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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016961/quality-of-life-of-female-and-male-vegetarian-and-vegan-endurance-runners-compared-to-omnivores-results-from-the-nurmi-study-step-2
#1
Patrick Boldt, Beat Knechtle, Pantelis Nikolaidis, Christoph Lechleitner, Gerold Wirnitzer, Claus Leitzmann, Thomas Rosemann, Katharina Wirnitzer
BACKGROUND: Health-related effects of a vegetarian or vegan diet are known to support parameters positively affecting exercise performance in athletes, whereas knowledge about psyche and wellbeing is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the Nutrition and Running High Mileage (NURMI) Study (Step 2) was to compare Quality of Life (QOL) scores among endurance runners following a vegetarian or vegan diet against those who adhere to an omnivorous diet. METHODS: The study was conducted following a cross-sectional design...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008684/personality-traits-and-vitamin-d3-supplementation-affect-mood-state-12-h-before-100-km-ultramarathon-run
#2
Daniel Krokosz, Mariusz Lipowski, Piotr Aschenbrenner, Wojciech Ratkowski
Background: Participation in extreme endurance sports is becoming an increasingly popular activity, and thus more and more people are getting involved in it. Taking part in a 100 km run is associated with great physiological and psychological stress, which can affect one's mood state. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine if personality, experience, and motives for participation are related to a runner's mood and its changes as well as to investigate whether vitamin D3 supplementation influences mood 12 h before and 12 h after the run...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973086/cognitive-performance-and-self-reported-sleepiness-are-modulated-by-time-of-day-during-a-mountain-ultramarathon
#3
Rémy Hurdiel, Samantha M Riedy, Gregoire P Millet, Benoit Mauvieux, Thierry Pezé, Charlotte Elsworth-Edelsten, Dudoignon Martin, Gauntier Zunquin, Grégory Dupont
Ninety-two runners completed the study during a 168 km mountain ultramarathon (MUM). Sleepiness, self-reported sleep duration, and cognitive performance were assessed the day before the race and up to eight checkpoints during the race. Sleepiness was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive performance was also assessed using the Digital Symbol Substitution Task (DSST). Runner reported 23.40 ± 22.20 minutes of sleep (mean ± SD) during the race (race time: 29.38 to 46.20 hours). Sleepiness and cognitive performance decrements increased across this race, and this was modulated by time-of-day with higher sleepiness and greater performance decrements occurring during the early morning hours...
July 4, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969961/-ultramarathon-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
Ultramarathon with Type 1 Diabetes Abstract. We report the case of a 63-year-old runner with type 1 diabetes mellitus requiring insulin since the age of 21. At the age of 32, he ran his first marathon, and at the age of 34 the first ultramarathon. So far, he has finished more than 90 marathons and ultramarathons. Thanks to an insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring, he has so far completed 48 24-h-runs with an average distance of 133 km. The analysis of running volume and HbA1c values showed a significant increase in monthly exercise volume, a significant decrease in HbA1c values over the years, and a significant correlation between monthly running kilometers and HbA1c values...
July 2018: Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29957073/eye-function-and-physiology-following-a-161-km-foot-race
#5
Tracy B Høeg, G Kim Corrigan, Martin D Hoffman
Significant visual impairment occurs in a small percentage of ultramarathon participants and is thought to be due to corneal edema. Yet, the usual effects of prolonged exercise on the eye have not been previously reported. Eight study volunteers who completed the 161-km Western States Endurance Run underwent pre-race and post-race binocular and monocular visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and corneal thickness measurements. None was symptomatic with visual impairment during the race and they demonstrated no changes from pre-race to post-race in visual acuity (p = 0...
