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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911706/using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-understand-retinal-ciliopathy-disease-mechanisms-and-develop-therapies
#1
REVIEW
David A Parfitt, Amelia Lane, Conor Ramsden, Katarina Jovanovic, Peter J Coffey, Alison J Hardcastle, Michael E Cheetham
The photoreceptor cells in the retina have a highly specialised sensory cilium, the outer segment (OS), which is important for detecting light. Mutations in cilia-related genes often result in retinal degeneration. The ability to reprogramme human cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiate them into a wide range of different cell types has revolutionised our ability to study human disease. To date, however, the challenge of producing fully differentiated photoreceptors in vitro has limited the application of this technology in studying retinal degeneration...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876464/m%C3%A3-ller-stem-cell-dependent-retinal-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Annu Chohan, Usha Singh, Atul Kumar, Jasbir Kaur
Müller Stem cells to treat ocular diseases has triggered enthusiasm across all medical and scientific communities. Recent development in the field of stem cells has widened the prospects of applying cell based therapies to regenerate ocular tissues that have been irreversibly damaged by disease or injury. Ocular tissues such as the lens and the retina are now known to possess cell having remarkable regenerative abilities. Recent studies have shown that the Müller glia, a cell found in all vertebrate retinas, is the primary source of new neurons, and therefore are considered as the cellular basis for retinal regeneration in mammalian retinas...
November 19, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868054/unraveling-the-mysteries-of-pre-mrna-splicing-in-the-retina-via-stem-cell-technology
#3
EDITORIAL
Rob W J Collin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867005/temporal-expression-of-cd184-cxcr4-and-cd171-l1cam-identifies-distinct-early-developmental-stages-of-human-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retina
#4
J G Aparicio, H Hopp, A Choi, J Mandayam Comar, V C Liao, N Harutyunyan, T C Lee
Human retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have anticipated value for human disease study, drug screening, and therapeutic applications; however, their full potential remains underdeveloped. To characterize RGCs in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived retinal organoids we examined RGC markers and surface antigen expression and made comparisons to human fetal retina. RGCs in both tissues exhibited CD184 and CD171 expression and distinct expression patterns of the RGC markers BRN3 and RBPMS...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856246/reprogramming-of-retinoblastoma-cancer-cells-into-cancer-stem-cells
#5
Fengming Yue, Kanji Hirashima, Daihachiro Tomotsune, Sakiko Takizawa-Shirasawa, Tadayuki Yokoyama, Katsunori Sasaki
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in pediatric patients. It develops rapidly in the retina and can be fatal if not treated promptly. It has been proposed that a small population of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), initiate tumorigenesis from immature tissue stem cells or progenitor cells. Reprogramming technology, which can convert mature cells into pluripotent stem cells (iPS), provides the possibility of transducing malignant cancer cells back to CSCs, a type of early stage of cancer...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826002/3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-rgd-alginate-hydrogel-improves-retinal-tissue-development
#6
Nicola C Hunt, Dean Hallam, Ayesha Karimi, Carla B Mellough, Jinju Chen, David H W Steel, Majlinda Lako
: No treatments exist to effectively treat many retinal diseases. Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina can be generated from human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/hiPSCs). The efficacy of current protocols is, however, limited. It was hypothesised that generation of laminated neural retina and/or RPE from hiPSCs/hESCs could be enhanced by 3D culture in hydrogels. hiPSC- and hESC-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) were encapsulated in 0.5% RGD-alginate; 1% RGD-alginate; hyaluronic acid (HA) or HA/gelatin hydrogels and maintained until day 45...
November 5, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807930/human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-retinal-vascular-injury
#7
Jin-Da Wang, Ying An, Jing-Shang Zhang, Xiu-Hua Wan, Jost B Jonas, Liang Xu, Wei Zhang
PURPOSE: To examine the potential of intravitreally implanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to affect vascular repair and the blood-retina barrier in mice and rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy or retinal ischaemia-reperfusion damage. METHODS: Three study groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 18 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received BMSCs injected intravitreally...
