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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517978/glucose-homeostasis-in-statin-users-the-lifestat-study
#1
Thomas Morville, Tine Dohlmann, Anja B Kuhlman, Tine Monberg, Mimmi Torp, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Steen Larsen, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
Background Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol concentrations in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The treatment increases the risk of muscle pain (myalgia) and of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain disputed. Methods We investigated whether statin induced myalgia is coupled to impaired glucose homeostasis using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We performed a cross-sectional study of statin users without CVD (primary prevention) stratified into a statin myalgic (M; n=25) and a non-myalgic (NM; n=39) group as well as a control group (C; n=20) consisting of non-statin users...
December 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514933/left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-using-ecg-gated-18-f-fdg-pet
#2
Rudolf A Werner, Christoph Eissler, Nobuyuki Hayakawa, Paula Arias-Loza, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Mehrbod S Javadi, Xinyu Chen, Tetsuya Shinaji, Constantin Lapa, Theo Pelzer, Takahiro Higuchi
In diabetic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is one of the earliest signs of cardiac involvement prior to the definitive development of heart failure (HF). We aimed to explore the LV diastolic function using electrocardiography (ECG)-gated 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET) imaging beyond the assessment of cardiac glucose utilization in a diabetic rat model. ECG-gated 18 F-FDG PET imaging was performed in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (ZDF fa/fa) and ZL control rats at age of 13 weeks (n = 6, respectively)...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498558/aberrant-dna-damage-response-and-dna-repair-pathway-in-high-glucose-conditions
#3
Amy Zhong, Melissa Chang, Theresa Yu, Raymond Gau, Daniel J Riley, Yumay Chen, Phang-Lang Chen
Background: Higher cancer rates and more aggressive behavior of certain cancers have been reported in populations with diabetes mellitus. This association has been attributed in part to the excessive reactive oxygen species generated in diabetic conditions and to the resulting oxidative DNA damage. It is not known, however, whether oxidative stress is the only contributing factor to genomic instability in patients with diabetes or whether high glucose directly also affects DNA damage and repair pathways...
2018: Journal of Cancer Research Updates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30475225/the-slc16a11-risk-haplotype-is-associated-with-decreased-insulin-action-higher-transaminases-and-large-sized-adipocytes
#4
Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Donaji Gomez-Velasco, Olimpia Arellano-Campos, Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla, Magdalena Del Rocío Sevilla-González, Tannia Viveros-Ruiz, Alexandro J Martagón, Claudia J Bautista, Liliana Muñoz Hernández, Ivette Cruz-Bautista, Hortensia Moreno-Macias, Alicia Huerta-Chagoya, Karen Guadalupe Rodríguez-Álvarez, Geoffrey A Walford, Suzanne Jacobs, Luz E Guillen-Pineda, Ma Luisa Ordoñez-Sánchez, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez, Joaquín Azpiroz, Jannette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Patricia Clark, Miguel Herrera, Elena Zambrano, Jose C Florez, María Teresa Tusié Luna, Carlos Aguilar-Salinas
OBJECTIVE: A haplotype at chromosome 17p13 that reduces expression and function of the solute carrier transporter SLC16A11 is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes in Mexicans. We aim to investigate the detailed metabolic profile of SLC16A11 risk haplotype carriers to identify potential physiological mechanisms explaining the increased type 2 diabetes risk. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We evaluated carriers (n=72) and non-carriers (n=75) of the SLC16A11 risk haplotype, with or without type 2 diabetes...
November 1, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462352/metabolic-remodeling-of-glucose-fatty-acid-and-redox-pathways-in-the-heart-of-type-2-diabetic-mice
#5
Sonia Cortassa, Viviane Caceres, Carlo G Tocchetti, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Nazareno Paolocci, Steven J Sollott, Miguel A Aon
KEY POINTS: Hearts from type 2 diabetic animals display perturbations in excitation-contraction coupling, impairing myocyte contractility and delaying relaxation, along with altered substrate consumption patterns. Under high glucose and β-adrenergic stimulation conditions, palmitate can, at least in part, offset left ventricle (LV) dysfunction in hearts from diabetic mice improving contractility and relaxation while restoring coronary perfusion pressure. Fluxome calculations of central catabolism in diabetic hearts show that, in presence of palmitate, there is a metabolic remodeling involving tricarboxylic acid cycle, polyol and pentose phosphate pathways, leading to improved redox balance in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455857/hyperglycemia-aggravates-microenvironment-hypoxia-and-promotes-the-metastatic-ability-of-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Wei Li, Han Liu, Weikun Qian, Liang Cheng, Bin Yan, Liang Han, Qinhong Xu, Qingyong Ma, Jiguang Ma
Background: Diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer are intimately related. Our previous studies showed that high levels of blood glucose promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between hyperglycemia and hypoxic tumor microenvironments. Methods: HIF-1α expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in clinical pancreatic cancer tissues with or without diabetes mellitus. Statistcal analysis was performed to explore the relationship between HIF-1α expression and pathological features of patients with pancreatic cancer...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30453627/genome-wide-association-studies-of-estimated-fatty-acid-desaturase-activity-in-serum-and-adipose-tissue-in-elderly-individuals-associations-with-insulin-sensitivity
#7
Matti Marklund, Andrew P Morris, Anubha Mahajan, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia M Lindgren, Lars Lind, Ulf Risérus
Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of δ-5-desaturase (D5D), δ-6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD) activities (estimated by product-to-precursor ratios of fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography) in serum cholesterol esters ( n = 1453) and adipose tissue ( n = 783, all men) were performed in two Swedish population-based cohorts...
