we assessed the role of PAR2-signaling in plasticity at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Using field potential recordings, we report that PAR2-activation leads to long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission through a protein kinase A -dependent, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 -mediated mechanism, which requires the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245472/role-of-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-regulating-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#4
Yongjun Wang, Yanfa He, Mingzheng Wang, Pei Lv, Jianzhen Liu, Junxia Wang
Background /Aims: The underlying mechanisms leading to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are lacking. In this report, we examined the role of protease-activated receptors (PARs) subtype PAR2 and its downstream signals in regulating the pathophysiological process of FSGS. METHODS: Nephropathy was induced by intravenous injections of adriamycin (ADR) in rats to study FSGS. Western Blot analysis and ELISA were employed to determine the protein expression levels of PAR2 and its downstream signal pathways as well as the levels of PICs...
February 28, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245465/astragaloside-alleviates-hepatic-fibrosis-function-via-par2-signaling-pathway-in-diabetic-rats
#5
Zhenchang Wang, Quanqiang Li, Mingpeng Xiang, Fengying Zhang, Dongyu Wei, Zhixi Wen, Ying Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Astragaloside (AGS) extracted from radix astragalin (Huangqi) has been considered to be beneficial to liver diseases. In this study, we examined the role played by AGS in alleviating hepatic fibrosis function via protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) mechanisms. We hypothesized that AGS affects PAR2 signaling pathway thereby improving hepatic function in rats with hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). We further hypothesized that AGS attenuates impaired hepatic function evoked by CCl4 to a greater degree in diabetic animals...
February 28, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238749/persistent-kallikrein-5-activation-induces-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-architecture-independent-of-par2-activity
#6
Yanan Zhu, Joanne Underwood, Derek Macmillan, Leila Shariff, Ryan O'Shaughnessy, John I Harper, Chris Pickard, Peter S Friedmann, Eugene Healy, Wei-Li Di
BACKGROUND: Upregulation of kallikreins (KLKs) including KLK5 has been reported in atopic dermatitis (AD). KLK5 has biological functions that include degrading desmosomal proteins and inducing proinflammatory cytokine secretion through protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). However, due to the complex interactions between various cells in AD inflamed skin, it is difficult to dissect the precise and multiple roles of upregulated KLK5 in AD skin. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of upregulated KLK5 on the expression of epidermal-related proteins and cytokines in keratinocytes and on skin architecture...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223242/fviia-prevents-the-progressive-hemorrhaging-of-a-brain-contusion-by-protecting-microvessels-via-formation-of-the-tf-fviia-fxa-complex
#7
Qiang Yuan, Dalong Zhang, Sirong Wu, Jian Yu, Lei Yu, Yirui Sun, Zhuoying Du, Zhiqi Li, Liangfu Zhou, Xing Wu, Jin Hu
Factor VII (FVII) plays a key role in the initiation of the coagulation cascade and, in clinical situations, recombinant human activated FVII (rFVIIa) effectively prevents progressive hemorrhaging after a brain contusion. However, it remains unclear whether decreases in FVII activity directly lead to progressive hemorrhaging and, moreover, the precise mechanisms underlying this process are not yet known. The present study demonstrated that decreased FVII activity directly led to progressive hemorrhaging of the cerebral contusions...
February 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191683/immediate-type-allergic-and-protease-mediated-reactions-are-involved-in-scratching-behavior-induced-by-topical-application-of-dermatophagoides-farinae-extract-in-nc-nga-mice
#8
Yoshihito Yamada, Yuhki Ueda, Aki Nakamura, Shoji Kanayama, Rie Tamura, Kei Hashimoto, Tatsumi Matsumoto, Ritsuko Ishii
Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like dermatitis can be induced by repeated topical application of an ointment containing Dermatophagoides farinae body (Dfb) extract in NC/Nga mice. This AD-like murine model also exhibits a biphasic increase in the number of scratching behavior after topical application of Dfb ointment. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the scratching behavior in each phase. An increase in the content of mast cell derived mediators such as histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the lesional skin and increased vascular permeability were observed in the early phase after the Dfb ointment application...
