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Gloria R Garcia, Prarthana Shankar, Cheryl L Dunham, Abraham Garcia, Jane K La Du, Lisa Truong, Susan C Tilton, Robert L Tanguay
BACKGROUND: A structurally diverse group of chemicals, including dioxins [e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD)] and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can xenobiotically activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and contribute to adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. In the zebrafish model, repression of sox9b has a causal role in several AHR-mediated toxic responses, including craniofacial cartilage malformations; however, the mechanism of sox9b repression remains unknown...
November 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Carla Reale, Immacolata Porreca, Filomena Russo, Maria Marotta, Luca Roberto, Nicola Antonino Russo, Emanuele Carchia, Massimo Mallardo, Mario De Felice, Concetta Ambrosino
Genetic and environmental factors contribute to thyroid diseases. Although still debated, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is thought to induce thyroid dysfunction in humans and rodents. The data here reported point out the contribution of the exposure window and genetic background in mediating the low-dose TCDD effects on thyroid. Indeed, early (from E0.5 to PND30) and low-dose (0,001 μg/kg/day) TCDD exposure reduced the circulating fT4 and altered the expression of thyroid specific transcripts...
November 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chao Shen, Yixi Zhou, Jinpeng Ruan, Yung-Jen Chuang, Chonggang Wang, Zhenghong Zuo
Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are extremely stable toxic organic compounds and can cause serious health risks. To develop a convenient biomonitoring tool for the detection of DLCs in the environment, we generated a transgenic line-Tg(cyp1a-12DRE:EGFP)-with a zebrafish cyp1a promoter recombined with multiple dioxin-responsive elements (DREs) that drive EGFP expression. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced EGFP expression was observed in the head cartilage (most sensitive), gut, otic vesicle, pectoral fin bud and eye of larvae...
October 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Stanislav G Rudyak, Lev A Usakin, Ekaterina A Tverye, Anton S Orekhov, Natalya N Belushkina, Ralf Paus, Mikhail A Paltsev, Andrey A Panteleyev
Exposure to toxic halogenated polyaromatic hydrocarbons, of which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent, induces diverse skin pathologies in humans, including chloracne, hyperkeratosis, hamartomas, etc. While the toxic effects of TCDD have been extensively studied, effective approaches to their treatment are still lacking. Retinoids are commonly used in therapy of acneiform skin diseases. In vitro, retinoids elicit antagonistic effects on keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, as compared to TCDD, suggesting their potential in treatment of TCDD-induced skin lesions...
October 31, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Weihua Wang, Yuhua Wang, Wenling Feng, Wenliang Wang, Ping Li
Acquiring full knowledge of the reactivity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) is crucial for the better understanding of the transformation and degradation of TCDD-like dioxins in the environment. To clarify the reactivity of the organic hydroperoxides toward TCDD, in this study, the reactions between the neutral/anion of the hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and TCDD have been systematically investigated theoretically. It was found that the neutral H₂O₂ is relatively difficult to react with TCDD compared with its anion, exhibiting the pH dependence of the title reaction...
October 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tian Zhou, Xin Bo, Jiabao Qu, Longfei Wang, Jun Zhou, Shibei Li
In this study, the level of 18 species of metals and 17 species of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were monitored in surface soil samples around an iron and steel plant in the North China Plain. The concentration of PCDD/Fs and metals in the soil ranged from 0.16 to 4.5 ng I-TEQ/kg and 1.2 to 24,182.2 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the prevailing winds were confirmed to influence the spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs and metals concentrations. The highest concentration of PCDD/Fs was located in downwind soil sample 4 (S4), which showed more than 50% of PCDFs in the total PCDD/Fs, and high levels of lower chlorinated PCDFs...
October 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Staci L Capozzi, Ran Jing, Lisa A Rodenburg, Birthe Veno Kjellerup
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative pollutants. One of the few pathways via which they break down is microbial dechlorination, which has been shown to occur in sewers. Questions remain about where within sewers this process takes place and which conditions encourage dechlorination. These issues were examined using a large data set on PCBs in influent and effluents from a main and bypass outfall from a wastewater treatment facility in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA...
