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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165745/resistance-to-temptation-in-toddlers-at-genetic-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Susan B Campbell, Jessie B Northrup, Amy B Tavares
Children with autism spectrum disorder often demonstrate difficulties with self-regulation, although studies of this construct in young children with autism spectrum disorder are limited. In this study, developmental changes were examined using a measure of self-regulation appropriate for young children, resistance to temptation. At 22, 28, and 34 months, toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (high risk) and toddlers with typically developing older siblings (low risk) were presented with an appealing toy and instructed not to touch it...
August 30, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120445/acquisition-of-verb-meaning-from-syntactic-distribution-in-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Sabrina Horvath, Elizabeth McDermott, Kathleen Reilly, Sudha Arunachalam
Purpose: Our goal was to investigate whether preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can begin to learn new word meanings by attending to the linguistic contexts in which they occur, even in the absence of visual or social context. We focused on verbs because of their importance for subsequent language development. Method: Thirty-two children with ASD, ages 2;1-4;5 (years;months), participated in a verb-learning task. In a between-subjects design, they were randomly assigned to hear novel verbs in either transitive or intransitive syntactic frames while watching an unrelated silent animation or playing quietly with a toy...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079576/coordination-is-key-joint-attention-and-vocalisation-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Perrine Heymann, Jessie B Northrup, Kelsey L West, Meaghan V Parladé, Nina B Leezenbaum, Jana M Iverson
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that social communicative behaviours develop atypically during the second year in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study evaluated whether these behaviours also differed in the extent to which they were coordinated across modalities. AIMS: To measure joint attention behaviours (e.g., gaze shifts, gestures), vocalisations and their coordination among a cohort of infants with an older sibling with ASD (heightened risk-HR). METHODS & PROCEDURES: This prospective longitudinal study examined 50 HR infants at 14, 18 and 24 months...
September 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049224/kitten-scanner-reduces-the-use-of-sedation-in-pediatric-mri
#4
Eleonora Cavarocchi, Ilde Pieroni, Antonio Serio, Lucio Velluto, Biancamaria Guarnieri, Sandro Sorbi
The use of sedation before a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is a common practice to overcome motion artifacts and anxiety in children. However, this technique has its drawbacks. We retrospectively compared the number of children undergoing a brain MRI scan with or without sedation before and after the introduction of an educational training protocol using a toy scanner (the Philips Kitten Scanner) and we investigated the effectiveness of this training in relation to children's age and gender. We considered 1461 children between 4 years and 14 years...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006926/teaching-children-with-autism-to-identify-and-respond-appropriately-to-the-preferences-of-others-during-play
#5
Adel C Najdowski, Megan St Clair, Jesse A Fullen, Amelia Child, Angela Persicke, Jonathan Tarbox
We observed three children with autism spectrum disorder during structured play dates in which play partners displayed interest or disinterest in the toys with which they were playing. We then taught subjects to identify play partners' preferences and to make appropriate toy offers using a multiple-exemplar training package consisting of rules, midplay preference questions, prompting, and praise with observed generalization across untrained partners.
July 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911486/use-of-props-during-mealtime-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-self-regulation-and-reinforcement
#6
Jessica Muesbeck, Brittany M St John, Shannon Kant, Karla K Ausderau
Mealtime is an important family routine commonly affected for families with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Limited research is available regarding strategies families incorporate to support mealtime engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency and characterize the purpose of Props used during mealtimes with children with ASD. A total of 12 families with a child(ren), N = 14, aged 2 to 7 years, with ASD and mealtime challenges or eating difficulties participated in video-recorded mealtimes in their home...
October 2018: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761854/parenting-adolescents-with-asd-a-multimethod-study
#7
Lotte van Esch, Steven Vanmarcke, Eva Ceulemans, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ilse Noens
A number of studies have concluded that parents of children with ASD experience high levels of parenting stress. However, little is known about their parenting behaviors. Especially few studies investigated parenting in adolescence, although this period is associated with additional challenges for both adolescents and their parents. In the present study, a multi-method approach was used, combining data from a self-report questionnaire and observation of mother-child interactions during different semi-structured (e...
