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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734192/trajectories-of-risk-behaviors-across-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-the-role-of-race-and-ethnicity
#1
Eunhee Park, Thomas P McCoy, Jennifer Toller Erausquin, Robin Bartlett
INTRODUCTION: Despite important advances of longitudinal research in substance use behaviors, most studies stratify analyses by gender or race, which limits the ability to directly compare the likelihood of a particular developmental pathway across demographic groups. Thus, there is critical need for well-designed research to examine the associations of race/ethnicity with developmental trajectories of substance use behaviors across adolescence through adulthood. METHODS: Using an accelerated longitudinal design, we examined behaviors across ages 12-31 from Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
July 15, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731985/accelerated-dna-methylation-age-associations-with-ptsd-and-mortality
#2
Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Tawni B Stoop, Steven A Schichman, Annjanette Stone, Naomi Sadeh, Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Recently-developed indices of cellular age based on DNA methylation (DNAm) data, referred to as DNAm age, are being used to study factors that influence the rate of aging and the health correlates of these metrics of the epigenetic clock. This study evaluated associations between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and accelerated versus decelerated DNAm age among military veterans. We also examined if accelerated DNAm age predicted mortality over the course of a 6...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731726/age-period-cohort-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer-service-members-aged-20-59-years-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-1997-2016
#3
Shauna Stahlman, Alexis Oetting
In the U.S. general population, incidence of colorectal cancer appears to be increasing in younger age groups since the mid-1980s. The objective of this report was to better understand the time-varying elements (age, period, and birth cohort effects) in the epidemiology of colorectal cancer among the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces. During 1997-2016, there were 1,108 incident cases of colorectal cancer among service members aged 20-59 years, corresponding to an overall incidence rate of 4.3 per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs)...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730704/the-athena-hpv-study-underrepresents-other-high-risk-hpv-genotypes-when-compared-with-a-diverse-new-york-city-population
#4
G Ramos Rivera, S N Khader, S Lajara, K Schlesinger, D Y Goldstein, R C Naeem, M J Suhrland, A S Fox
OBJECTIVE: Persistent infection with oncogenic high risk HPV (hrHPV) types causes virtually all cases of cervical cancer. HPV 16 and 18 have been targeted for individual genotyping and vaccination because of their presence in 71% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide. Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York serves a population known for ethnic and racial diversity. Given this diversity it is possible that HPV genotypes not individually detected by current testing are causing significant disease...
July 21, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729127/variation-in-safe-sleep-and-breastfeeding-practices-among-non-hispanic-black-mothers-in-the-us-according-to-birth-country
#5
Margaret G K Parker, Eve R Colson, Lauren Provini, Denis V Rybin, Stephen M Kerr, Timothy Heeren, Michael J Corwin
OBJECTIVE: To examine variation in safe sleep and breastfeeding practices among US non-Hispanic black (NHB) mothers according to birth country METHODS: We analyzed NHB mothers that were surveyed regarding safe sleep and breastfeeding practices when their infants were 2-6 months of age in 2011-14, as part of a larger national study. We examined prevalences of safe sleep and breastfeeding practices according to birth country and examined odds of adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics recommended safe sleep and breastfeeding practices in foreign born NHBs, compared to US born NHBs...
July 17, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728527/antiretroviral-nonadherence-and-condomless-sex-in-the-hiv-outpatient-study-usa-2007-2014
#6
M D Durham, R Hart, K Buchacz, J Hammer, B Young, D Yang, K Wood, B Yangco, J T Brooks
Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) to undetectable levels and its effectiveness depends on consistent adherence. Consistent adherence and use of safe sex practices may substantially decrease the risk of HIV transmission. We sought to explore the potential association between self-reported nonadherence to ART and engaging in unsafe sexual practices capable of transmitting HIV. Using clinical and audio computer-assisted self-interview data from the prospective HIV Outpatient Study from 2007 to 2014, we assessed the frequency of self-reported ART nonadherence during the three days prior to the survey among HIV-infected persons in care and factors associated with self-reported ART nonadherence...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728114/variation-in-receipt-of-pharmacotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorders-across-racial-ethnic-groups-a-national-study-in-the-u-s-veterans-health-administration
#7
Emily C Williams, Shalini Gupta, Anna D Rubinsky, Joseph E Glass, Rhonda Jones-Webb, Kara M Bensley, Alex H S Harris
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologic treatment is recommended for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but most patients do not receive it. Although racial/ethnic minorities have greater AUD consequences than whites, whether AUD medication receipt varies across race/ethnicity is unknown. We evaluate this in a national sample. METHODS: Electronic health records data were extracted for all black, Hispanic, and/or white patients who received care at the U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VA) during Fiscal Year 2012 and had a documented AUD diagnosis...