June 29, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952178/changes-in-hormone-levels-of-participants-in-a-622-km-ultramarathon-race-based-on-distance-and-recovery-period
#6
Eun Sook Choi, Yongbum Park, Jaeki Ahn, Shunzhe Piao, Yun-Hee Lee, Jin Ho Yoon, Man-Geun Kwon, Kyung-A Shin, Young-Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Runners who participate in endurance sports such as marathons or ultramarathons have superior physical capabilities and health benefits compared to others. However, they may suffer long-term effects of the negative physiological changes during long-distance running. This study aimed to examine the effects of an ultramarathon on hormone levels, and the associated risks. METHODS: Ten participants who completed a 622-km ultramarathon were included. Blood was collected pre-race, at the 300-km mark, the 622-km mark, and on the 3rd day of recovery (RD3) and the 6th day of recovery (RD6) and analyzed for human growth hormone (HGH), cortisol, beta-endorphin, serotonin, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780808/real-time-observations-of-food-and-fluid-timing-during-a-120-km-ultramarathon
#7
Floris C Wardenaar, Daan Hoogervorst, Joline J Versteegen, Nancy van der Burg, Karin J Lambrechtse, Coen C W G Bongers
The aim of the present case study was to use real-time observations to investigate ultramarathon runners' timing of food and fluid intake per 15 km and per hour, and total bodyweight loss due to dehydration. The study included 5 male ultramarathon runners observed during a 120 km race. The research team members followed on a bicycle and continuously observed their dietary intake using action cameras. Hourly carbohydrate intake ranged between 22.1 and 62.6 g/h, and fluid intake varied between 260 and 603 mL/h...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742118/sleep-habits-and-strategies-of-ultramarathon-runners
#8
Tristan Martin, Pierrick J Arnal, Martin D Hoffman, Guillaume Y Millet
Among factors impacting performance during an ultramarathon, sleep is an underappreciated factor that has received little attention. The aims of this study were to characterize habitual sleep behaviors in ultramarathon runners and to examine strategies they use to manage sleep before and during ultramarathons. Responses from 636 participants to a questionnaire were considered. This population was found to sleep more on weekends and holidays (7-8 h to 8-9 h) than during weekdays (6-7 h to 7-8 h; p < 0.001)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628417/alaska-mountain-wilderness-ski-classic-alterations-in-caloric-expenditure-and-body-composition
#9
Michelle M Johannsen, Kenneth J Shin, Karolina Priebe, Robert H Coker
INTRODUCTION: The Alaska Mountain Wilderness Ski Classic is a self-supported ultramarathon cross-country skiing event that traverses one of the mountain ranges of Alaska each winter. Unique aspects of this event challenge athletes with a significant amount of physical and mental stress while in the chronically cold conditions of the Arctic. Assessment of energy requirements or body composition has never been performed during this event. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of the 2016 Alaska Mountain Wilderness Ski Classic on caloric expenditure and body composition...
June 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558239/variation-of-traditional-biomarkers-of-liver-injury-after-an-ultramarathon-at-altitude
#10
Jill N Tirabassi, Lucianne Olewinski, Morteza Khodaee
BACKGROUND: Significant elevations of traditional biomarkers of liver injury can occur as a result of running an ultramarathon. HYPOTHESIS: Traditional serum biomarker levels of liver injury will significantly increase as the result of participating in this 161-km race at altitude. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A total of 64 (before) and 83 (after) volunteer runners participated in a prospective observational field-based study at the Leadville 100 ultramarathon race...
July 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536349/ultramarathon-induced-bilateral-corneal-edema-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
Majid Moshirfar, Yanning Ding, Yasmyne Ronquillo, Orry C Birdsong, Michael S Murri
Ultramarathon-associated corneal edema is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a patient who presented with bilateral corneal edema following an ultramarathon. The corneal edema resolved without sequelae 48 h later. The authors hypothesize that the additive effect of enhanced glycolysis, an increased lactate level in the aqueous humor, and oxidative stress alters the normal endothelial regulation of the cornea and leads to corneal edema.
June 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535560/age-of-peak-performance-in-50-km-ultramarathoners-is-it-older-than-in-marathoners
#12
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Purpose: Despite the increasing popularity of 50-km ultramarathons during the last few years, only limited information is available regarding the trends in its performance and participation. The aim of the present study was to examine the age of peak running performance in female and male 50-km ultramarathoners using second-order nonlinear regression analyses. Methods: Data from 494,414 runners (124,045 women and 370,369 men) who finished a 50-km ultramarathon between 1975 to 2016 were analyzed...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513036/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-manual-therapy-and-pneumatic-compression-for-recovery-from-prolonged-running-an-extended-study
#13
Amanda M Heapy, Martin D Hoffman, Heidie H Verhagen, Samuel W Thompson, Pavitra Dhamija, Fiona J Sandford, Mary C Cooper
Manual therapy (MT) and intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) are recovery methods used by endurance athletes with little evidence supporting effectiveness. This randomized controlled trial evaluated effectiveness of four daily post-race treatments of a specific MT protocol and IPC compared with supine rest on recovery following an ultramarathon among 56 ultramarathoners. Groups were comparable across all characteristics examined, including post-race plasma creatine kinase concentration. Subject completed timed 400 m runs before the race and on days three, five, seven and 14 post- race, and also provided muscle pain and soreness ratings and fatigue scores immediately before and after treatments, and during the 14 days post- race...
