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David Scott, Aya Mousa, Negar Naderpoor, Maximilian P J de Courten, Robert Scragg, Barbora de Courten
Recent trials do not support a role for vitamin D supplementation in prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although effects may differ in Asian populations. In this pilot secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial of overweight or obese individuals with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D<50 nmol/L), we examined whether vitamin D supplementation improved insulin sensitivity or body composition in participants of Asian ethnicity. Amongst 65 trial participants, 33 reported being of Asian descent (mean ± SD age 30 ± 7 years; 67% male)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nalan Okuroglu, Meltem Sertbas, Ali Ozdemir
A 73-year-old female patient with a history of type 2 DM for seven years was admitted to our out-patient clinic with a complaint of frequent hypoglycemic episodes. She was receiving basal- bolus insulin treatment. She underwent liver transplantation 20 months ago due to end stage liver disease caused by HCV infection genotype 1b. While she was still on tacrolimus for liver transplantation, she received direct acting antiviral agents including fix dose ledipasvir-sofosbuvir with ribavirin. Biochemical analysis showed fasting plasma glucose of 105 mg/dl and postprandial glucose of 200 mg/dl, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c of 4...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
Hitomi Oda, Akihiro Mori, Satoko Ishii, Saori Shono, Eri Onozawa, Toshinori Sako
Insulin degludec (IDeg) is a new insulin formulation that facilitates long-term control of glucose level in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of IDeg on glycemic control in dogs. Its time-action profiles were monitored in healthy dogs using an artificial pancreas apparatus under euglycemic conditions. At 9.0-13.5 hr post-IDeg injection, an indistinct peak of glucose level was detected. Moreover, the action of IDeg was persistent for >20 hr. Both IDeg and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH) lowered blood glucose concentrations in diabetic dogs, but IDeg caused postprandial hyperglycemia and a somewhat lower preprandial glucose level than that caused by NPH...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Francesca Porcellati, Paola Lucidi, Paola Candeloro, Patrizia Cioli, Anna Marinelli Andreoli, Gianluca Curti, Geremia B Bolli, Carmine G Fanelli
OBJECTIVE: This study characterized the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and endogenous (hepatic) glucose production (EGP) of clinical doses of glargine-U300 (Gla-300) and glargine-U100 (Gla-100) under steady-state conditions (SS) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: T1DM subjects ( N = 18, age 40 ± 12 years, T1DM duration 26 ± 12 years, BMI 23.4 ± 2 kg/m2 , A1C 7.19 ± 0.52% [55 ± 5.7 mmol/mol]), were studied after 3 months of Gla-300 or Gla-100 (evening dosing) titrated to fasting euglycemia (random, crossover) with the euglycemic clamp using individualized doses (Gla-300 0...
October 10, 2018: Diabetes Care
Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Natalia Matulewicz, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
Insulin resistance increases the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) even in the absence of classic risk factors, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Low-grade chronic inflammatory state is associated both with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. An increased circulating level of proinflammatory proatherogenic factors and biomarkers of endothelial activation was observed in diabetes and CVD. The aim of our study was to assess serum proatherogenic and proinflammatory factors in young healthy nonobese subjects with positive family history of type 2 diabetes...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Justin Loloi, Amanda J Miller, Sarah S Bingaman, Yuval Silberman, Amy C Arnold
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce body weight, lower blood pressure (BP), and improve insulin sensitivity in animal models of cardiometabolic syndrome. These effects are generally attributed to reduced angiotensin (Ang) II formation; however, these therapies also increase levels of Ang-(1-7), a beneficial hormone opposing Ang II actions. We hypothesized this Ang-(1-7) generation contributes to the insulin sensitizing effects of ACE inhibition in obese mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were placed on a 60% high fat diet for 11 weeks...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nobuyuki Takahashi, Daisuke Chujo, Hiroshi Kajio, Kohjiro Ueki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the contribution of pancreatic alpha cell function to the dawn phenomenon, insulin sensitivity, hepatic glucose uptake (HGU), and glycemic variability in patients with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 40 patients with type 1 diabetes, arginine stimulation tests were performed, and the area under the curve of glucagon was measured using radioimmunoassays (AUCglc RIA ) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (AUCglc ELISA )...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Zongshi Lu, Xiao Wei, Fang Sun, Hexuan Zhang, Peng Gao, Yunfei Pu, Anlong Wang, Jing Chen, Weidong Tong, Qiang Li, Xunmei Zhou, Zhencheng Yan, Hongting Zheng, Gangyi Yang, Yu Huang, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
Insulin is critical for glucose homeostasis, and insulin deficiency or resistance leads to the development of diabetes. Recent evidence suggests that diabetes can be remitted independent of insulin. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. In this study, we utilized metabolic surgery as a tool to identify the non-insulin determinant mechanism. Here, we report that the most common metabolic surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), reduced insulin production but persistently maintained euglycemia in healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and C57 mice...