July 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727927/technology-components-as-adjuncts-to-family-based-pediatric-obesity-treatment-in-low-income-minority-youth
#8
Gina L Tripicchio, Alice S Ammerman, Cody Neshteruk, Myles S Faith, Kelsey Dean, Christie Befort, Dianne S Ward, Kimberly P Truesdale, Kyle S Burger, Ann Davis
BACKGROUND: Strategies to treat pediatric obesity are needed, especially among high-need populations. Technology is an innovative approach; however, data on technology as adjuncts to in-person treatment programs are limited. METHODS: A total of 64 children [body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile, mean age = 9.6 ± 3.1 years, 32.8% female, 84.4% Hispanic] were recruited to participate in one of three cohorts of a family-based behavioral group (FBBG) treatment program: FBBG only, TECH1, and TECH2...
July 20, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727682/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-homicides-of-adult-women-and-the-role-of-intimate-partner-violence-united-states-2003-2014
#9
Emiko Petrosky, Janet M Blair, Carter J Betz, Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Bridget H Lyons
Homicide is one of the leading causes of death for women aged ≤44 years.* In 2015, homicide caused the death of 3,519 girls and women in the United States. Rates of female homicide vary by race/ethnicity (1), and nearly half of victims are killed by a current or former male intimate partner (2). To inform homicide and intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention efforts, CDC analyzed homicide data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) among 10,018 women aged ≥18 years in 18 states during 2003-2014...
July 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727534/patterns-of-use-of-smokeless-tobacco-in-us-adults-2013-2014
#10
Yu-Ching Cheng, Brian L Rostron, Hannah R Day, Cassandra A Stanton, Lynn C Hull, Alexander Persoskie, Mark J Travers, Kristie Taylor, Kevin P Conway, Bridget K Ambrose, Nicolette Borek
OBJECTIVES: To examine patterns of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use, by type, in wave 1 (2013-2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data from 32 320 adults (aged ≥ 18 years) to assess the use of pouched snus and other SLT products (loose snus, moist snuff, dip, spit, and chewing tobacco). RESULTS: Overall, SLT use was most common among men, younger adults, non-Hispanic Whites, and nonurban respondents...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727528/racial-ethnic-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-hydration-status-among-us-adults-and-the-role-of-tap-water-and-other-beverage-intake
#11
Carolyn J Brooks, Steven L Gortmaker, Michael W Long, Angie L Cradock, Erica L Kenney
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether differences in tap water and other beverage intake explain differences in inadequate hydration among US adults by race/ethnicity and income. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of inadequate hydration (urine osmolality ≥ 800 mOsm/kg) by race/ethnicity and income of 8258 participants aged 20 to 74 years in the 2009 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable regression models, we estimated associations between demographic variables, tap water intake, and inadequate hydration...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727522/impact-of-preventing-excessive-gestational-weight-gain-on-maternal-obesity-at-age-40-years-an-analysis-of-a-nationally-representative-sample
#12
Barbara Abrams, Jeremy Coyle, Alison K Cohen, Irene Headen, Alan Hubbard, Lorrene Ritchie, David H Rehkopf
OBJECTIVES: To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. METHODS: We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727287/weighing-the-risks-morbid-obesity-and-diabetes-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-death-on-the-liver-transplant-waiting-list
#13
Ani A Kardashian, Jennifer L Dodge, John Roberts, Danielle Brandman
Obesity is a growing problem in liver transplant (LT) candidates, paralleling the U.S. obesity epidemic and increase in LT for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). While post-LT survival appears to be similar in obese and non-obese patients, data is scarce regarding risk of waitlist dropout in patients with morbid obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m(2) ). We examined the impact of obesity on waitlist mortality and evaluated predictors of dropout in LT candidates with morbid obesity or NASH METHODS: Competing risk analyses were performed in candidates listed between 3/2002-12/2013 to evaluate predictors of waitlist removal or death...