October 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Abdulsamie Hanano, Mouhnad Shaban, Douaa Almutlk, Ibrahem Almousally
The current study describes biological changes in Bacillus megaterium A14K cells growing in the presence of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent congener of dioxins. The results indicate that the metabolizing of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by BmA14K was accompanied with a novel morphological and biophysical profile typified by the growth of single cells with high levels of biosurfactant production, surface hydrophobicity and cell membrane permeability. Moreover, the TCDD-grown bacteria exhibited a specific fatty acid profile characterized by low ratios of branched/straight chain fatty acids (BCFAs/SCFAs) and saturated/unsaturated fatty acids (SFAs/USFAs) with a specific "signature" due to the presence of branched chain unsaturated fatty acids (BCUFAs)...
October 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Alvin Gomez, Christian Bindesbøll, Venkata Satheesh Somisetty, Giulia Grimaldi, David Hutin, Laura MacPherson, Shaimaa Ahmed, Laura Tamblyn, Tiffany Cho, Hilde Irene Nebb, Anders Moen, Jan Haug Anonsen, Denis M Grant, Jason Matthews
Here we report the biochemical characterization of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (TIPARP/ARTD14/PARP7), which is known to repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent transcription. We found that the nuclear localization of TIPARP was dependent on a short N-terminal sequence and its zinc finger domain. Deletion and in vitro ADP-ribosylation studies identified amino acids 400-657 as the minimum catalytically active region, which retained its ability to mono-ADP-ribosylate AHR...
October 29, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Cristina Giuliani, David Biggs, Thanh Tin Nguyen, Elena Marasco, Sara De Fanti, Paolo Garagnani, Minh Triet Le Phan, Viet Nhan Nguyen, Donata Luiselli, Giovanni Romeo
During the Vietnam War, the United States military sprayed over 74 million litres of Agent Orange (AO) to destroy forest cover as a counterinsurgency tactic in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The main ingredient was contaminated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-paradioxin (TCDD). DNA methylation (DNAm) differences are potential biomarker of environmental toxicants exposure. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the DNAm levels from peripheral blood of the present-day Vietnamese population, including individuals whose parents, according to historical data, were exposed to AO/TCDD during the war...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Michael C Petriello, Jessie B Hoffman, Olga Vsevolozhskaya, Andrew J Morris, Bernhard Hennig
The gut microbiome is sensitive to diet and environmental exposures and is involved in the regulation of host metabolism. Additionally, gut inflammation is an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, specifically atherosclerosis and diabetes. Exposures to dioxin-like pollutants occur primarily via ingestion of contaminated foods and are linked to increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to elucidate the detrimental impacts of dioxin-like pollutant exposure on gut microbiota and host gut health and metabolism in a mouse model of cardiometabolic disease...
November 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hoang Quoc Anh, Isao Watanabe, Keidai Tomioka, Tu Binh Minh, Shin Takahashi
A full congener-specific determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was conducted for street dusts in some areas in northern Vietnam. Total 209 PCB concentrations (median and range) of 14 (2.2-120), 11 (6.6-32), and 0.25 (0.10-0.97) ng g-1 were measured in the street dusts from an industrial park, an urban area, and a rural commune, respectively, suggesting environmental loads of PCBs related to industrialization and urbanization in northern Vietnam. PCB patterns of street dusts from the industrial park were dominated by lightly chlorinated homologs (tri- and tetra-CBs), while more highly chlorinated homologs (penta- and hexa-CBs) were the major contributors to total PCBs in the urban samples, indicating different emission sources...
October 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Prachi Pradeep, Laura M Carlson, Richard Judson, Geniece M Lehmann, Grace Patlewicz
The application of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) or toxic units to estimate toxic potencies for mixtures of chemicals which contribute to a biological effect through a common mechanism is one approach for filling data gaps. Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) have been used to express the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds (i.e., dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) in terms of the most toxic form of dioxin: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). This study sought to integrate two data gap filling techniques, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) and TEFs, to predict neurotoxicity TEQs for PCBs...
