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Retina, stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777959/extracellular-matrix-expression-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-retinal-organoids-recapitulates-retinogenesis-in-vivo-and-reveals-an-important-role-for-impg1-and-cd44-in-the-development-of-photoreceptors-and-interphotoreceptor-matrix
#1
Majed Felemban, Birthe Dorgau, Nicola Claire Hunt, Dean Hallam, Darin Zerti, Roman Bauer, Yuchun Ding, Joseph Collin, David Steel, Natalio Krasnogor, Jumana Al-Aama, Susan Lindsay, Carla Mellough, Majlinda Lako
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in numerous processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, maturation, adhesion guidance and axonal growth. To date, there has been no detailed analysis of the ECM distribution during retinal ontogenesis in humans and the functional importance of many ECM components is poorly understood. In this study, the expression of key ECM components in adult mouse and monkey retina, developing and adult human retina and retinal organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells was studied...
May 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777757/stem-cell-based-retina-models
#2
Kevin Achberger, Jasmin C Haderspeck, Alexander Kleger, Stefan Liebau
From the early days of cell biological research, the eye-especially the retina-has evoked broad interest among scientists. The retina has since been thoroughly investigated and numerous models have been exploited to shed light on its development, morphology, and function. Apart from various animal models and human clinical and anatomical research, stem cell-based models of animal and human cells of origin have entered the field, especially during the last decade. Despite the observation that the retina of different species comprises endogenous stem cells, most stem cell-related research in the human retina is now based on pluripotent stem cell models...
May 16, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774506/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-the-treatment-of-eye-diseases
#3
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were, due to their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic characteristics, extensively explored as new therapeutic agents in cell-based therapy of uveitis, glaucoma, retinal and ocular surface diseases.Since it was recently revealed that exosomes play an important role in biological functions of MSCs, herewith we summarized current knowledge about the morphology, structure, phenotype and functional characteristics of MSC-derived exosomes emphasizing their therapeutic potential in the treatment of eye diseases...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766041/report-on-the-national-eye-institute-s-audacious-goals-initiative-creating-a-cellular-environment-for-neuroregeneration
#4
Marie E Burns, Beth Stevens
The cellular environment of the CNS is non-permissive for growth and regeneration. In the retina, transplantation of stem cells has been limited by inefficient survival and integration into existing circuits. In November 2016, as part of the National Eye Institute's Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), a diverse collection of investigators gathered for a workshop devoted to articulating the gaps in knowledge, barriers to progress, and ideas for new approaches to understanding cellular environments within the retina and how these environments may be manipulated...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760741/establishing-a-surgical-procedure-for-rhesus-epiretinal-scaffold-implantation-with-hipsc-derived-retinal-progenitors
#5
Ziming Luo, Kang Li, Kaijing Li, Bikun Xian, Ying Liu, Sijing Yang, Chaochao Xu, Zhigang Fan, Shoutao Lu, Haijun Zhang, Jian Ge
Background: To develop an effective surgical procedure for cellular scaffold epiretinal implantation in rhesus, facilitating subsequent epiretinal stem cell transplantation. Methods: Retinal progenitors were seeded onto a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) scaffold. First, the cellular scaffolds were delivered by 18G catheter or retinal forceps into rabbit epiretinal space ( n = 50). Then, the cell survival rate was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Second, three methods of scaffold fixation, including adhesion after gas-liquid exchange ( n = 1), tamponade by hydrogel ( n = 1), and fixation by retinal tacks ( n = 4), were performed in rhesus monkeys...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739345/atypical-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-as-the-first-presentation-of-poems-syndrome-a-case-report
#6
Panitha Jindahra, Charungthai Dejthevaporn, Pimjai Niparuck, Jariya Waisayarat, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Thanatporn Threetong, Purit Petpiroon, Tharikarn Sujirakul, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Kavin Vanikieti
BACKGROUND: POEMS syndrome is a plasma cell disorder, which clinically manifests from paraneoplastic syndrome: polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder, and skin changes. The most common ocular manifestation is optic disc swelling, whereas other ocular manifestations; cystoid macular edema, serous macular detachment, venous sinus thrombosis, infiltrative orbitopathy, uveitis, neovascularization of the disc, peripapillary choroidal neovascularization and optic disc drusen, had also been reported...