February 13, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184250/meiotic-outcome-in-two-carriers-of-y-autosome-reciprocal-translocations-selective-elimination-of-certain-segregants
#9
Harita Ghevaria, Roy Naja, Sioban SenGupta, Paul Serhal, Joy Delhanty
BACKGROUND: Reciprocal Y autosome translocations are rare but frequently associated with male infertility. We report on the meiotic outcome in embryos fathered by two males with the karyotypes 46,X,t(Y;4)(q12;p15.32) and 46,X,t(Y;16)(q12;q13). The two couples underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) enabling determination of the segregation types that were compatible with fertilization and preimplantation embryo development. Both PGD and follow up analysis were carried out via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) allowing the meiotic segregation types to be determined in a total of 27 embryos...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169521/biased-signaling-by-agonists-of-protease-activated-receptor-2
#10
Yuhong Jiang, Mei-Kwan Yau, W Mei Kok, Junxian Lim, Kai-Chen Wu, Ligong Liu, Timothy A Hill, Jacky Y Suen, David P Fairlie
Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is associated with metabolism, obesity, inflammatory, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, pain, cancer, and other diseases. The extracellular N-terminus of PAR2 is a common target for multiple proteases, which cleave it at different sites to generate different N-termini that activate different PAR2-mediated intracellular signaling pathways. There are no synthetic PAR2 ligands that reproduce the same signaling profiles and potencies as proteases. Structure-activity relationships here for 26 compounds spanned a signaling bias over 3 log units, culminating in three small ligands as biased agonist tools for interrogating PAR2 functions...
March 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162529/-292-protease-activated-receptor-2-par2-is-a-mediator-of-nociception-in-a-mouse-model-of-migraine
#11
S Hassler, T Price, G Dussor, S Boitano, J Vagner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120492/the-role-of-toll-like-and-protease-activated-receptors-and-associated-intracellular-signaling-in-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infected-gingival-fibroblasts
#12
Eleonor Palm, Isak Demirel, Torbjörn Bengtsson, Hazem Khalaf
Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is considered a keystone agent in periodontitis, has evolved elaborate mechanisms to grow and survive in a hostile milieu. The gingival fibroblast is the major cell type in the gingiva and is considered to be important in the periodontitis-associated inflammation. As a part of the innate immune response, they produce cytokines such as CXCL8 and interleukin (IL)-6 which are believed to contribute to the destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. This study investigates how the expression of protease-activated receptors (PAR1, PAR2) and toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4) changes with P...
February 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116092/teleocidin-a2-inhibits-human-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-signaling-in-tumor-cells
#13
Sonja Stahn, Lisa Thelen, Ina-Maria Albrecht, Jens Bitzer, Thomas Henkel, Nicole Elisabeth Teusch
Enhanced expression of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is linked to cell proliferation and migration in many cancer cell types. The role of PAR2 in cancer progression strongly illustrates the need for PAR2-inhibiting compounds. However, to date, potent and selective PAR2 antagonists have not been reported. The natural product teleocidin A2 was characterized against PAR2-activating peptide SLIGKV-NH 2, and trypsin-induced PAR2-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in tumor and in primary endothelial or epithelial cells...
August 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109095/-establishment-of-a-sd-rat-model-of-vulvar-lichen-simplex-chronicus-and-detection-of-the-expression-of-protease-activated-receptor-2
#14
Huan Yang, Zhen-Hua Fu, Hua-Jun Tang, Cheng-Zhi Li
OBJECTIVE: To establish a SD rat model of vulvar lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) and investigate the expression of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in the genital skin. METHODS: Seventy female SD rats were randomly divided into group A (blank control group, n=10), group B (with application of acetone solution 3 times per week for 10 weeks, n=10), group C (with chronic mechanical irritation 3 times per week for 10 weeks, n=10), and group D (with topical treatment with 0...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104984/role-of-mast-cell-mir-490-5p-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
Hai-Xia Ren, Fa-Can Zhang, He-Sheng Luo, Guo Zhang, Lie-Xin Liang
AIM: To determine the functional role of miR-490-5p in mast cell proliferation and apoptosis, and in the mast cell tryptase/PAR-2 signal pathway. METHODS: The 3(rd) generation of lentivirus vector systems containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (Ruisai Inc., Shanghai, China), which acts as a reporter gene was used to construct the mmu-miR-490-5p lentivirus expression vector pEGFP-antagomiR-490-5p, and the lentivirus vector pEGFP-negative was used as a negative control...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103056/age-related-changes-to-vascular-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-relationship-between-oxidative-stress-receptor-expression-and-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation
#16
Kana Maruyama, Satomi Kagota, John J McGuire, Hirokazu Wakuda, Noriko Yoshikawa, Kazuki Nakamura, Kazumasa Shinozuka
Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is expressed in vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide (NO) - cyclic GMP-mediated vasodilation in response to 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide (2fLIGRLO), a PAR2-activating peptide, is impaired in aortas from aged SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr (SHRSP.ZF) rats with metabolic syndrome. Here we investigated mechanisms linking PAR2's vascular effects to phenotypic characteristics of male SHRSP.ZF rats at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of age. We found vasodilation responses to either 2fLIGRLO or enzyme-mediated PAR2 activation by trypsin were sustained until 20 weeks and lessened at 30 weeks...