November 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30447037/effect-of-canagliflozin-treatment-on-hepatic-triglyceride-content-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Kenneth Cusi, Fernando Bril, Diana Barb, David Polidori, Sue Sha, Atalanta Ghosh, Kristin Farrell, Nishanth E Sunny, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Jeremy Pettus, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Sunder Mudaliar, Robert R Henry
AIMS: Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control by increasing urinary glucose excretion, but its impact on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) accumulation and relationship to changes in body weight and glucose metabolism remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 24-week trial subjects with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; HbA1c=7.7±0.7%) from two centers were randomly assigned (1:1) to canagliflozin 300 mg or placebo...
November 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430019/the-role-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-on-improvement-in-insulin-sensitivity-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-study-in-chinese-diabetic-patients-with-mild-and-central-obesity
#9
Lei Zhao, Liyong Zhu, Zhihong Su, Weizheng Li, Pengzhou Li, Yong Liu, Shengping Liu, Shaihong Zhu
Background: Most Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have mild obesity and central obesity. Central obesity is combined with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of abdominal adipose tissue on insulin-sensitivity improvement after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in Chinese diabetic patients with mild and central obesity. Methods: Seventeen T2DM patients with a mean body mass index of 30.3 kg/m2 were scheduled for laparoscopic RYGB...
November 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408342/exercise-training-remodels-human-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-fission-and-fusion-machinery-towards-a-pro-elongation-phenotype
#10
Christopher L Axelrod, Ciarán E Fealy, Anny Mulya, John P Kirwan
AIMS: Mitochondria exist as a morphologically plastic network driven by cellular bioenergetic demand. Induction of fusion and fission machinery allows the organelle to regulate quality control and substrate flux. Physiologic stressors promote fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, a process implicated in the onset of metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. It is well known that exercise training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume, number, and density...
November 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407726/sglt2-inhibitor-regulates-ketone-body-metabolism-via-inter-organ-crosstalk
#11
Jin Hee Kim, Minyoung Lee, Soo Hyun Kim, So Ra Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Jin Won Cho, Yong-Ho Lee
AIMS: Sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), a new class of glucose-lowering medications for diabetes, increase serum ketone levels. Recent studies have reported that ketone has an anti-inflammatory function and extends longevity in animal models. However, the mechanisms by which various organs upregulate ketogenesis in response to SGLT2i have not been elucidated. We investigated SGLT2i-induced changes in ketogenic enzymes and transporters in normal and diabetic mice models...
November 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30398101/simultaneous-pancreas-kidney-transplant-after-bricker-loop-urinary-diversion-a-case-report
#12
Dávid Á Kovács, Andries E Braat, Volkert A L Huurman, Andrzej G Baranski
Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant is the ultimate therapy for patients who have uncontrolled and complicated type 1 diabetes mellitus with end-stage renal disease. The combined pancreas transplant provides a euglycemic milieu for the kidney and protects it from recurrence of diabetic complications. Our patient, a 41-year-old woman with end-stage diabetic nephropathy and history of multiple abdominal surgeries (ovarian cyst fenestration, adnexal extirpation, abdominal wall reconstruction), including urinary diversion (Bricker loop, above double J stent), underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant...