November 3, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803852/therapeutic-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-administered-at-later-phase-of-recurrent-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis
#8
Ping-Ting Zhao, Ling-Jun Zhang, Hui Shao, Ling-Ling Bai, Bo Yu, Chang Su, Li-Jie Dong, Xun Liu, Xiao-Rong Li, Xiao-Min Zhang
AIM: To test the therapeutic effects of delayed treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis (rEAU). METHODS: The efficacy of different regimens of MSC administration in rEAU were tested by evaluation of clinical and pathological intraocular inflammation, as well as retinal structural and functional integrity using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinogram (ERG). The retinal sections were also immunostained with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and rhodopsin (RHO)...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800245/chemotherapy-in-retinoblastoma-current-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Özge Yanık, Kaan Gündüz, Kıvılcım Yavuz, Nurdan Taçyıldız, Emel Ünal
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common childhood malignant intraocular tumor. Although enucleation and external beam radiotherapy have been historically used, today the most commonly used eye-sparing approach is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be used in both intraocular and extraocular RB cases. Chemotherapeutic agents may be applied in different ways, including systemic, subconjunctival, intra-arterial and intravitreal routes. The main purposes of application of systemic therapy are to reduce the tumor size for local treatment (chemoreduction), or to reduce the risk of metastasis after enucleation surgery (adjuvant therapy)...
December 2015: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790130/a-case-of-hydranencephaly-in-which-ophthalmic-examinations-were-performed
#10
Shohei Eda, Tomoko Terai, Yuko Nishikawa, Masahiro Tonari, Teruyo Kida, Hidehiro Oku, Jun Sugasawa, Shuichi Shimakawa, Masashi Hasegawa, Tohru Ogihara, Tsunehiko Ikeda
PURPOSE: We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. CASE REPORT: This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly...
September 2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784628/advances-in-bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-for-retinal-dysfunction
#11
REVIEW
Susanna S Park, Elad Moisseiev, Gerhard Bauer, Johnathon D Anderson, Maria B Grant, Azhar Zam, Robert J Zawadzki, John S Werner, Jan A Nolta
The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue...
October 23, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780043/a-conserved-developmental-mechanism-builds-complex-visual-systems-in-insects-and-vertebrates
#12
REVIEW
Jean-Stéphane Joly, Gaelle Recher, Alessandro Brombin, Kathy Ngo, Volker Hartenstein
The visual systems of vertebrates and many other bilaterian clades consist of complex neural structures guiding a wide spectrum of behaviors. Homologies at the level of cell types and even discrete neural circuits have been proposed, but many questions of how the architecture of visual neuropils evolved among different phyla remain open. In this review we argue that the profound conservation of genetic and developmental steps generating the eye and its target neuropils in fish and fruit flies supports a homology between some core elements of bilaterian visual circuitries...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693410/an-important-role-for-adenine-cholera-toxin-hydrocortisone-and-triiodothyronine-in-the-proliferation-self-renewal-and-differentiation-of-limbal-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#13
Min Yu, Sanja Bojic, Gustavo S Figueiredo, Paul Rooney, Julian de Havilland, Anne Dickinson, Francisco C Figueiredo, Majlinda Lako
The cornea is a self-renewing tissue located at the front of the eye. Its transparency is essential for allowing light to focus onto the retina for visual perception. The continuous renewal of corneal epithelium is supported by limbal stem cells (LSCs) which are located in the border region between conjunctiva and cornea known as the limbus. Ex vivo expansion of LSCs has been successfully applied in the last two decades to treat patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Various methods have been used for their expansion, yet the most widely used culture media contains a number of ingredients derived from animal sources which may compromise the safety profile of human LSC transplantation...