July 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727240/development-and-dissemination-of-the-el-centro-health-disparities-measures-library
#14
Victoria Behar Mitrani, Joanne E O'Day, Timothy B Norris, Oluwamuyiwa Winifred Adebayo
PURPOSE: This report describes the development and dissemination of a library of English measures, with Spanish translations, on constructs relevant to social determinants of health and behavioral health outcomes. The El Centro Measures Library is a product of the Center of Excellence for Health Disparities Research: El Centro, a program funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The library is aimed at enhancing capacity for minority health and health disparities research, particularly for Hispanics living in the United States and abroad...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727136/a-multidimensional-view-of-racial-differences-in-access-to-prostate-cancer-care
#15
Craig Evan Pollack, Katrina A Armstrong, Nandita Mitra, Xinwei Chen, Katelyn R Ward, Archana Radhakrishnan, Michelle S Wong, Justin E Bekelman, Charles C Branas, Karin V Rhodes, David T Grande
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are widespread and poorly understood. In the current study, the authors sought to determine whether access to care, measured across multiple dimensions, contributed to racial differences in prostate cancer. METHODS: The Philadelphia Area Prostate Cancer Access Study (P(2) Access) included 2374 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2012 and 2014. Men were surveyed to assess their experiences accessing care (response rate of 51...
July 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726525/working-memory-capacity-and-addiction-treatment-outcomes-in-adolescents
#16
Jon M Houck, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
BACKGROUND: Brief addiction treatments including motivational interviewing (MI) have shown promise with adolescents, but the factors that influence treatment efficacy in this population remain unknown. One candidate is working memory, the ability to hold a fact or thought in mind. This is relevant, as in therapy, a client must maintain and manipulate ideas while working with a clinician. Working memory depends upon brain structures and functions that change markedly during neurodevelopment and that can be negatively impacted by substance use...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726467/the-importance-of-the-neighborhood-in-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-the-united-states-distress-worry-and-functioning
#17
Rupa Jose, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
OBJECTIVE: Ebola media coverage directed public attention to potential disease carriers: residents or travelers from West Africa. We investigated the role of neighborhood population factors (i.e., the concentration of West African foreigners, non-West African foreigners, non-Hispanic Blacks) on individual responses to the Ebola outbreak in the United States. The role of these community-level factors in emotional responses to this public health crisis is poorly understood. METHOD: Demographic factors, mental health, and stressful event history, collected as part of an ongoing longitudinal study of residents from 2 metropolitan communities (New York City and Boston, total N = 1,346), were combined with neighborhood data from the U...
July 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726338/household-fear-of-deportation-in-mexican-origin-families-relation-to-body-mass-index-percentiles-and-salivary-uric-acid
#18
Airín D Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A Granger
OBJECTIVE: Fear of deportation (FOD) is a prevalent concern among mixed-status families. Yet, our understanding of how FOD shapes human health and development is in its infancy. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we examined the relationship between household FOD, body mass index (BMI) percentiles and salivary uric acid (sUA), a biomarker related to oxidative stress/hypertension/metabolic syndrome, among 111 individuals living in Mexican-origin families. METHODS: Participants were 65 children (2 months-17 years, 49% female) and 46 adults (20-58 years, 71% female) living in 30 Mexican-origin families with at least one immigrant parent in Phoenix, AZ...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724513/development-of-a-tailored-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-single-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-who-meet-partners-online-protocol-for-the-mydex-project
#19
Jose Arturo Bauermeister, Ryan C Tingler, Michele Demers, Gary W Harper
BACKGROUND: New cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 18 to 24, underscore the importance of developmentally-informed HIV programs for YMSM. We developed an online intervention focused on risk reduction strategies across different sexual partner types. Intervention activities focus on assisting YMSM reflect on their partner-seeking behaviors, develop sexual decision-making rules to reduce their HIV risks, and consider the adoption of HIV prevention behaviors...
July 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724322/predictors-of-urinary-incontinence-between-abdominal-obesity-and-non-obese-male-adults
#20
Dongmei Li, Yi Xu, Qingbin Nie, Yan Li, Gengsheng Mao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors that may be associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in abdominal obese and non-obese adult males. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 2671 men (≥40 years of age) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008). We define abdominal obesity as a waist circumference >102 cm. Men with Incontinence Severity Index ≥3 were defined as having UI. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with stress and urge UI...
July 20, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
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