October 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088386/trypsin-induces-biphasic-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-and-neurokinin-receptors-1-2-in-porcine-esophageal-body
#17
Bai Xiaopeng, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Eikichi Ihara, Katsuya Hirano, Kayoko Nakano, Mayumi Hirano, Yoshinao Oda, Kazuhiko Nakamura
Duodenal reflux of fluids containing trypsin relates to refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophageal peristalsis and clearance are important factors in GERD pathogenesis. However, the function of trypsin in esophageal body contractility is not fully understood. In this study, effects of trypsin on circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) of the porcine esophageal body were examined. Trypsin elicited a concentration dependent biphasic response, a major contraction and a subsequent relaxation only in CSM...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057878/pseudoautosomal-abnormalities-in-terminal-azfb-c-deletions-are-associated-with-isochromosomes-yp-and-may-lead-to-abnormal-growth-and-neuropsychiatric-function
#18
A Castro, F Rodríguez, M Flórez, P López, B Curotto, D Martínez, A Maturana, M C Lardone, C Palma, V Mericq, M Ebensperger, F Cassorla
STUDY QUESTION: Are copy number variations (CNVs) in the pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) frequent in subjects with Y-chromosome microdeletions and can they lead to abnormal stature and/or neuropsychiatric disorders? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only subjects diagnosed with azoospermia factor (AZF)b+c deletions spanning to the end of the Y chromosome (i.e. terminal deletions) harbor Y isochromosomes and/or cells 45,X that lead to pseudoautosomal gene CNVs, which were associated with abnormal stature and/or neuropsychiatric disorders...
January 5, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030866/increase-of-mast-cell-nerve-association-and-neuropeptide-receptor-expression-on-mast-cells-in-perennial-allergic-rhinitis
#19
Duc Dung Le, David Schmit, Sebastian Heck, Albert Joachim Omlor, Martina Sester, Christian Herr, Bernhard Schick, François Daubeuf, Sebastian Fähndrich, Robert Bals, Nelly Frossard, Basel Al Kadah, Quoc Thai Dinh
OBJECTIVES: Mast cells (MCs) and nerves play an important role in allergic rhinitis (AR), but little is known about their crosstalk in AR. The aim of this study was to investigate MC-nerve interaction in the human nasal mucosa during AR. METHODS: The association between MCs and nerves, the expression of neuropeptide receptors (neurokinin 1 receptor [NK1R], neurokinin 2 receptor [NK2R], calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor [CGRPR], and MrgX2) on MCs, and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and tyrosine receptor kinase A (TrkA) on nerve fibres in the human nasal mucosa were investigated with immunofluorescence and real-time PCR...
December 29, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025140/protease-activated-receptor-2-exacerbates-adenine-induced-renal-tubulointerstitial-injury-in-mice
#20
Sakiko Hayashi, Yuji Oe, Tomofumi Fushima, Emiko Sato, Hiroshi Sato, Sadayoshi Ito, Nobuyuki Takahashi
Hypercoagulability is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tissue factor/factor VIIa complex and factor Xa in the coagulation cascade are known to activate protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), and to cause inflammation and tissue injury. Although PAR2 is highly expressed in the kidney, it is unclear whether PAR2 plays a pathogenic role in CKD. To test this, we fed the mice lacking Par2 (F2rl1(-/-)) and wild type (F2rl1(+/+)) mice with adenine diet to induce tubulointerstitial injury, a hallmark of CKD...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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