November 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686625/exosomes-derived-from-mscs-ameliorate-retinal-laser-injury-partially-by-inhibition-of-mcp-1
#14
Bo Yu, Hui Shao, Chang Su, Yuanfeng Jiang, Xiteng Chen, Lingling Bai, Yan Zhang, Qiutang Li, Xiaomin Zhang, Xiaorong Li
Although accumulated evidence supports the notion that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) act in a paracrine manner, the mechanisms are still not fully understood. Recently, MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exos), a type of microvesicle released from MSCs, were thought to carry functional proteins and RNAs to recipient cells and play therapeutic roles. In the present study, we intravitreally injected MSCs derived from either mouse adipose tissue or human umbilical cord, and their exosomes to observe and compare their functions in a mouse model of laser-induced retinal injury...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667917/three-dimensional-retinal-organoids-from-mouse-pluripotent-stem-cells-mimic-in-vivo-development-with-enhanced-stratification-and-rod-photoreceptor-differentiation
#15
Holly Yu Chen, Koray Dogan Kaya, Lijin Dong, Anand Swaroop
PURPOSE: The generation of three-dimensional (3D) organoids with optic cup-like structures from pluripotent stem cells has created opportunities for investigating mammalian retinal development in vitro. However, retinal organoids in culture do not completely reflect the developmental state and in vivo architecture of the rod-dominant mouse retina. The goals of this study were to develop an efficient protocol for generating retinal organoids from stem cells and examine the morphogenesis of rods in vitro...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664291/gene-therapy-and-stem-cell-transplantation-in-retinal-disease-the-new-frontier
#16
Robert E MacLaren, Jean Bennett, Steven D Schwartz
Gene and cell therapies have the potential to prevent, halt, or reverse diseases of the retina in patients with currently incurable blinding conditions. Over the past 2 decades, major advances in our understanding of the pathobiologic basis of retinal diseases, coupled with growth of gene transfer and cell transplantation biotechnologies, have created optimism that previously blinding retinal conditions may be treatable. It is now possible to deliver cloned genes safely and stably to specific retinal cell types in humans...
October 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645772/cct2-mutations-evoke-leber-congenital-amaurosis-due-to-chaperone-complex-instability
#17
Yuriko Minegishi, XunLun Sheng, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Yuri Sergeev, Daisuke Iejima, Yoshio Shibagaki, Norikazu Monma, Kazuho Ikeo, Masaaki Furuno, Wenjun Zhuang, Yani Liu, Weining Rong, Seisuke Hattori, Takeshi Iwata
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a hereditary early-onset retinal dystrophy that is accompanied by severe macular degeneration. In this study, novel compound heterozygous mutations were identified as LCA-causative in chaperonin-containing TCP-1, subunit 2 (CCT2), a gene that encodes the molecular chaperone protein, CCTβ. The zebrafish mutants of CCTβ are known to exhibit the eye phenotype while its mutation and association with human disease have been unknown. The CCT proteins (CCT α-θ) forms ring complex for its chaperon function...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644974/quantitative-metabolomics-of-photoreceptor-degeneration-and-the-effects-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-transplantation
#18
Junhua Wang, Peter D Westenskow, Mingliang Fang, Martin Friedlander, Gary Siuzdak
Photoreceptor degeneration is characteristic of vision-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Photoreceptors are metabolically demanding cells in the retina, but specific details about their metabolic behaviours are unresolved. The quantitative metabolomics of retinal degeneration could provide valuable insights and inform future therapies. Here, we determined the metabolomic 'fingerprint' of healthy and dystrophic retinas in rat models using optimized metabolite extraction techniques...
October 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641993/profiling-of-dna-and-histone-methylation-reveals-epigenetic-based-regulation-of-gene-expression-during-retinal-differentiation-of-stem-progenitor-cells-isolated-from-the-ciliary-pigment-epithelium-of-human-cadaveric-eyes
#19
Srilatha Jasty, Subramanian Krishnakumar
Millions of people around the world suffer from retinal degenerative diseases at varying degrees of vision loss including, complete blindness that are caused by the damage to cells of the retina. The cell replacement therapy could be a promising tool in treating these conditions, since the stem/progenitor cells could be isolated form adult ciliary pigment epithelial cells and could be differentiated into retinal phenotypes in vitro and could be of great importance. The present study aims to identify the role of epigenetic regulators during cellular differentiation, which involves loss of pluripotency and gain of lineage and cell type-specific characteristics...
September 15, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641649/successful-transplantation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-from-mhc-homozygote-ipscs-in-mhc-matched-models
#20
Sunao Sugita, Yuko Iwasaki, Kenichi Makabe, Hiroyuki Kamao, Michiko Mandai, Takashi Shiina, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Yasuhiko Hirami, Yasuo Kurimoto, Masayo Takahashi
There is an ongoing controversy as to whether major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching is a solution for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we established retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in MHC homozygote donors. We observed no rejection signs in iPSC-derived RPE allografts of MHC-matched animal models without immunosuppression, whereas there were immune attacks around the graft and retinal tissue damage in MHC-mismatched models...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
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