2018: Cell Discovery
Anja Birk Kuhlman, Thomas Morville, Tine Lovsø Dohlmann, Maria Hansen, Bo Kelly, Jørn Wulff Helge, Flemming Dela
Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug that is prescribed to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease following high levels of blood cholesterol. There is a possible risk of new onset diabetes mellitus with statin treatment but the mechanisms behind are unknown. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation has been found to improve glucose homeostasis in various patient populations and may increase muscle GLUT4 content. Our aim was to investigate whether eight weeks of CoQ10 supplementation can improve glucose homeostasis in simvastatin treated subjects...
October 1, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Zhiling Chan, Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, S Sendhil Velan, Melvin Leow, Faidon Magkos
Context: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing throughout Asia, even in the absence of obesity, and is lower in women than in men. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Objective: To evaluate sex differences in glucose and fatty acid metabolism in non-obese Asians. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore. Participants: Healthy Asian men (n=32, BMI=21...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ahmed Iqbal, Lynne R Prince, Peter Novodvorsky, Alan Bernjak, Mark R Thomas, Lewis Birch, Danielle Lambert, Linda J Kay, Fiona J Wright, Ian A Macdonald, Richard M Jacques, Robert F Storey, Rory J McCrimmon, Sheila Francis, Simon R Heller, Ian Sabroe
Context: Hypoglycemia is emerging as a risk for cardiovascular events in diabetes. We hypothesized that hypoglycemia activates the innate immune system, which is known to increase cardiovascular risk. Objective: To determine whether hypoglycemia modifies subsequent innate immune system responses. Design and Setting: Single-blinded, prospective study of three independent parallel groups. Participants and Interventions: Twenty-four healthy participants underwent either a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic (2...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrea Jaeger, Lukas Zollinger, Christoph H Saely, Axel Muendlein, Ioannis Evangelakos, Dimitris Nasias, Nikoleta Charizopoulou, Jonathan D Schofield, Alaa Othman, Handrean Soran, Dimitris Kardassis, Heinz Drexel, Arnold von Eckardstein
We sought to identify circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of prevalent or incident diabetes. In a pilot study of 18 sex- and age-matched patients with metabolic syndrome, nine of whom developed diabetes during 6 years of follow-up, an array of 372 microRNAs discovered significantly elevated serum levels of microRNAs -122, -192, -194, and -215 in patients who developed diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). In two cross-sectional validation studies, one encompassing sex- and age-matched groups of patients with T2DM, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and euglycemic controls (n = 43 each) and the other 53 patients with type 1 diabetes and 54 age- and BMI-matched euglycemic controls, serum levels of miR-192, miR-194, and mi215 were significantly higher in diabetic subjects than in probands with euglycemia or IFG...
September 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melanie Cree-Green, Ninghe Cai, Jessica E Thurston, Gregory V Coe, Lindsay Newnes, Yesenia Garcia-Reyes, Amy D Baumgartner, Laura Pyle, Kristen J Nadeau
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) includes insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in youth, and a greatly elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Identifying IR is challenging and documenting IGT requires an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). OBJECTIVE: Identify an easily applied surrogate measures for IR and IGT in girls with PCOS. METHODS: We studied 28 girls with PCOS [BMI percentile 98 (83,99); 15...
