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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093357/exercise-induced-molecular-mechanisms-promoting-glycogen-supercompensation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#1
Janne R Hingst, Lea Bruhn, Mads B Hansen, Marie F Rosschou, Jesper B Birk, Joachim Fentz, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, Kei Sakamoto, Nils J Færgeman, Jesper F Havelund, Benjamin L Parker, David E James, Bente Kiens, Erik A Richter, Jørgen Jensen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski
OBJECTIVE: A single bout of exercise followed by intake of carbohydrates leads to glycogen supercompensation in prior exercised muscle. Our objective was to illuminate molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in skeletal muscle of man. METHODS: We studied the temporal regulation of glycogen supercompensation in human skeletal muscle during a 5 day recovery period following a single bout of exercise. Nine healthy men depleted (day 1), normalized (day 2) and supercompensated (day 5) muscle glycogen in one leg while the contralateral leg served as a resting control...
July 25, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072402/exercise-response-variations-in-skeletal-muscle-pcr-recovery-rate-and-insulin-sensitivity-relate-to-muscle-epigenomic-profiles-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Natalie A Stephens, Bram Brouwers, Alexey M Eroshkin, Fanchao Yi, Heather H Cornnell, Christian Meyer, Bret H Goodpaster, Richard E Pratley, Steven R Smith, Lauren M Sparks
OBJECTIVE: Some individuals with type 2 diabetes do not reap metabolic benefits from exercise training, yet the underlying mechanisms of training response variation are largely unexplored. We classified individuals with type 2 diabetes ( n = 17) as nonresponders ( n = 6) or responders ( n = 11) based on changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery rate after 10 weeks of aerobic training. We aimed to determine whether the training response variation in PCr recovery rate was marked by distinct epigenomic profiles in muscle prior to training...
August 2, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054913/the-muscle-anabolic-effect-of-protein-ingestion-during-a-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-in-middle-aged-women-is-not-caused-by-leucine-alone
#3
Stephan van Vliet, Gordon I Smith, Lane Porter, Raja Ramaswamy, Dominic N Reeds, Adewole L Okunade, Jun Yoshino, Samuel Klein, Bettina Mittendorfer
KEY POINTS: It has been suggested that leucine is primarily responsible for the increase in muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion because leucine uniquely activates the mTOR-p70S6K signaling cascade. We compared the effects of ingesting protein or an amount of leucine equal to that in the protein during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (to eliminate potential confounding due to differences in the insulinogenic effect of protein and leucine ingestion) on muscle anabolic signaling and protein turnover in 28 women...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047331/ketoacidosis-due-to-empagliflozin-a-paradigm-shift-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Hernandez-Quiles Carlos, Nieves Ramirez-Duque, Domingo Acosta-Delgado
INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2(SGLT2)-inhibitors are new antihyperglycemic agents that have shown a reduction in cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent warnings have been developed about an increased risk of euglycemic and moderate hyperglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, but its real incidence is not available yet. CASE REPORT: We present a case of DKA with moderate hyperglycemia in a patient treated with metformin and empagliflozin...
July 25, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047243/skeletal-muscle-autophagy-remains-responsive-to-hyperinsulinemia-and-hyperglycemia-at-higher-plasma-insulin-concentrations-in-insulin-resistant-mice
#5
Sarah E Ehrlicher, Harrison D Stierwalt, Sean A Newsom, Matthew M Robinson
Skeletal muscle autophagy is suppressed by insulin, but it is not clear if such suppression is altered with insulin resistance. We investigated if the inhibitory action of insulin on autophagy remains intact despite insulin resistance to glucose metabolism. C57BL/6J mice consumed either a low-fat (10% fat) diet as control or high-fat (60% fat) diet for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance. Following a 5-hour fast, mice underwent either hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic, or saline infusion to test the effect of insulin on autophagy markers in the quadriceps muscle (n = 8-10 per diet and clamp condition)...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040846/p8-deficiency-leads-to-elevated-pancreatic-beta-cell-mass-but-does-not-contribute-to-insulin-resistance-in-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#6
Marcus Hollenbach, Nora Klöting, Ines Sommerer, Jana Lorenz, Mario Heindl, Matthias Kern, Joachim Mössner, Matthias Blüher, Albrecht Hoffmeister
BACKGROUND: p8 was initially described as being overexpressed in acute pancreatitis and encoding a ubiquitous stress protein. Analysis of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in p8-knockout and haplodeficient mice revealed counterintuitive results. Thus, we determined glycemic control of p8 in mice fed with standard (SD) and high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: p8-/- and wild type (p8+/+) mice were used for analysis of glucagon (immunohistochemistry), insulin levels (ELISA) and beta cell mass...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028879/body-mass-index-%C3%A2-23-is-a-risk-factor-for-insulin-resistance-and-diabetes-in-japanese-people-a-brief-report
