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Abdur Rauf, Seema Patel, Muhammad Imran, AneelaMaalik, Muhammad Umair Arshad, Farhan Saeed, Yahia N Mabkhot, Salim S Al-Showiman, Nazir Ahmad, Eman Elsharkawy
BACKGROUND: Honokiol ((3',5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol), a lignan, is a promising antitumor compound, having exerted activity against a number of human cancer cell lines. Honokiol has inhibitory role on the proliferation, invasion and survival of cancer cells in in vitro as well as in vivo studies. It interferes with signaling pathways components in order to elicit the anticancer effect. SCOPE AND APPROACH: In present review, the published data on the efficacy of honokiol against various cancer cell lines and tumor-bearing animal models has been presented and discussed...
August 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Benjamin A Neely, Katherine Prager, Alison M Bland, Christine Fontaine, Frances M Gulland, Michael G Janech
Urinary markers for the assessment of kidney diseases in wild animals are limited, in part, due to the lack of urinary proteome data, especially for marine mammals. One of the most prevalent kidney diseases in marine mammals is caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is the second most common etiology linked to stranding of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Urine proteins from eleven sea lions with leptospirosis kidney disease and eight sea lions without leptospirosis or kidney disease were analyzed using shotgun proteomics...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Gyula Pekar, Ioanna Kasselaki, Agnes P Lukacs, Csaba Dekany, Dan Hellberg, Tibor Tot
AIMS: Genetic heterogeneity can pose a challenge to identifying eligible cases for targeted therapy in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) 2+ breast carcinoma group. In this study, we characterized this subset of tumors according to clinicopathological parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed 1000 tumor cells per case and recorded the number of HER2 and chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) copies using gene-protein assay slides...
August 16, 2018: Histopathology
Muhammad Khan, Jie Lin, Guixiang Liao, Yunhong Tian, Yingying Liang, Rong Li, Mengzhong Liu, Yawei Yuan
BACKGROUND: Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown survival advantage over chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This meta-analysis was conducted to gather and analyze the available evidence (Evidence level I; Randomized Controlled Trials) comparing efficacy and safety of anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapies and chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. METHODS: A search strategy was devised to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joachim W Fluhr, Torsten Zuberbier, Razvigor Darlenski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current knowledge on the morphology, functionality and biochemical composition of the skin in allergic reactions. We address novel noninvasive techniques that promise to disclose intimate mechanisms of skin allergy in vivo. Epidermal barrier is not just a static wrap of the organism but rather a dynamic field for immunological, biophysical and biochemical processes and serves as a bio-sensor for exogenous danger signals. RECENT FINDINGS: Classical biophysical methods are amended by novel in-vivo techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, analysing the skin microcomposition and develop epidermal profiles...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Y Ushigome, Y Mizukawa, M Kimishima, Y Yamazaki, R Takahashi, Y Kano, T Shiohara
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DiHS/DRESS) is a distinct phenotype of severe drug eruptions characterized by sequential reactivations of herpesviruses. Although a progressive loss of suppressive function in regulatory T cells (Tregs) occurred during the course of DIHS/DRESS, but not in Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), no previous studies investigated the mechanism. Given the recent finding that Treg development could be differentially regulated by CD16+ patrolling monocytes (pMOs) and CD14+ classical monocytes (cMOs), we can hypothesize that a differential fine-tuned interaction between Tregs and monocytes is the driving force behind the possible shift from Tregs to Th17 cells over a prolonged period of time in DiHS/DRESS...
August 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Noel Frey, Michael Bodmer, Andreas Bircher, Susan S Jick, Christoph R Meier, Julia Spoendlin
INTRODUCTION: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been associated with the use of various drugs, but evidence is scarce. We studied the association between new use of outpatient drugs other than anti-epileptic drugs and antibiotics and Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. METHODS: We conducted a matched (1:4) case-control analysis in 480 previously validated Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis cases (1995-2013)...
