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Paediatric nephrology

Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Hirminder Ubhi, Mitul Patel, Lisa Ludwig
AIM: Aims of the study included evaluation of outpatient antibiotic prescribing practices relating to good Antimicrobial Stewardship1 focusing on documentation of indication and duration. METHOD: Prescriptions dispensed at the Outpatient Pharmacy over a 6 week were evaluated. Data collected include patient's hospital identification in full, the antibiotic prescribed, duration of treatment, indication (in a specifically allocated area on the prescription) and route of administration, prescriber speciality and grade...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Allison Tong, Susan Samuel, Michael Zappitelli, Allison Dart, Susan Furth, Allison Eddy, Jaap Groothoff, Nicholas J A Webb, Hui-Kim Yap, Detlef Bockenhauer, Aditi Sinha, Stephen I Alexander, Stuart L Goldstein, Debbie S Gipson, Camilla S Hanson, Nicole Evangelidis, Sally Crowe, Tess Harris, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Braden Manns, John Gill, Peter Tugwell, Wim Van Biesen, David C Wheeler, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation, have a mortality rate of up to 30-fold higher than the general aged-matched population, and severely impaired quality of life. Symptoms such as fatigue and pain are prevalent and debilitating. Children with CKD are at risk of cognitive impairment, and poorer educational, vocational, and psychosocial outcomes compared with their well peers, which have consequences through to adulthood...
2016: Trials
Syed Sajid Hussain Shah, Farkhanda Hafeez
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine (Calcineurin Inhibitors) in the management of childhood steroid-resistant nephritic syndrome (SRNS). STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Paediatric Nephrology at The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, from August 2014 to September 2015. METHODOLOGY: Patients of either gender aged 1 - 12 years, with the diagnosis of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MesangioPGN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or minimal-change disease (MCD) were included...
July 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Mohd Ashraf, Virender Kumar, Rifat Ara Bano, Khursheed Ahmed Wani, Javed Ahmed, Kaisar Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Definite paucity of data pertaining to spectrum of renal and urinary tract diseases in our state and in various parts of India forms the basis of this study. Available data has emphasized more on specific clinical syndromes and chronic renal diseases rather than over all spectrums of renal and urinary tract diseases, that too in adult population. AIM: The present study a retrospective analysis, forms one of the basic data of paediatric nephrology and urology related disorders in our state...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Y H Chan, A Lt Ma, P C Tong, W M Lai, N Kc Tse
OBJECTIVE: To review the outcome for Chinese infants and young children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. METHODS: The Paediatric Nephrology Centre of Princess Margaret Hospital is the designated site offering chronic dialysis to children in Hong Kong. Medical records of children who started chronic peritoneal dialysis before the age of 2 years, from 1 July 1995 to 31 December 2013, were retrieved and retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Nine Chinese patients (male-to-female ratio, 3:6) were identified...
August 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Marco Allinovi, Moin Saleem, Paola Romagnani, Peiman Nazerian, Wesley Hayes
BACKGROUND: Optimizing the target weight of infants and children on dialysis remains an important clinical challenge. The use of ultrasound to detect fluid overload in adult patients on dialysis is receiving growing attention. We hypothesized that fluid overload can be quantified in infants and children receiving dialysis using lung ultrasound. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, infants and children receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or acute kidney injury (AKI) in a regional paediatric nephrology centre were eligible...
April 6, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
P Teles, M Mendes, M Zankl, V de Sousa, A I Santos, P Vaz
The aim of this work is to use Monte Carlo simulations and VOXEL phantoms to estimate the absorbed dose in paediatric patients (aged from 2 weeks to 16 y), with normal renal function, to whom technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) was administered, for diagnostic renal scintigraphy purposes; and compare them with values obtained using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) methodology. In the ICRP methodology, the cumulated absorbed dose in the kidneys is estimated by multiplying the administered activity with the corresponding given dose coefficients...
April 21, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ravindra L Mehta, Emmanuel A Burdmann, Jorge Cerdá, John Feehally, Fredric Finkelstein, Guillermo García-García, Melanie Godin, Vivekanand Jha, Norbert H Lameire, Nathan W Levin, Andrew Lewington, Raúl Lombardi, Etienne Macedo, Michael Rocco, Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, Marcello Tonelli, Jing Zhang, Giuseppe Remuzzi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data for acute kidney injury are scarce, especially in low-income countries (LICs) and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess regional differences in acute kidney injury recognition, management, and outcomes. METHODS: In this multinational cross-sectional study, 322 physicians from 289 centres in 72 countries collected prospective data for paediatric and adult patients with confirmed acute kidney injury in hospital and non-hospital settings who met criteria for acute kidney injury...
May 14, 2016: Lancet
Shi Ying Tan, Lin Naing, Aye Han, Muhammad Abdul Mabood Khalil, Vui Heng Chong, Jackson Tan
AIM: To determine epidemiology of Bruneian paediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and factors that affect growth and progression of disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted on all children below 18 years old who were diagnosed with CKD over a ten year period (2004 to 2013). The reference population was all children (< 18 years old) suffering from CKD and attending the tertiary paediatric nephrology clinic in Brunei Darussalam. Demographic (current age, age of diagnosis, gender, ethnicity), anthropometric (weight and height), diagnosis, laboratory data (serum creatinine and haemoglobin, urinalysis) and blood pressure were extracted from the patients' clinical case notes and recorded using a data collection form...