May 8, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721995/the-ipsc-derived-retinal-tissue-as-a-tool-to-study-growth-factor-production-in-the-eye
#7
Maryam Alavi, Petr Baranov
Traumatic, inherited, and age-related degenerative diseases of the retina, such as retinal detachment, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and age-related macular degeneration, are characterized by the irreversible loss of retinal neurons. Several growth factors, including glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor, have been shown to rescue retinal neurons in animal models of retinal disease. Here we describe a scalable and robust system to study the growth factor induction in the retina: retinal organoids derived from the induced pluripotent stem cells...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719254/let-7-microrna-mediated-regulation-of-shh-signaling-and-the-gene-regulatory-network-is-essential-for-retina-regeneration
#8
Simran Kaur, Shivangi Gupta, Mansi Chaudhary, Mohammad Anwar Khursheed, Soumitra Mitra, Akshai Janardhana Kurup, Rajesh Ramachandran
Upon injury, Müller glia cells of the zebrafish retina reprogram themselves to progenitor cells with stem cell characteristics. This necessity for retina regeneration is often compromised in mammals. We explored the significance of developmentally inevitable Sonic hedgehog signaling and found its necessity in MG reprogramming during retina regeneration. We report on stringent translational regulation of sonic hedgehog, smoothened, and patched1 by let-7 microRNA, which is regulated by Lin28a, in Müller glia (MG)-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs)...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717657/bone-marrow-cd133-stem-cells-ameliorate-visual-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice-with-early-diabetic-retinopathy
#9
Liyuan Rong, Xianliang Gu, Jing Xie, Yuxiao Zeng, Qiyou Li, Siyu Chen, Ting Zou, Langyue Xue, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide, is characterized by neurovascular disorders. Emerging evidence has demonstrated retinal neurodegeneration in the early pathogenesis of DR, and no treatment has been developed to prevent the early neurodegenerative changes that precede detectable microvascular disorders. Bone marrow CD133+ stem cells with revascularization properties exhibit neuroregenerative potential. However, whether CD133+ cells can ameliorate the neurodegeneration at the early stage of DR remains unclear...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717171/elevated-expression-of-human-bhlh-factor-atoh7-accelerates-cell-cycle-progression-of-progenitors-and-enhances-production-of-avian-retinal-ganglion-cells
#10
Xiang-Mei Zhang, Takao Hashimoto, Ronald Tang, Xian-Jie Yang
The production of vertebrate retinal projection neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), is regulated by cell-intrinsic determinants and cell-to-cell signaling events. The basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein Atoh7 is a key neurogenic transcription factor required for RGC development. Here, we investigate whether manipulating human ATOH7 expression among uncommitted progenitors can promote RGC fate specification and thus be used as a strategy to enhance RGC genesis. Using the chicken retina as a model, we show that cell autonomous expression of ATOH7 is sufficient to induce precocious RGC formation and expansion of the neurogenic territory...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678151/analysis-of-human-es-cell-differentiation-establishes-that-the-dominant-isoforms-of-the-lncrnas-rmst-and-firre-are-circular
#11
Osagie G Izuogu, Abd A Alhasan, Carla Mellough, Joseph Collin, Richard Gallon, Jonathon Hyslop, Francesco K Mastrorosa, Ingrid Ehrmann, Majlinda Lako, David J Elliott, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Michael S Jackson
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are predominantly derived from protein coding genes, and some can act as microRNA sponges or transcriptional regulators. Changes in circRNA levels have been identified during human development which may be functionally important, but lineage-specific analyses are currently lacking. To address this, we performed RNAseq analysis of human embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated for 90 days towards 3D laminated retina. RESULTS: A transcriptome-wide increase in circRNA expression, size, and exon count was observed, with circRNA levels reaching a plateau by day 45...
April 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675776/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-retinal-tissue-engineering-current-status-and-future-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Ratnesh Singh, Oscar Cuzzani, François Binette, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
The retina is a very fine and layered neural tissue, which vitally depends on the preservation of cells, structure, connectivity and vasculature to maintain vision. There is an urgent need to find technical and biological solutions to major challenges associated with functional replacement of retinal cells. The major unmet challenges include generating sufficient numbers of specific cell types, achieving functional integration of transplanted cells, especially photoreceptors, and surgical delivery of retinal cells or tissue without triggering immune responses, inflammation and/or remodeling...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674172/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-patient-with-x-linked-juvenile-retinoschisis
#13
Chi-Hsien Peng, Kang-Chieh Huang, Huai-En Lu, Shih-Han Syu, Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn, Jyh-Feng Lu, Waradee Buddhakosai, Tai-Chi Lin, Chih-Chien Hsu, De-Kuang Hwang, Chia-Ning Shen, Shih-Jen Chen, Shih-Hwa Chiou
X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a hereditary retinal dystrophy manifested as splitting of anatomical layers of retina. In this report, we generated a patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, TVGH-iPSC-013-05, from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a male patient with XLRS by using the Sendai-virus delivery system. We believe that XLRS patient-specific iPSCs provide a powerful in vitro model for evaluating the pathological phenotypes of the disease.