August 16, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Ai Yanai, Ryuichi Harada, Ren Iwata, Takeo Yoshikawa, Yoichi Ishikawa, Shozo Furumoto, Takanori Ishida, Kazuhiko Yanai
PURPOSE: Although a preparation method for F-18-labeled proteins that used a cell-free translation system and 4-[18 F]fluoro-L-proline instead of L-proline has been reported, its introduction depends on amino acid sequences of target proteins. The purpose of the study was to propose site-specific labeling method of F-18 by using cell-free translation systems supplemented with an engineered orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase derived from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (pCNF-RS)/suppressor tRNA (tRNACUA opt ) pair, O-2-[18 F]fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine ([18 F]FET), and template DNA inserted with an amber codon...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Christopher D Jakubowski, Muhammad J Niaz, Aileen Lee, Charlene Thomas, Amy L Hackett, Priyanka Patel, Naureen Rashid, Scott T Tagawa
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is characterized by expression of a plethora of cell surface antigens, thus offering opportunities for specific therapeutic targeting with use of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). ADCs are structured from two major constituents, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a specific target and a cytotoxic drug connected via a linker molecule. Several ADCs are developed against different UC surface markers, but the ones at most advanced stages of development include sacituzumab govitecan (IMMU-132), enfortumab vedotin (ASG-22CE/ASG-22ME), ASG-15ME for advanced UC, and oportuzumab monatox (VB4-845) for early UC...
July 30, 2018: Bladder Cancer
Qiwei Liu, Yanhui Zhang, Simon G Danby, Michael J Cork, Georgios N Stamatas
Skin physiology is dynamically changing over the first years of postnatal life; however, ethnic variations are still unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize infant skin barrier function, epidermal structure, and desquamation-related enzymatic activity as compared to that of adult skin in an East Asian population. The skin properties of 52 infants (3-24 months) and 27 adults (20-40 years) were assessed by noninvasive methods at the dorsal forearm and upper inner arm. Transepidermal water loss and skin surface conductance values were higher and more dispersed for infants compared to adults...
2018: BioMed Research International
Kumar Prabhash, Purvish M Parikh, Senthil J Rajappa, Vanita Noronha, Amit Joshi, Shyam Aggarwal, Shailesh Bondarde, Shekar Patil, Chirag Desai, Palanki Satya Dattatreya, Rajesh Naik, Sohit Anand, Raju Titus Chacko, Ghanshyam Biswas, Tarini P Sahoo, Deepak Dabkara, Vijay Patil, M V Chandrakant, Pratap K Das, Ashok K Vaid, Dinesh C Doval
Background: We conducted a survey of 111 medical oncologists across India to understand the current pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing at their respective centers. Methods: Medical oncologists from 111 institutes across India were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire. They were divided into two groups - Group 1 with in-house EGFR testing and Group 2 who send samples to central/commercial laboratories outside their institutions...
July 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Junjun Li, Xiaomei Liu, Caijun Yuan
Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are effective in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with leptomeningeal metastases (LM); however, a proportion of the patients with resistant tumors do not benefit from EGFR-TKI treatment. In the present study the case of a female patient with advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring the EGFR L858R mutation (encoded in exon 21) who developed intracranial metastases following treatment with erlotinib after gefitinib failure is reported...
September 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Chien-Hui Weng, Li-Yu Chen, Yu-Chin Lin, Jin-Yuan Shih, Yun-Chieh Lin, Ruo-Yu Tseng, An-Chieh Chiu, Yu-Hsuan Yeh, Chi Liu, Yi-Ting Lin, Jim-Min Fang, Ching-Chow Chen
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is a major advance in treating NSCLC with EGFR-activating mutations. However, acquired resistance, due partially to secondary mutations limits their use. Here we report that NSCLC cells with acquired resistance to gefitinib or osimertinib (AZD9291) exhibit EMT features, with a decrease in E-cadherin, and increases in vimentin and stemness, without possessing any EGFR secondary mutations. Knockdown of E-cadherin in parental cells increased gefitinib resistance and stemness, while knockdown of vimentin in resistant cells resulted in opposite effects...