September 23, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Vasilis Tsimihodimos, Sebastien Filippas-Ntekouan, Moses Elisaf
Sodium Glucose Cotransporters 1 (SGLT1) play important roles in the intestinal absorption of glucose and the renal reabsorption of glucose, especially in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and those receiving SGLT2 inhibitors. As a consequence, the inhibition of SGLT1 transporters may represent an interesting therapeutic option in patients with diabetes. However, genetic models of SGLT1 inactivation indicate that the malfunction of these transporters may have adverse effects on various tissues. In this review, we discuss the available evidence on the beneficial and detrimental effects that the inhibition of SGLT1 transporters might have...
September 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ibiye Owei, Nidhi Jain, David Jones, Nkiru Umekwe, Sam Dagogo-Jack
Background: The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) is the "gold standard" for measuring insulin sensitivity, but glycemic recovery/stabilization after the procedure has not been well-studied. Here, we assessed the physiological determinants of post-clamp recovery. Methods: We analyzed data from 207 healthy subjects (102 African American, AA) and (105 European American, EA) who underwent HEC in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort study...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Karen Branch, Hang Lee, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Craig A Sponseller, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
Context: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely prescribed. Statins may have important metabolic effects on insulin sensitivity and liver fat, but limited studies have assessed these effects using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, stable isotopes, and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for liver fat quantification. Objective: To study the effects of pitavastatin on hepatic fat and insulin sensitivity. Design: Six month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Henrik H Thomsen, Nikolaj Rittig, Mogens Johannsen, Andreas B Møller, Jens Otto Jørgensen, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller
Background: Acute inflammation, and subsequent release of bacterial products (e.g. LPS), inflammatory cytokines, and stress hormones, is catabolic, and the loss of lean body mass predicts morbidity and mortality. Lipid intermediates may reduce protein loss, but the roles of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ketone bodies during acute inflammation are unclear. Objective: We aimed to test whether infusions of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB), FFAs, and saline reduce protein catabolism during exposure to LPS and Acipimox (to restrict and control endogenous lipolysis)...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Andrew Murton, Fredrick J Bohanon, John O Ogunbileje, Karel D Capek, Ellen A Tran, Tony Chao, Labros S Sidossis, Craig Porter, David N Herndon
Sepsis is a common and often fatal consequence of severe burn injury, but its exact effects on whole body and muscle metabolism in the burn patient is unclear. To address this, 13 septic and 11 nonseptic patients (age: 36.9 ± 13.0 years) with burns encompassing >30% of their total body surface area underwent muscle protein kinetic studies under postabsorptive conditions using bolus injections of ring-C6 and N phenylalanine isotopes. In parallel, whole-body lipid and carbohydrate kinetics were assessed using constant infusions of [U-C6]palmitate, [6,6-H2]glucose, and [H5]glycerol, and during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp...
September 19, 2018: Shock
Ahmed M Darwish
Canagliflozin is a novel drug for diabetes mellitus with the mechanisms of inducing glucosuria through inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 in the kidney independent of insulin activity. We are reporting euglycemic ketoacidosis with severe life-threatening metabolic acidosis. The 2 patients described had type 2 diabetes mellitus and were in a state of relative starvation after abdominal surgery. The first patient had been given an oral diet but was restricted with regard to calorie and sugar intake...
September 18, 2018: A&A practice
Weiping Li, Qingfeng Chen, Yikai Xie, Jinbo Hu, Shumin Yang, Miaozhi Lin
OBJECTIVE: The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp is the gold standard to evaluate insulin resistance (IR), but there are only a few studies on the prevalence of IR in Chinese Han women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigated: 1) the prevalence of IR in Chinese Han women with PCOS by clamp, 2) the degree of reduction of insulin sensitivity (IS) and the contribution of body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. PATIENTS: Chinese Han women with PCOS (n=448) visiting the Department of Endocrinology or the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University...
September 19, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
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