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Nicholas B Tiller, Louise A Turner, Bryan J Taylor
PURPOSE: Marathon and ultramarathon provoke respiratory muscle fatigue and pulmonary dysfunction; nevertheless, it is unknown how the respiratory system responds to multiple, consecutive days of endurance exercise. METHODS: Nine trained individuals (six male) contested 10 marathons in 10 consecutive days. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum static inspiratory and expiratory mouth-pressures), pulmonary function (spirometry), perceptual ratings of respiratory muscle soreness (Visual Analogue Scale), breathlessness (dyspnea, modified Borg CR10 scale), and symptoms of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI), were assessed before and after marathons on days 1, 4, 7, and 10...
November 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Theresa Diermeier, Knut Beitzel, Laura Bachmann, Wolf Petersen, Katrin Esefeld, Klaus Wörtler, Andreas B Imhoff, Andrea Achtnich
PURPOSE: In recent literature medial meniscus extrusion (MME) was demonstrated as an age, BMI and load dependent physiological phenomenon in healthy knees. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of mountain ultramarathon running on the medial meniscus extrusion (MME) in healthy athletes. METHODS: Healthy athletes of the 2017 Gore-Tex® Transalpine run (seven stages with in total 270.5 km and 16453 m altitude) with asymptomatic knee, and no history of knee injuries or surgeries were included...
November 21, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Taisa Belli, Denise Vaz Macedo, Gustavo Gomes de Araújo, Ivan Gustavo Masselli Dos Reis, Pedro Paulo Menezes Scariot, Fernanda Lorenzi Lazarim, Lázaro Alessandro Soares Nunes, René Brenzikofer, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate changes in muscle damage during the course of a 217-km mountain ultramarathon (MUM). In an integrative perspective, inflammatory response and renal function were also studied. Methods: Six male ultra-runners were tested four times: pre-race, at 84 km, at 177 km, and immediately after the race. Blood samples were analyzed for serum muscle enzymes, acute-phase protein, cortisol, and renal function biomarkers. Results: Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased significantly throughout the race ( P < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Martin D Hoffman, Eric D B Goulet, Ronald J Maughan
In Table 2 of the original publication, an error was made in the calculations for endogenous substrate oxidation which, subsequently, altered the values for total change in body mass.
December 2018: Sports Medicine
Martin D Hoffman, Craig Longobardi, Candice Burt, Todd Nardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Rebekah Alcock, Alan McCubbin, Vera Camões-Costa, Ricardo J S Costa
To assess the impact of rationed versus full estimated energy provisions on markers of physiological strain in response to a simulated 250 km multistage ultramarathon (MSUM), on two separate occasions, the ultraendurance runner performed a laboratory simulated MSUM, with rationed (RP: 3303±75 kcal⋅day-1 ) and full (FP: 7156±359 kcal⋅day-1 ) provisions. Total daily energy expenditure was determined using dual-method indirect calorimetry. Resting metabolic rate, iDXA, and body water were measured at baseline, day 3, and post-MSUM...
December 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Michael D Campian, Alexandra E Flis, Masaru Teramoto, Daniel M Cushman
INTRODUCTION: The use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) has been reported in several sports. There have been no peer-reviewed articles on the use of PEDs in ultramarathon running. This study was to examine the use of PEDs in ultramarathon running and to identify attitudes and beliefs about the usage of PEDs in the sport. METHODS: An online survey was developed. The survey was distributed to potential participants through Ultrasignup and the Western States Endurance Run Facebook sites...
September 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Min-Ho Park, Kyung-A Shin, Chul-Hyun Kim, Yoon-Hee Lee, Yongbum Park, Jaeki Ahn, Young-Joo Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes of cardiac and muscle damage markers in exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) runners before running (pre-race), immediately after completing a 100-km ultramarathon race, and during the recovery period (24, 72, and 120 hours post-race). METHODS: In this observational study, volunteers were divided into EIH group (n=11) whose maximum systolic blood pressure was ≥210 mmHg in graded exercise testing and normal exercise blood pressure response (NEBPR) group (n=11)...
August 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Patrick Boldt, Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Nikolaidis, Christoph Lechleitner, Gerold Wirnitzer, Claus Leitzmann, Thomas Rosemann, Katharina Wirnitzer
BACKGROUND: Health-related effects of a vegetarian or vegan diet are known to support parameters positively affecting exercise performance in athletes, whereas knowledge about psyche and wellbeing is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the Nutrition and Running High Mileage (NURMI) Study (Step 2) was to compare Quality of Life (QOL) scores among endurance runners following a vegetarian or vegan diet against those who adhere to an omnivorous diet. METHODS: The study was conducted following a cross-sectional design...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Daniel Krokosz, Mariusz Lipowski, Piotr Aschenbrenner, Wojciech Ratkowski
Background: Participation in extreme endurance sports is becoming an increasingly popular activity, and thus more and more people are getting involved in it. Taking part in a 100 km run is associated with great physiological and psychological stress, which can affect one's mood state. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if personality, experience, and motives for participation are related to a runner's mood and its changes as well as to investigate whether vitamin D3 supplementation influences mood 12 h before and 12 h after the run...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rémy Hurdiel, Samantha M Riedy, Gregoire P Millet, Benoit Mauvieux, Thierry Pezé, Charlotte Elsworth-Edelsten, Dudoignon Martin, Gauntier Zunquin, Grégory Dupont
Ninety-two runners completed the study during a 168 km mountain ultramarathon (MUM). Sleepiness, self-reported sleep duration, and cognitive performance were assessed the day before the race and up to eight checkpoints during the race. Sleepiness was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive performance was also assessed using the Digital Symbol Substitution Task (DSST). Runner reported 23.40 ± 22.20 minutes of sleep (mean ± SD) during the race (race time: 29.38 to 46.20 hours). Sleepiness and cognitive performance decrements increased across this race, and this was modulated by time-of-day with higher sleepiness and greater performance decrements occurring during the early morning hours...