August 15, 2018: Oncogene
William D Shipman, Susan Chyou, Anusha Ramanathan, Peter M Izmirly, Sneh Sharma, Tania Pannellini, Dragos C Dasoveanu, Xiaoping Qing, Cynthia M Magro, Richard D Granstein, Michelle A Lowes, Eric G Pamer, Daniel H Kaplan, Jane E Salmon, Babak J Mehrara, James W Young, Robert M Clancy, Carl P Blobel, Theresa T Lu
Photosensitivity, or skin sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is a feature of lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune and dermatologic conditions, but the mechanistic underpinnings are poorly understood. We identify a Langerhans cell (LC)-keratinocyte axis that limits UVR-induced keratinocyte apoptosis and skin injury via keratinocyte epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation. We show that the absence of LCs in Langerin-diphtheria toxin subunit A (DTA) mice leads to photosensitivity and that, in vitro, mouse and human LCs can directly protect keratinocytes from UVR-induced apoptosis...
August 15, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Philip Wertz
In the mid-1950s and 1960s, transmission electron microscopes became widely available, leading to many studies of the ultrastructure of various tissues including the epidermis. Most of these studies involved tissue fixation with formaldehyde and postfixation with osmium tetroxide. A few studies employed freeze-fracture electron microscopy. One set of these studies identified a small organelle variously called lamellar granules (LGs), lamellar bodies, membrane-coating granules, cementsomes, and Odland bodies...
August 15, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Megan N Kelchen, Gopi Menon, Patrick Ten Eyck, Donald Prettypaul, Nicole K Brogden
Application of exogenous products, such as creams, to the skin can result in subclinical changes in selected epidermal functions such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration, redness, and pH; these changes may lead to or contribute to irritation. Changes in skin surface inflammatory factors may provide further insight into this potential for irritation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in epidermal properties and inflammatory mediators after 4 days of topical application of 2 different polymers formulated in cosmetic creams...
August 15, 2018: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Nilgun Yildirim, Aykut Bahceci
Trastuzumab and pertuzumab are monoclonal antibodies used for the treatment of breast cancer. Until now, there have been no reports on the use of pertuzumab during pregnancy and on its potential effects on the fetus. Herein, we present a breast cancer patient who received trastuzumab and pertuzumab treatment during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. This 22-year-old patient initially diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast was found to be negative for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor in the immunohistochemical examination...
September 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Alexandria C McGrath, Geeta Sandhu, Euan Walpole, Elizabeth McCaffrey, Samantha A Hollingworth
Erlotinib is used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib was subsidized on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Schedule in Australia for the treatment of advanced stage (IIIB or IV) NSCLC (August 2008). In the pivotal trial supporting initial subsidy, erlotinib increased overall survival (OS) by 2 months compared with placebo (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.85). We examined the effectiveness of erlotinib in a 'real-world' setting by measuring survival outcomes in NSCLC patients treated in two tertiary metropolitan public hospitals in Queensland...
September 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Kanchan Karmakar, Anindya Kundu, Ahsan Zaigam Rizvi, Emeric Dubois, Dany Severac, Pierre Czernic, Fabienne Cartieaux, Maitrayee DasGupta
In root-nodule symbiosis, rhizobial invasion and nodule organogenesis is host controlled. In most legumes, rhizobia enter through infection-threads and nodule primordium in the cortex is induced from a distance. But in dalbergoid legumes like Arachis hypogaea, rhizobia directly invade cortical cells through epidermal cracks to generate the primordia. Herein we report the transcriptional dynamics with the progress of symbiosis in A. hypogaea at 1dpi: invasion; 4dpi: nodule primordia; 8dpi: spread of infection in nodule-like structure; 12dpi: immature nodules containing rod-shaped rhizobia; and 21dpi: mature nodules with spherical symbiosomes...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Shuai Liang, Yan Xu, Fenlai Tan, Lieming Ding, Yongbin Ma, Mengzhao Wang
BACKGROUND: There are controversial data supporting the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, the efficacy of icotinib in unselected and EGFR-mutated patients with lung SCC was assessed. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the survival time of unselected advanced lung SCC patients treated with icotinib for at least 5 months between June 2013 and June 2016, and selected appropriate EGFR-mutated advanced lung ADC patients to have 1:1 ratio of propensity score matching with EGFR-mutated advanced lung SCC patients, and matching factors were age, sex, clinical stage, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), smoking history, EGFR mutation type, and treatment lines...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Medicine
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