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Retina, stem cells

Yingqian Peng, Edouard Baulier, Yifeng Ke, Alejandra Young, Novruz B Ahmedli, Steven D Schwartz, Debora B Farber
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by virtually every cell of all organisms are involved in processes of intercellular communication through the delivery of their functional mRNAs, proteins and bioactive lipids. We previously demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem cell-released EVs (mESEVs) are able to transfer their content to different target retinal cells, inducing morphological and biochemical changes in them. The main objective of this paper is to characterize EVs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESEVs) and investigate the effects that they have on cultured retinal glial, progenitor Müller cells, which are known to give rise to retinal neurons under specific conditions...
2018: PloS One
Jacqueline M Roberts, Monica L Vetter
The use of retinal organoids requires efficient differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this issue of Cell Reports, Wang et al. (2018) examine how the chromatin landscape after iPSC programming predicts their ability to differentiate into retinal tissue.
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Shangli Ji, Saiyue Lin, Jiansu Chen, Xinping Huang, Chih-Chang Wei, Zhiyuan Li, Shibo Tang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential therapeutic benefits of intravitreally transplanted human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in an animal model of microbead-injection-induced ocular hypertension (OHT). METHODS: UC-MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cords and then cultured. The OHT model was induced via intracameral injection of polystyrene microbeads in Sprague-Dawley adult rat eyes. Fifty-four healthy adult rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control, OHT model treated with intravitreal transplantation of UC-MSCs, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)...
March 5, 2018: Current Eye Research
Valeria Chichagova, Dean Hallam, Joseph Collin, Darin Zerti, Birthe Dorgau, Majed Felemban, Majlinda Lako, David H Steel
Despite considerable effort and significant therapeutic advances, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains the commonest cause of blindness in the developed world. Progressive late-stage AMD with outer retinal degeneration currently has no proven treatment. There has been significant interest in the possibility that cellular treatments may slow or reverse visual loss in AMD. A number of modes of action have been suggested, including cell replacement and rescue, as well as immune modulation to delay the neurodegenerative process...
March 5, 2018: Eye
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Stéphanie Bouffard, Emilie Dambroise, Alessandro Brombin, Sylvain Lempereur, Isabelle Hatin, Matthieu Simion, Raphael Corre, Franck Bourrat, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Françoise Jamen
Fibrillarin (Fbl) is a highly conserved protein that plays an essential role in ribosome biogenesis and more particularly in the methylation of ribosomal RNAs and rDNA histones. In cellular models, FBL was shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis and stem cell differentiation. We used the zebrafish as an in vivo model to study Fbl function during embryonic development. We show here that the optic tectum and the eye are severely affected by Fbl depletion whereas ventral regions of the brain are less impacted...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Biology
Ye He, Hai-Bo Li, Xin Li, Yi Zhou, Xiao-Bo Xia, Wei-Tao Song
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal Müller cells could be induced to differentiate into retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but RGCs derived from Müller cells have defects in axon growth, leading to a defect in signal conduction. In this study we aimed to explore the role of miR-124 in axon growth of RGCs derived from Müller cells. METHODS: Müller cells were isolated from rat retina and induced to dedifferentiate into retinal stem cells. The stem cells were infected by PGC-FU-Atoh7-GFP lentivirus and then transfected with miR-124 or anti-miR-124, and the length of axon was compared...
February 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Thu T Duong, Vidyullatha Vasireddy, Pavitra Ramachandran, Pamela S Herrera, Lanfranco Leo, Carrie Merkel, Jean Bennett, Jason A Mills
Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare monogenic, X-linked recessive inherited retinal degeneration resulting from mutations in the Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1) encoding CHM gene. The primary retinal cell type leading to CHM is unknown. In this study, we explored the utility of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models of retinal pigmented epithelium (iPSC-RPE) to study disease pathogenesis and a potential gene-based intervention in four different genetically distinct forms of CHM. A number of abnormal cell biologic, biochemical, and physiologic functions were identified in the CHM mutant cells...