October 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
Ultramarathon with Type 1 Diabetes Abstract. We report the case of a 63-year-old runner with type 1 diabetes mellitus requiring insulin since the age of 21. At the age of 32, he ran his first marathon, and at the age of 34 the first ultramarathon. So far, he has finished more than 90 marathons and ultramarathons. Thanks to an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring, he has so far completed 48 24-h-runs with an average distance of 133 km. The analysis of running volume and HbA1c values showed a significant increase in monthly exercise volume, a significant decrease in HbA1c values over the years, and a significant correlation between monthly running kilometers and HbA1c values...
July 2018: Praxis
Tracy B Høeg, G Kim Corrigan, Martin D Hoffman
Significant visual impairment occurs in a small percentage of ultramarathon participants and is thought to be due to corneal edema. Yet, the usual effects of prolonged exercise on the eye have not been previously reported. Eight study volunteers who completed the 161-km Western States Endurance Run underwent pre-race and post-race binocular and monocular visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and corneal thickness measurements. None was symptomatic with visual impairment during the race and they demonstrated no changes from pre-race to post-race in visual acuity (p = 0...
October 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Eun Sook Choi, Yongbum Park, Jaeki Ahn, Shunzhe Piao, Yun-Hee Lee, Jin Ho Yoon, Man-Geun Kwon, Kyung-A Shin, Young-Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Runners who participate in endurance sports such as marathons or ultramarathons have superior physical capabilities and health benefits compared to others. However, they may suffer long-term effects of the negative physiological changes during long-distance running. This study aimed to examine the effects of an ultramarathon on hormone levels, and the associated risks. METHODS: Ten participants who completed a 622-km ultramarathon were included. Blood was collected pre-race, at the 300-km mark, the 622-km mark, and on the 3rd day of recovery (RD3) and the 6th day of recovery (RD6) and analyzed for human growth hormone (HGH), cortisol, beta-endorphin, serotonin, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Floris C Wardenaar, Daan Hoogervorst, Joline J Versteegen, Nancy van der Burg, Karin J Lambrechtse, Coen C W G Bongers
The aim of the present case study was to use real-time observations to investigate ultramarathon runners' timing of food and fluid intake per 15 km and per hour, and total bodyweight loss due to dehydration. The study included 5 male ultramarathon runners observed during a 120 km race. The research team members followed on a bicycle and continuously observed their dietary intake using action cameras. Hourly carbohydrate intake ranged between 22.1 and 62.6 g/h, and fluid intake varied between 260 and 603 mL/h...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Tristan Martin, Pierrick J Arnal, Martin D Hoffman, Guillaume Y Millet
Among factors impacting performance during an ultramarathon, sleep is an underappreciated factor that has received little attention. The aims of this study were to characterize habitual sleep behaviors in ultramarathon runners and to examine strategies they use to manage sleep before and during ultramarathons. Responses from 636 participants to a questionnaire were considered. This population was found to sleep more on weekends and holidays (7-8 h to 8-9 h) than during weekdays (6-7 h to 7-8 h; p < 0.001)...
2018: PloS One
Michelle M Johannsen, Kenneth J Shin, Karolina Priebe, Robert H Coker
INTRODUCTION: The Alaska Mountain Wilderness Ski Classic is a self-supported ultramarathon cross-country skiing event that traverses one of the mountain ranges of Alaska each winter. Unique aspects of this event challenge athletes with a significant amount of physical and mental stress while in the chronically cold conditions of the Arctic. Assessment of energy requirements or body composition has never been performed during this event. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of the 2016 Alaska Mountain Wilderness Ski Classic on caloric expenditure and body composition...
June 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jill N Tirabassi, Lucianne Olewinski, Morteza Khodaee
BACKGROUND: Significant elevations of traditional biomarkers of liver injury can occur as a result of running an ultramarathon. HYPOTHESIS: Traditional serum biomarker levels of liver injury will significantly increase as the result of participating in this 161-km race at altitude. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A total of 64 (before) and 83 (after) volunteer runners participated in a prospective observational field-based study at the Leadville 100 ultramarathon race...
July 2018: Sports Health
Majid Moshirfar, Yanning Ding, Yasmyne Ronquillo, Orry C Birdsong, Michael S Murri
Ultramarathon-associated corneal edema is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a patient who presented with bilateral corneal edema following an ultramarathon. The corneal edema resolved without sequelae 48 h later. The authors hypothesize that the additive effect of enhanced glycolysis, an increased lactate level in the aqueous humor, and oxidative stress alters the normal endothelial regulation of the cornea and leads to corneal edema.
June 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Purpose: Despite the increasing popularity of 50-km ultramarathons during the last few years, only limited information is available regarding the trends in its performance and participation. The aim of the present study was to examine the age of peak running performance in female and male 50-km ultramarathoners using second-order nonlinear regression analyses. Methods: Data from 494,414 runners (124,045 women and 370,369 men) who finished a 50-km ultramarathon between 1975 to 2016 were analyzed...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
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