March 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Daishi Hirano, Kenji Ishikura, Osamu Uemura, Shuichi Ito, Naohiro Wada, Motoshi Hattori, Yasuo Ohashi, Yuko Hamasaki, Ryojiro Tanaka, Koichi Nakanishi, Tetsuji Kaneko, Masataka Honda
BACKGROUND: Although numerous epidemiological surveys performed across several continents and ethnic groups have linked low birth weight (LBW) to increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adulthood, the effects of birth weight and prematurity on development of CKD in childhood have not been clearly established. METHODS: Data on sex, LBW incidence and gestational age were compared between paediatric CKD cases and a control group. Paediatric CKD cases were obtained from a nationwide survey conducted by the Pediatric CKD Study Group in Japan...
December 29, 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Aleid J G Wirix, Jelle Verheul, Jaap W Groothoff, Jeroen Nauta, Mai J M Chinapaw, Joana E Kist-van Holthe
Hypertension in obese children may require a different diagnostic and treatment approach from that for children with secondary hypertension, yet there is neither consensus nor a clear guideline. The aim of this study was to assess how obese children with hypertension are currently diagnosed and treated by paediatric nephrologists, what obstacles exist and what can be improved. In the period May-November 2014, an online questionnaire was sent to all members of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (n = 2148)...
March 3, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Rishi Pruthi, Anna Casula, Carol Inward, Paul Roderick, Manish D Sinha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We evaluated rates and factors associating with late referral (LR) and describe association of LR with access to renal transplantation and patient survival in children in the United Kingdom. Early requirement of RRT within 90 days of presentation to a pediatric nephrologist was classed as a LR, and those >90 days as an early referral (ER). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We included patients who commenced RRT, aged ≥3 months and <16 years, from 1996 to 2012...
May 6, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
John F Bertram, Stuart L Goldstein, Lars Pape, Franz Schaefer, Rukshana C Shroff, Bradley A Warady
To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients...
March 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
M Razeen Davids, John B Eastwood, Neville H Selwood, Fatiu A Arogundade, Gloria Ashuntantang, Mohammed Benghanem Gharbi, Faiçal Jarraya, Iain A M MacPhee, Mignon McCulloch, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Charles R Swanepoel, Dwomoa Adu
There is a dearth of data on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Several national renal registries have been established but have not been sustainable because of resource limitations. The African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) and the African Paediatric Nephrology Association (AFPNA) recognize the importance of good registry data and plan to establish an African Renal Registry. This article reviews the elements needed for a successful renal registry and gives an overview of renal registries in developed and developing countries, with the emphasis on Africa...
February 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Adanze O Asinobi, Adebowale D Ademola, Michael A Alao
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important cause of preventable mortality among children. Management of AKI may require renal replacement therapy (RRT) but access to RRT for children in low resource settings is limited. Our study explored the role of haemodialysis in the management of children with AKI in a low resource setting in terms of aetiology and outcomes. METHODS: A review of patients managed in the Paediatric Nephrology Unit, University College Hospital Ibadan, South-West Nigeria, who underwent haemodialysis for AKI from January 2006 to December 2014...
February 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
Syed Sajid Hussain Shah, Naureen Akhtar, Faiza Sunbleen, Mohammad Fahim ur Rehman, Tausif Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a common problem but difficult to treat for pediatric nephrologists. Due to paucity of studies done in few centres in southern Pakistan regarding the histopathological aspects in paediatric patients with SRNS, this study was conducted to determine the histopathological spectrum in children with SRNS at our centre. METHODS: This descriptive study has been conducted at the Nephrology department, The Children's Hospital Lahore from February 2014 to January 2015...
July 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Sudheer Kumar Reddy, Afsana Jahan, Swasti Chaturvedi, Indira Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Outcome data in paediatrics regarding the use of plasmapheresis for immunological kidney disease are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the role of plasmapheresis in children presenting with severe renal impairment secondary to immunological kidney diseases. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children admitted between January 2009 and August 2013 to the Paediatric Nephrology Unit, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, and requiring plasma exchange was undertaken...
December 2015: Clinical Kidney Journal
Asheeta Gupta, Joanna Campion-Smith, Wesley Hayes, Jane E Deal, Rodney D Gilbert, Carole Inward, Brian A Judd, Rajesh G Krishnan, Stephen D Marks, Catherine O'Brien, Mohan Shenoy, Manish D Sinha, Yincent Tse, Kay Tyerman, Meeta Mallik, Farida Hussain
BACKGROUND: Paediatric renal biopsy standards introduced in the UK in 2010 were intended to reduce variation and improve practice. A concurrent national drive was aimed at building robust paediatric nephrology networks to ensure services cater for the needs of the family and minimise time away from home. We aimed to identify current national practice since these changes on behalf of the British Association for Paediatric Nephrology. METHODS: All UK paediatric nephrology centres were invited to complete a survey of their biopsy practice, including advance preparation...
April 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Gema Ariceta, Juan Antonio Camacho, Matilde Fernández-Obispo, Aurora Fernández-Polo, Josep Gamez, Judit García-Villoria, Enrique Lara Monteczuma, Pere Leyes, Nieves Martín-Begué, Federico Oppenheimer, Manel Perelló, Guillem Pintos Morell, Roser Torra, Anna Vila Santandreu, Ana Güell
INTRODUCTION: Cystinosis is a rare lysosomal systemic disease that mainly affects the kidney and the eye. Patients with cystinosis begin renal replacement therapy during the first decade of life in absence of treatment. Prognosis of cystinosis depends on early diagnosis, and prompt starting and good compliance with cysteamine treatment. Kidney disease progression, extra-renal complications and shorter life expectancy are more pronounced in those patients that do not follow treatment. The objective of this work was to elaborate recommendations for the comprehensive care of cystinosis and the facilitation of patient transition from paediatric to adult treatment, based on clinical experience...
2015: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
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