April 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660533/role-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-photoreceptors
#14
Grace E Lidgerwood, Andrew J Morris, Alison Conquest, Maciej Daniszewski, Louise A Rooney, Shiang Y Lim, Damián Hernández, Helena H Liang, Penelope Allen, Paul P Connell, Robyn H Guymer, Alex W Hewitt, Alice Pébay
The human retina is a complex structure of organised layers of specialised cells that support the transmission of light signals to the visual cortex. The outermost layer of the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms part of the blood retina barrier and is implicated in many retinal diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid exerting pleiotropic effects in various cell types, during development, normal physiology and disease. Its producing enzyme AUTOTAXIN (ATX) is highly expressed by the pigmented epithelia of the human eye, including the RPE...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625481/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-promote-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-after-transplant
#15
Suqian Wu, Kun-Che Chang, Michael Nahmou, Jeffrey L Goldberg
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize whether induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) affect survival of grafted retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after transplantation. Methods: For in vitro studies, human iPSCs were either directly cocultured with mouse RGCs or plated in hanging inserts in RGC cultures for 1 week. For ex vivo studies, RGCs and iPSCs were seeded onto the inner surface of an adult rat retina explant and cultured for 1 week. For in vivo studies, RGCs and iPSCs were intravitreally coinjected into an adult rat eye 1 week before examining retinas by explant and immunostaining...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621220/patching-the-retina-with-stem-cells
#16
Kapil Bharti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610856/natural-killer-cell-inhibition-by-hla-e-molecules-on-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#17
Sunao Sugita, Kenichi Makabe, Yuko Iwasaki, Shota Fujii, Masayo Takahashi
Purpose: To determine whether human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (iPS-RPE) can suppress natural killer (NK) cell activation. Methods: iPS-RPE cells were cocultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or purified NK cells from healthy donors after stimulation with cytokines. To confirm expression of NK cell-specific markers, flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed. NK cells (or PBMCs) cocultured with iPS-RPE cells were assessed for proliferation by Ki-67 expression with flow cytometry, and NK suppression by RPE cells was assessed for granzyme B production with ELISA...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587858/hla-and-proteasome-expression-body-map
#18
Sebastian Boegel, Martin Löwer, Thomas Bukur, Patrick Sorn, John C Castle, Ugur Sahin
BACKGROUND: The presentation of HLA peptide complexes to T cells is a highly regulated and tissue specific process involving multiple transcriptionally controlled cellular components. The extensive polymorphism of HLA genes and the complex composition of the proteasome make it difficult to map their expression profiles across tissues. METHODS: Here we applied a tailored gene quantification pipeline to 4323 publicly available RNA-Seq datasets representing 55 normal tissues and cell types to examine expression profiles of (classical and non-classical) HLA class I, class II and proteasomal genes...
March 27, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580100/assessment-of-aav-vector-tropisms-for-mouse-and-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-rpe-and-photoreceptor-cells
#19
Anai Gonzalez Cordero, Debbie Goh, Kamil Kruczek, Arifa Naeem, Milan Fernando, Sophia-Martha Kleine Holthaus, Matsuki Takaaki, Samuel J I Blackford, Magdalena Kloc, Leticia Agundez, Robert D Sampson, Shyamanga Borooah, Patrick Ovando-Roche, Manjit S Mehat, Emma L West, Alexander J Smith, Rachael A Pearson, Robin R Ali
Adeno-associated viral vectors are showing great promise as gene therapy vectors for a wide range of retinal disorders. To date, evaluation of therapeutic approaches has depended almost exclusively on the use of animal models. With recent advances in human stem cell technology, stem-cell derived retina now offers the possibility to assess efficacy in human organoids in vitro. Here we test 6 AAV serotypes (AAV2/2, AAV2/9, AAV2/8, AAV2/8T(Y733F), AAV2/5 and ShH10) to determine their efficiency in transducing mouse and human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE and photoreceptor cells in vitro...
March 26, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576896/stem-cell-treatment-in-retinal-diseases-recent-developments
#20
REVIEW
Ayşe Öner
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into mature cells. They are highly proliferative, implying that an unlimited number of mature cells can be generated from a given stem cell source. On this basis, stem cell replacement therapy has been evaluated in recent years as an alternative for various pathologies. Degenerative retinal diseases cause progressive visual decline which originates from continuing loss of photoreceptor cells and outer nuclear layers...
February 2018: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
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