November 6, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389203/body-composition-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-between-metabolically-healthy-versus-metabolically-unhealthy-obese-black-and-white-adolescents
#13
SoJung Lee, Silva Arslanian
PURPOSE: We compared body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) versus metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO) adolescents in 189 black and white adolescents (BMI ≥ 85th percentile, 12-18 years of age). METHODS: Participants were defined as MHO or MUO if their insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, measured by a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, was in the upper quartile or in the lower three quartiles...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375076/basal-glucosuria-in-cats
#14
Florian Karl Zeugswetter, Tanja Polsterer, Herbert Krempl, Ilse Schwendenwein
Objective of this study was to demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of glucose in urine of euglycemic cats by a highly sensitive glucose assay. The local electronic database was searched for results of quantitative urine glucose measurements in cats. A total of 325 feline urine glucose measurements were identified, of which 303 (93%) had been submitted by one of the co-authors working in a near-by small animal practice. After the exclusion of patients with kidney disease (n = 60), hyperthyroidism (n = 15), diabetes mellitus (n = 11), multiple diseases (n = 9) or steroid treatment (n = 3), as well as serial measurements (n = 87) and outliers (n = 8), the final study population consisted of 132 cats...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30373519/the-association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-reduction-in-myocardial-glucose-uptake-a-population-based-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-study
#15
Lijun Hu, Chun Qiu, Xiaosong Wang, Mei Xu, Xiaoliang Shao, Yuetao Wang
BACKGROUND: In diabetes, dysregulated substrate utilization and energy metabolism of myocardium can lead to heart failure. To examine the dynamic changes of myocardium, most of the previous studies conducted dynamic myocardial PET imaging following euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, which involves complicated procedures. In comparison, the whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan is a simple and widely used method. Therefore, we hope to use this method to observe abnormal myocardial glucose metabolism in diabetes and determine the influencing factors...
October 29, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30371795/glucose-mediated-glucose-disposal-at-baseline-insulin-is-impaired-in-ifg
#16
Mariam Alatrach, Christina Agyin, Rucha Mehta, John Adams, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
Objective: To quantitate glucose-mediated glucose disposal with and without basal insulin replacement and insulin-mediated glucose disposal in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) subjects. Research Design and Methods: We utilized the hyperglycemic/ pancreatic clamp and stepped euglycemic clamp techniques to quantitate glucose disposal and suppression of EGP in normal glucose tolerant (NGT) (n=14) and IFG (n=14) subjects. Results: Total body glucose-mediated glucose uptake, measured with the hyperglycemic/pancreatic clamp, was not significantly affected by basal plasma insulin levels in both IFG and NGT subjects...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369948/newer-perspectives-of-mechanisms-for-euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#17
Xiaofang Yu, Saifei Zhang, Long Zhang
Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) was considered a rare condition with its specific definition and precipitating factors. However, with the wide use of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, the newest class of antidiabetic agents, EDKA has come back into the spotlight. Relevant cases are increasingly being reported along with insights into the mechanism of EDKA. It seems increasingly clear that EDKA is more common than we used to believe. The SGLT-2 inhibitor-associated EDKA also indicates a necessary review of our previous understanding of "diabetic" ketoacidosis, since the SGLT-2 inhibitor predisposes patients to DKA in a "starvation" way...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369394/insulin-depot-absorption-modeling-and-pharmacokinetic-simulation-with-insulin-glargine-300-u-ml
#18
Klaus Lindauer, Reinhard Becker
OBJECTIVE: Mathematical models of insulin absorption have been used to predict plasma insulin concentrations after administration, but few are specifically applicable to insulin glargine, which precipitates subcutaneously after injection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The formation and redissolution of subcutaneous depots of insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) and insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) are modeled. Surface-area-dependent redissolution is introduced to established diffusion and absorption pathways, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles are simulated and subsequently validated using experimental data from euglycemic glucose clamp studies...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30364093/euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-the-icu-3-case-reports-and-review-of-literature
#19
Pablo Lucero, Sebastián Chapela
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute complication of diabetes mellitus, both type I and type II, as well as other types with diabetes such gestacional diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by blood glucose levels greater than 250 mg/dL and metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.3 and serum bicarbonate < 15 mEq/dL) with an increased anion gap and the presence of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Within this pathology, there is a subgroup of pathologies which are characterized by being present with no signs of hyperglycemia, posing a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of the main sign of the pathology and the diversity of their pathophysiology...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30350009/effect-of-blood-glucose-level-on-standardized-uptake-value-suv-in-18-f-fdg-pet-scan-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-20-807-individual-suv-measurements
#20
REVIEW
Mahsa Eskian, Abass Alavi, MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Benjamin L Viglianti, Hans Jacobsson, Tara D Barwick, Alipasha Meysamie, Sun K Yi, Shingo Iwano, Bohdan Bybel, Federico Caobelli, Filippo Lococo, Joaquim Gea, Antonio Sancho-Muñoz, Jukka Schildt, Ebru Tatcı, Constantin Lapa, Georgia Keramida, Michael Peters, Raef R Boktor, Joemon John, Alexander G Pitman, Tomasz Mazurek, Nima Rezaei
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of pre-scan blood glucose levels (BGL) on standardized uptake value (SUV) in 18 F-FDG-PET scan. METHODS: A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library databases. Multivariate regression analysis was performed on individual datum to investigate the correlation of BGL with SUVmax and SUVmean adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus diagnosis, 18 F-FDG injected dose, and time interval...
January 2019: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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