July 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651331/operationalizing-atypical-gaze-in-toddlers-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-cohesion-based-approach
#8
Quan Wang, Daniel J Campbell, Suzanne L Macari, Katarzyna Chawarska, Frederick Shic
Background: Multiple eye-tracking studies have highlighted the "atypical" nature of social attention in autism. However, it is unclear how "atypical" or "typical" should be quantified. Methods: We developed a method for identifying moments when members of a group looked at similar places (High-Cohesion Time Frames; HCTFs). We defined typicality as the proximity of gaze points to typically developing (TD) gaze points during TD HCTFs...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485763/assessing-the-combined-effects-of-resurgence-and-reinstatement-in-children-diagnosed-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Ashley P Liggett, Regina Nastri, Christopher A Podlesnik
Resurgence and reinstatement are laboratory models of relapse following treatments for problem behavior that arrange alternative sources of reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of alternative behavior and noncontingent reinforcement. Resurgence models the elimination or reduction of reinforcers during treatment and reinstatement models the re-presentation of reinforcers previously maintaining problem behavior. The present study examined individual and combined effects of resurgence and reinstatement in a translational model of treatment relapse with three children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356414/bidirectional-influences-of-caregiver-utterances-and-supported-joint-engagement-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Kristen Bottema-Beutel, Blair Lloyd, Linda Watson, Paul Yoder
This study examined sequential associations between pairs of caregiver talk and caregiver-child joint engagement categories. Sequential associations quantify the extent to which one event (such as a particular type of caregiver talk) follows another event (such as a particular type of joint engagement) in a pre-specified time window, while controlling for the chance occurrence of the sequence. Although unable to support strong conclusions about causality, the requirement of sequential analysis that key events occur within a close temporal sequence rules out alternative explanation for associations that summary-level correlations cannot...
May 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216519/mine-is-better-than-yours-investigating-the-ownership-effect-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-typically-developing-children
#11
Calum Hartley, Sophie Fisher
Ownership has a unique and privileged influence on human psychology. Typically developing (TD) children judge their objects to be more desirable and valuable than similar objects belonging to others. This 'ownership effect' is due to processing one's property in relation to 'the self'. Here we explore whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - a population with impaired self-understanding - prefer and over-value property due to ownership. In Experiment 1, we discovered that children with ASD did not favour a randomly endowed toy and frequently traded for a different object...
March 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116816/can-dogs-assist-children-with-severe-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-complying-with-challenging-demands-an-exploratory-experiment-with-a-live-and-a-robotic-dog
#12
Karine Silva, Mariely Lima, André Santos-Magalhães, Carla Fafiães, Liliana de Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Prompted by the need to find effective ways to enhance compliance in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and building on the increasing interest in dog-assisted interventions for this population, this study provides an exploratory test on whether dogs may assist children with severe ASD in complying with challenging demands while also decreasing behavioral and cardiovascular distress. DESIGN: A within-subject design was used. Depending on condition, participants were allowed to engage with a particular stimulus-their preferred toy, a live dog, or a robotic dog-before being exposed to a demanding task in which they had to wait for permission to eat a desired food item ("prohibition task")...
March 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034499/early-interaction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-mothers-and-children-s-behaviours-during-joint-engagement
#13
A Kaale, L Smith, A Nordahl-Hansen, M W Fagerland, C Kasari
BACKGROUND: More knowledge about the interaction between young children with autism spectrum disorder and their parents is one way to improve intervention. This study aims to investigate the behaviours of mothers and children with autism spectrum disorder during joint engagement, with a focus on pacing or rate (i.e., incidences per minute) of their behaviours when being in this state. METHOD: Video recordings of 10 min of free-play between 58 children (2-4 years) diagnosed with childhood autism and their mothers were used to examine rate of mothers' and children's behaviours (i...
March 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939027/simulating-interaction-using-gaze-contingent-eye-tracking-to-measure-the-reward-value-of-social-signals-in-toddlers-with-and-without-autism
#14
Angelina Vernetti, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson, Teodora Gliga
Several accounts have been proposed to explain difficulties with social interaction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), amongst which atypical social orienting, decreased social motivation or difficulties with understanding the regularities driving social interaction. This study uses gaze-contingent eye-tracking to tease apart these accounts by measuring reward related behaviours in response to different social videos. Toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD took part in this study at age 2 and were categorised at age 3 as low risk controls (LR), high-risk with no ASD diagnosis (HR-no ASD), or with a diagnosis of ASD (HR-ASD)...