#7
Tsuyoshi Okura, Risa Nakamura, Yohei Fujioka, Sonoko Kawamoto-Kitao, Yuichi Ito, Kazuhisa Matsumoto, Kyoko Shoji, Keisuke Sumi, Kazuhiko Matsuzawa, Shoichiro Izawa, Etsuko Ueta, Masahiko Kato, Takeshi Imamura, Shin-Ichi Taniguchi, Kazuhiro Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Screening for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus is recommended for Asian Americans with a body mass index ≥23. However, the optimal body mass index cut-off score for predicting the risk of diabetes mellitus in Japanese people is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the best body mass index cut-off score for predicting insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in the Japanese population. METHODS: This study had two parts, a clinical investigation and a retrospective observational investigation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020457/youth-with-type-1-diabetes-have-adipose-hepatic-and-peripheral-insulin-resistance
#8
Melanie Cree-Green, Jacob J Stuppy, Jessica Thurston, Bryan C Bergman, Gregory V Coe, Amy D Baumgartner, Samantha Bacon, Ann Scherzinger, Laura Pyle, Kristen J Nadeau
Context: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have difficulty obtaining optimal glucose control which may relate to insulin resistance (IR), especially during puberty. Moreover, IR increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in T1D. However, the tissue-specificity of IR in adolescents with T1D had not been fully phenotyped. Objective: To assess adipose, hepatic, and peripheral insulin sensitivity in adolescents with and without T1D...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017208/euglycemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#9
Alejandro González-Castro, María Ortiz Lasa, Andrés Jiménez Alfonso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009546/acute-saccharin-infusion-has-no-effect-on-renal-glucose-handling-in-normal-rats-in-vivo
#10
Grégory Jacquillet, Edward S Debnam, Robert J Unwin, Joanne Marks
Artificial sweeteners are extensively used by the food industry to replace sugar in food and beverages and are widely considered to be a healthy alternative. However, recent data suggest that artificial sweeteners may impact intestinal glucose absorption and that they might lead to glucose intolerance. Moreover, chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners has also been linked to detrimental changes in renal function. Using an in vivo approach, our study aimed to determine if short-term infusion of the artificial sweetener saccharin can alter renal function and renal glucose absorption...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001566/altered-glucose-uptake-in-muscle-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-brain-predict-whole-body-insulin-resistance-and-may-contribute-to-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-a-combined-pet-mr-study
#11
Gretha J Boersma, Emil Johansson, Maria J Pereira, Kerstin Heurling, Stanko Skrtic, Joey Lau, Petros Katsogiannos, Grigorios Panagiotou, Mark Lubberink, Joel Kullberg, Håkan Ahlström, Jan W Eriksson
We assessed glucose uptake in different tissues in type 2 diabetes (T2D), prediabetes, and control subjects to elucidate its impact in the development of whole-body insulin resistance and T2D. Thirteen T2D, 12 prediabetes, and 10 control subjects, matched for age and BMI, underwent OGTT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies. Integrated whole-body 18 F-FDG PET and MRI were performed during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp to asses glucose uptake rate (MRglu) in several tissues. MRglu in skeletal muscle, SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and liver was significantly reduced in T2D subjects and correlated positively with M-values (r=0...
August 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996975/the-interrelation-between-fgf23-and-glucose-metabolism-in-humans
#12
Stan R Ursem, Marc G Vervloet, Rahel M Büttler, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Mirjam M Oosterwerff, Elisabeth M V Eekhoff, Paul Lips, Mireille J Serlie, Susanne E la Fleur, Annemieke C Heijboer
AIMS: Different studies point to a link between glucose metabolism and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23), an osteocyte-derived phosphaturic hormone. We aimed to investigate in humans the effect of (I) a glucose load and (II) a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp on FGF23 concentrations and conversely (III) the effect of a diet-induced increase in FGF23 concentration on glucose and insulin concentrations. METHODS: Plasma cFGF23 concentrations were measured during: I...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993992/prediction-of-adverse-glycemic-events-from-continuous-glucose-monitoring-signal
#13
Matteo Gadaleta, Andrea Facchinetti, Enrico Grisan, Michele Rossi
The most important objective of any diabetes therapy is to maintain the blood glucose concentration within the euglycemic range, avoiding or at least mitigating critical hypo/hyperglycemic episodes. Modern Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) devices bear the promise of providing the patients with an increased and timely awareness of glycemic conditions as these get dangerously near to hypo/hyperglycemia. The challenge is to detect, with reasonable advance, the patterns leading to risky situations, allowing the patient to make therapeutic decisions on the basis of future (predicted) glucose concentration levels...