January 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research
M Joseph Phillips, Elizabeth E Capowski, Andrew Petersen, Alex D Jansen, Katherine Barlow, Kimberly L Edwards, David M Gamm
Reporter lines generated in human pluripotent stem cells can be highly useful for the analysis of specific cell types and lineages in live cultures. We created the first human rod reporter line using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to replace one allele of the Neural Retina Leucine zipper (NRL) gene with an eGFP transgene in the WA09 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line. After confirming successful targeting, three-dimensional optic vesicle structures were produced to examine reporter specificity and to track rod differentiation in culture...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Agnese Fiori, Vincenzo Terlizzi, Heiner Kremer, Julian Gebauer, Hans-Peter Hammes, Martin C Harmsen, Karen Bieback
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a multifactorial microvascular disease induced by hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic abnormalities. The resulting cell stress causes a sequela of events that ultimately can lead to severe vision impairment and blindness. The early stages are characterized by activation of glia and loss of pericytes, endothelial cells (EC) and neuronal cells. The integrity of the retinal microvasculature becomes affected, and, as a possible late response, macular edema may develop as a common reason for vision loss in patients with non-proliferative DR...
February 2, 2018: Immunobiology
Wataru Kobayashi, Akishi Onishi, Hung-Ya Tu, Yuji Takihara, Michiru Matsumura, Kazuko Tsujimoto, Masaru Inatani, Toru Nakazawa, Masayo Takahashi
Purpose: We aimed to establish purification and culture systems for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) differentiated from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSC) for in vitro and regenerative medicine studies. Methods: We used a two-step immunopanning method to purify RGCs from mouse and human PSC-derived three-dimensional (3D) retinal organoids. To assess the method, we purified RGCs from 3D retinal organoids derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated from Thy1-EGFP transgenic (TG) mice...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Fairouz Elsaeidi, Peter Macpherson, Elizabeth A Mills, Jonathan Jui, John G Flannery, Daniel Goldman
Muller glial cells (MG) in the zebrafish retina respond to injury by acquiring retinal stem cell characteristics. Thousands of gene expression changes are associated with this event. Key among these changes are the induction of Ascl1a and Lin28a, two reprogramming factors whose expression is necessary for retina regeneration. Whether these factors are sufficient to drive MG proliferation and subsequent neuronal-fate specification remains unknown. To test this, we conditionally expressed Ascl1a and Lin28a in the uninjured retina of male and female fish...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mingyue Luo, Youxin Chen
As a constituent of blood-retinal barrier and retinal outer segment (ROS) scavenger, retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is fundamental to normal function of retina. Malfunctioning of RPE contributes to the onset and advance of retinal degenerative diseases. Up to date, RPE replacement therapy is the only possible method to completely reverse retinal degeneration. Transplantation of human RPE stem cell-derived RPE (hRPESC-RPE) has shown some good results in animal models. With promising results in terms of safety and visual improvement, human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) can be expected in clinical settings in the near future...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Hanen Khabou, Marcela Garita-Hernandez, Antoine Chaffiol, Sacha Reichman, Céline Jaillard, Elena Brazhnikova, Stéphane Bertin, Valérie Forster, Mélissa Desrosiers, Céline Winckler, Olivier Goureau, Serge Picaud, Jens Duebel, José-Alain Sahel, Deniz Dalkara
Intraocular injection of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has been an evident route for delivering gene drugs into the retina. However, gaps in our understanding of AAV transduction patterns within the anatomically unique environments of the subretinal and intravitreal space of the primate eye impeded the establishment of noninvasive and efficient gene delivery to foveal cones in the clinic. Here, we establish new vector-promoter combinations to overcome the limitations associated with AAV-mediated cone transduction in the fovea with supporting studies in mouse models, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived organoids, postmortem human retinal explants, and living macaques...