July 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483874/cardiac-autonomic-modulations-and-psychological-correlates-in-the-yukon-arctic-ultra-the-longest-and-the-coldest-ultramarathon
#14
Lea C Rundfeldt, Martina A Maggioni, Robert H Coker, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Alain Riveros-Rivera, Adriane Schalt, Mathias Steinach
Studies on human physical performance in extreme environments have effectively approached the investigation of adaptation mechanisms and their physiological limits. As scientific interest in the interplay between physiological and psychological aspects of performance is growing, we aimed to investigate cardiac autonomic control, by means of heart rate variability, and psychological correlates, in competitors of a subarctic ultramarathon, taking place over a 690 km course (temperatures between +5 and -47°C)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438325/untargeted-metabolomics-profiling-of-an-80-5-km-simulated-treadmill-ultramarathon
#15
Christopher C F Howe, Ahmed Alshehri, David Muggeridge, Alexander B Mullen, Marie Boyd, Owen Spendiff, Hannah J Moir, David G Watson
Metabolomic profiling of nine trained ultramarathon runners completing an 80.5 km self-paced treadmill-based time trial was carried out. Plasma samples were obtained from venous whole blood, collected at rest and on completion of the distance (post-80.5 km). The samples were analyzed by using high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with both hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) and reversed phase (RP) chromatography. The extracted putatively identified features were modeled using Simca P 14.1 software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden)...
February 13, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394290/impact-of-the-24-h-ultramarathon-race-on-homocysteine-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-and-paraoxonase-1-levels-in-professional-runners
#16
Serena Benedetti, Simona Catalani, Federica Peda, Francesca Luchetti, Roberto Citarella, Serafina Battistelli
The impact of the 24-h ultramarathon race on homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels, two well-recognized cardiovascular risk factors, has not been deeply investigated. Similarly, no information exists on paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme associated with high-density lipoproteins, which may detoxify oxLDL and Hcy-thiolactone, hence preventing their proatherogenic action. Taking this into account, a competitive 24-h ultramarathon race was organized in Reggio-Emilia (Italy) recruiting professional runners (n = 14) from the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378427/ultra-obligatory-running-among-ultramarathon-runners
#17
Martin D Hoffman, Rhonna Krouse
Participants in the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study were asked to answer "yes" or "no" to the question "If you were to learn, with absolute certainty, that ultramarathon running is bad for your health, would you stop your ultramarathon training and participation?" Among the 1349 runners, 74.1% answered "no". Compared with those answering "yes", they were younger (p < 0.0001), less likely to be married (p = 0.019), had less children (p = 0...
April 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336959/psychological-attributes-of-ultramarathoners
#18
Katherine Buck, Jack Spittler, Alex Reed, Morteza Khodaee
INTRODUCTION: As the popularity of ultramarathon participation increases, there still exists a lack of understanding of the unique psychological characteristics of ultramarathon runners. The current study sought to investigate some of the psychological and behavioral factors that are involved in ultramarathon running. METHODS: We obtained information from participants of the Bear Chase Trail Race via an online survey. This race is a single-day, multidistance race consisting of a 10 k, half marathon, 50 k, 50 mi, and 100 k run in Lakewood, Colorado, at a base altitude of 1680 m with total altitude in climbs ranging from 663 to 2591 m...
March 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305036/right-ventricular-structure-and-function-in-the-veteran-ultramarathon-runner-is-there-evidence-for-chronic-maladaptation
#19
Oliver Rothwell, Keith George, John Somauroo, Rachel Lord, Mike Stembridge, Rob Shave, Martin D Hoffman, Mathew Wilson, Euan Ashley, Francois Haddad, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that chronic exposure to prolonged strenuous exercise may result in maladaptation of the right ventricle (RV). The aim of this study was to establish RV structure and function, including septal insertion points, using conventional echocardiography and myocardial strain (ε) imaging in a veteran population of ultramarathon runners (UR) and age- and sex-matched controls. METHODS: A retrospective study design provided 40 UR (>35 years old; mean ± SD training experience, 18 ± 12 years) and 24 sedentary controls who had previously undergone conventional two-dimensional, tissue Doppler and speckle-tracking echocardiography to measure RV size and function...
May 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283932/glomerular-filtration-rate-is-unchanged-by-ultramarathon
#20
Wojciech Wołyniec, Wojciech Ratkowski, Katarzyna Kasprowicz, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Sylwia Małgorzewicz, Konrad Witek, Tomasz Grzywacz, Piotr Żmijewski, Marcin Renke
THE MAIN PROBLEM: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported as a common complication of marathon and ultramarathon running. In previous studies AKI was diagnosed on the basis of the creatinine level in serum and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In the present study we calculated eGFR and also measured creatinine clearance after every 25 km of a 100 km run. METHODS: 20 healthy, amateur runners (males, mean age 40.75 ± 7.15 years, mean weight 76.87 ± 8.39 kg) took part in a 100 km run on a track...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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