April 6, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993354/hypoglycemia-following-pancreas-transplant-a-diagnostic-challenge-in-the-immediate-posttransplant-setting
#14
Tiffany I Hsiao, Joseph R Scalea
Few studies have described glucose metabolism in the immediate posttransplant period. Here, we report a 37-year-old female patient who had transient hypoglycemia after combined pancreas and kidney transplant for poorly controlled type 1 diabetes and renal failure. Although the patient's blood sugar decreased from 420 to less than 120 mg/dL and the kidney demonstrated graft function immediately posttransplant, at 19 hours after transplant, the patient's blood glucose decreased to below the normal range at a nadir of 59 mg/dL...
July 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992272/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-nicotinamide-riboside-in-obese-men-safety-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-mobilizing-effects
#15
Ole L Dollerup, Britt Christensen, Mads Svart, Mark S Schmidt, Karolina Sulek, Steffen Ringgaard, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Niels Møller, Charles Brenner, Jonas T Treebak, Niels Jessen
Background: Animal studies suggest a positive role for nicotinamide riboside (NR) on insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis in models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. NR, an NAD+ precursor, is a member of the vitamin B-3 family now available as an over-the-counter supplement. Although data from preclinical trials appear consistent, potential effects and safety need to be evaluated in human clinical trials. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the safety of dietary NR supplementation over a 12-wk period and potential to improve insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in obese, insulin-resistant men...
July 10, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988451/association-of-interleukin-10-methylation-levels-with-gestational-diabetes-in-a-taiwanese-population
#16
Jessica Kang, Chien-Nan Lee, Hung-Yuan Li, Kai-Han Hsu, Shu-Huei Wang, Shin-Yu Lin
Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy, which is also associated with future metabolic diseases in both patients and their offspring. The mechanisms underlying this condition remain largely unknown and may be partly related to epigenetics. The aim of this study was to compare the methylation levels of the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in pregnant women and their fetuses under both hyperglycemic and euglycemic environments, as those levels may be a clue to the epigenetic mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of GDM...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970184/effect-of-linagliptin-and-voglibose-on-metabolic-profile-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Girish Parthan, Shobhit Bhansali, Anura V Kurpad, Rama Walia, Kishor Bhat, Anil Bhansali
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glycemic control by promoting GLP1-mediated glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon. Sitagliptin and vildagliptin have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, these patients had uncontrolled blood glucose at inclusion; therefore, the improvement in insulin sensitivity observed in these studies could be attributed to the drug per se and/or reduction in glucotoxicity...
July 3, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960883/in-vivo-decoding-mechanisms-of-the-temporal-patterns-of-blood-insulin-by-the-insulin-akt-pathway-in-the-liver
#18
Hiroyuki Kubota, Shinsuke Uda, Fumiko Matsuzaki, Yukiyo Yamauchi, Shinya Kuroda
Cells respond to various extracellular stimuli through a limited number of signaling pathways. One strategy to process such stimuli is to code the information into the temporal patterns of molecules. Although we showed that insulin selectively regulated molecules depending on its temporal patterns using Fao cells, the in vivo mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show how the insulin-AKT pathway processes the information encoded into the temporal patterns of blood insulin. We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiments and found that, in the liver, all temporal patterns of insulin are encoded into the insulin receptor, and downstream molecules selectively decode them through AKT...
July 25, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29956494/inward-glucose-transfer-accounts-for-insulin-dependent-increase-in-brain-glucose-metabolism-associated-with-diet-induced-obesity
#19
Senda Bahri, Michael Horowitz, Charles-Henri Malbert
OBJECTIVE: There is a general agreement that there are changes in brain metabolism in insulin-resistant individuals during conditions of hyperinsulinemia. However, the impact on obesity is unclear, and the metabolic constants underlying these modifications are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate these changes in a large animal model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Twenty adult miniature pigs were fed with either an obesogenic diet or a regular diet for 5 months...
June 28, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951553/inflammatory-markers-in-older-women-with-a-history-of-gestational-diabetes-and-the-effects-of-weight-loss
#20
Alice S Ryan
The purpose of this study was to compare systemic inflammation in older women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) who developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to that in those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and to determine, in these women, the effect of weight loss (WL) induced by diet and exercise training on systemic inflammation and adipokine levels. This was a longitudinal clinical investigation of overweight/obese (BMI: 32 ± 1 kg/m2 ) women (59 ± 1 years) with a GDM history ( n = 19) who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 7) or IGT/T2DM ( n = 12)...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
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