October 22, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Douglas G Hayward, Jeffery C Archer, Sue Andrews, Russell D Fairchild, James Gentry, Roy Jenkins, Michelle McLain, Udaya Nasini, Sina Shojaee
A quadrupole/orbital trapping mass spectrometer or Q-Exactive (QE) interfaced with a gas chromatograph (GC) was optimized for measuring polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods. Figures of merit include (1) an instrument detection limit (IDL) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) of 9 femtograms (fg), (2) quantitative mass resolution from PCDD interferences (e.g., PCBs, methoxy-PCBs DDTs, polychlorodibenzylphenyl ethers, polychloroxanthenes, methyl-polychlorodibenzofuran, and polychlorodibenzothiophenes), and (3) mass accuracy <1 ppm at the IDL...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhiling Guo, Heidi Qunhui Xie, Peng Zhang, Yali Luo, Tuan Xu, Yiyun Liu, Hualing Fu, Li Xu, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Patricia Boksa, Bin Zhao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged as a major public health concern due to its fast-growing prevalence in recent decades. Environmental factors are thought to contribute substantially to the variance in ASD. Interest in environmental toxins as causes of ASD has arisen due to the high sensitivity of the developing human brain to toxic chemicals, particularly to dioxin and certain dioxin-like compounds (dioxins). As a group of typical persistent organic pollutants, dioxins have been found to exert adverse effects on human brain development...
December 2018: Environment International
Peipei Lu, Xinran Cai, Yan Guo, Meishu Xu, Jianmin Tian, Joseph Locker, Wen Xie
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), or dioxin, is a potent liver cancer promoter through its sustained activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) in rodents. However, the carcinogenic effect of TCDD and AHR in humans has been controversial. It has been suggested that the inter-species difference in the carcinogenic activity of AhR is largely due to different ligand affinity in that TCDD has a 10-fold lower affinity for the human AHR compared to the mouse Ahr. It remains unclear whether the activation of human AHR is sufficient to promote hepatocellular carcinogenesis...
October 22, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Nicholas G Jentsch, Alison P Hart, Jared D Hume, Jian Sun, Kaitlin A McNeely, Chiyang Lama, Julie A Pigza, Matthew G Donahue, Jacques J Kessl
HIV-1 integrase multimerization inhibitors have recently been established as an effective class of antiretroviral agents due to their potent ability to inhibit viral replication. Specifically, quinoline-based inhibitors have been shown to effectively impair HIV-1 replication, highlighting the importance of these heterocyclic scaffolds. Pursuant of our endeavors to further develop a library of quinoline-based candidates, we have implemented a structure-activity relationship study of trisubstituted 4-arylquinoline scaffolds that examined the integrase multimerization properties of substitution patterns at the 4-position of the quinoline...
October 11, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
V E Messerle, A L Mosse, A B Ustimenko
The problem of treatment of household and biomedical waste containing toxic substances is becoming increasingly important. In contrast to the conventional incineration, plasma gasification of the waste provides reliable destruction of highly toxic dioxins, benzo(a)pyrene and furans. This article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis and experiments on gasification of the waste of various origins in the plasma reactor. The calculations have shown that the maximum yield of synthesis gas in the waste plasma gasification in the air and steam medium was achieved at a temperature not higher than 1600 K...
September 2018: Waste Management
Assal Haddad, Shadi Moqbel
Incomplete open combustion of solid waste produces a range of dioxin compounds which have the ability to accumulate in mediums such as organic soil and leave's wax at levels that are proportional to its ambient concentrations. Biomonitoring of contamination levels in pine needles have been used to assess the severity of atmospheric pollution due to the ability of the needles to store considerable amounts of pollutants including dioxin. Information about the dioxin levels in trees leaves are of an additional value since stored dioxin in leaves can also be conveyed to other animals higher in the food chain, or could migrate to underlying soils because of rain effect...
September 2018: Waste Management
Lei Wang, Munish Kumar, Qipan Deng, Xu Wang, Ming Liu, Zhaojian Gong, Shanshan Zhang, Xiaodong Ma, Zijun Y Xu-Monette, Min Xiao, Qing Yi, Ken H Young, Kenneth S Ramos, Yong Li
Although epidemiologic studies have suggested a possible association between occupational exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the risk of development of multiple myeloma, definitive evidence in support of this association is lacking. In the present study, we employed the Vk*Myc mouse model of multiple myeloma to assess the impact of TCDD exposure on multiple myeloma pathogenesis. TCDD induced splenomegaly and multiple peripheral blood abnormalities, including anemia and high serum IgG levels...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Letters
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