January 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861936/pivotal-response-treatment-for-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-defining-a-predictor-profile
#15
Kristin-Lee Fossum, Loriann Williams, Nancy Garon, Susan E Bryson, Isabel M Smith
Behavioral characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who respond positively to Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) have been described previously, based on single-subject design research. The present study examined several such characteristics, as well as positive affect, as predictors of expressive language (EL) gains in a representative sample of preschoolers with ASD (n = 57) enrolled in a PRT-based community early intervention program. Children's cognitive ability, positive affect, and levels of appropriate toy contact measured at the start of intervention each contributed significantly to the prediction of EL outcomes...
January 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701971/facilitating-social-play-for-children-with-pdds-effects-of-paired-robotic-devices
#16
Soichiro Matsuda, Eleuda Nunez, Masakazu Hirokawa, Junichi Yamamoto, Kenji Suzuki
Interacting with toys and other people is fundamental for developing social communication skills. However, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are characterized by having a significant impairment in social interaction, which often leads to deficits in play skills. For this reason, methods of teaching play skills to young children with ASD have been well documented. Although previous studies have examined a variety of instructional strategies for teaching skills, few studies have evaluated the potential of using robotic devices...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692449/fidget-spinners-purported-benefits-adverse-effects-and-accepted-alternatives
#17
REVIEW
Rachel A Schecter, Jay Shah, Kate Fruitman, Ruth Lynn Milanaik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the span of a few months, fidget spinners have caught the eyes of millions of children, parents, educators and paediatricians. Fidget spinners, hand-held toys designed to spin freely in your grasp, have become a source of entertainment for consumers of all ages. Despite a lack of scientific evidence, toy marketers have advertised the benefits of fidget spinners for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other disorders (e.g. autism, anxiety, sensory issues)...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673117/using-a-social-robot-to-teach-gestural-recognition-and-production-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Wing-Chee So, Miranda Kit-Yi Wong, Carrie Ka-Yee Lam, Wan-Yi Lam, Anthony Tsz-Fung Chui, Tsz-Lok Lee, Hoi-Man Ng, Chun-Hung Chan, Daniel Chun-Wing Fok
While it has been argued that children with autism spectrum disorders are responsive to robot-like toys, very little research has examined the impact of robot-based intervention on gesture use. These children have delayed gestural development. We used a social robot in two phases to teach them to recognize and produce eight pantomime gestures that expressed feelings and needs. Compared to the children in the wait-list control group (N = 6), those in the intervention group (N = 7) were more likely to recognize gestures and to gesture accurately in trained and untrained scenarios...
August 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474228/teaching-functional-play-skills-to-a-young-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-through-video-self-modeling
#19
Sharon Y Lee, Ya-Yu Lo, Yafen Lo
The researchers used a single-case, multiple probe design across three sets of toys (i.e., farm toy, doctor's clinic toy, and rescue toy) to examine the effects of video self-modeling (VSM) on the functional play skills of a 5-year-old child with autism spectrum disorder. The findings showed a functional relation between VSM and increased percentages of functional play actions across the toy sets. The participant's percentages of the targeted functional play skills for the intervention toys remained high 1 week and 2 weeks after the intervention ceased...
August 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466648/increasing-functional-leisure-engagement-for-children-with-autism-using-backward-chaining
#20
Chelsea K Edwards, Robin K Landa, Sarah E Frampton, M Alice Shillingsburg
Research with individuals with disabilities has demonstrated the utility of intervention approaches to address toy play, also referred to as functional leisure engagement (FLE). Examples include prompting FLE, blocking stereotypy, and differentially reinforcing appropriate FLE with social or automatic (i.e., access to stereotypy) reinforcers. Backward chaining has yet to be evaluated, but may be useful for establishing more complex FLE. The current study employed a treatment package consisting of these components with three school-aged children with autism in a therapeutic classroom...
January 2018: Behavior Modification
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