January 25, 2018: JCI Insight
Mary Ben L Apatoff, Jesse D Sengillo, Eugenia C White, Mathieu F Bakhoum, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang
The mammalian retina, derived from neural ectoderm, has little regenerative potential. For conditions where irreversible retinal pigment epithelium or photoreceptor cell loss occurs, advanced techniques are required to restore vision. Inherited retinal dystrophies and some acquired conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, have a similar end result of photoreceptor cell death leading to debilitating vision loss. These diseases stand to benefit from future regenerative medicine as dietary recommendations and current pharmacologic therapy only seek to prevent further disease progression...
January 23, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Vipul M Parmar, Tanu Parmar, Eisuke Arai, Lindsay Perusek, Akiko Maeda
Accumulation of lipofuscin in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) is observed in retinal degenerative diseases including Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Bis-retinoid N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) is a major component of lipofuscin. A2E has been implicated in RPE atrophy and retinal inflammation; however, mice with A2E accumulation display only a mild retinal phenotype. In the current study, human iPSC-RPE (hiPSC-RPE) cells were generated from healthy individuals to examine effects of A2E in human RPE cells...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Jörn Lakowski, Emily Welby, Dimitri Budinger, Fabiana Di Marco, Valentina Di Foggia, James W B Bainbridge, Kyle Wallace, David M Gamm, Robin R Ali, Jane C Sowden
Loss of photoreceptor cells due to retinal degeneration is one of the main causes of blindness in the developed world. Although there is currently no effective treatment, cell replacement therapy using stem-cell-derived photoreceptor cells may be a feasible future treatment option. In order to ensure safety and efficacy of this approach, robust cell isolation and purification protocols must be developed. To this end, we previously developed a biomarker panel for the isolation of mouse photoreceptor precursors from the developing mouse retina and mouse embryonic stem cell cultures...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
Paul V Waldron, Fabiana Di Marco, Kamil Kruczek, Joana Ribeiro, Anna B Graca, Claire Hippert, Nozie D Aghaizu, Aikaterini A Kalargyrou, Amanda C Barber, Giulia Grimaldi, Yanai Duran, Samuel J I Blackford, Magdalena Kloc, Debbie Goh, Eduardo Zabala Aldunate, Robert D Sampson, James W B Bainbridge, Alexander J Smith, Anai Gonzalez-Cordero, Jane C Sowden, Robin R Ali, Rachael A Pearson
Human vision relies heavily upon cone photoreceptors, and their loss results in permanent visual impairment. Transplantation of healthy photoreceptors can restore visual function in models of inherited blindness, a process previously understood to arise by donor cell integration within the host retina. However, we and others recently demonstrated that donor rod photoreceptors engage in material transfer with host photoreceptors, leading to the host cells acquiring proteins otherwise expressed only by donor cells...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Yuyao Wang, Dandan Zhang, Bingqiao Shen, Yi Zhang, Ping Gu
Visual impairment caused by retinal degeneration is primarily attributed to the irreversible degradation of retinal neurons or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). No efficient clinical therapies to restore or improve visual ability are currently available. Cell therapy has been touted as a promising strategy to overcome this challenge. Progenitor/stem cells may be obtained from both ocular and non-ocular tissues. The former mainly includes retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), whereas the latter comprises embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which have been utilized in stem cell replacement therapy studies ranging from proof-of-concept animal models to clinical trials in humans...
December 27, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Kaori Ueda, Akishi Onishi, Shin-Ichiro Ito, Makoto Nakamura, Masayo Takahashi
PURPOSE: Three-dimensional retinal organoids can be differentiated from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ES/iPS cells) under defined medium conditions. We modified the serum-free floating culture of embryoid body-like aggregates with quick reaggregation (SFEBq) culture procedure to obtain retinal organoids expressing more rod photoreceptors and S- and M-cone opsins. METHODS: Retinal organoids differentiated from mouse Nrl-eGFP iPS cells were cultured in various mediums during photoreceptor development...
December 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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