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Chang Su, Xue-Jun Liang, Wen-Jing Li, Di Wu, Min Liu, Bing-Yan Cao, Jia-Jia Chen, Miao Qin, Xi Meng, Chun-Xiu Gong
Objective: To characterize the genotype and phenotype of Chinese patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) caused by activating mutations in GLUD1 , the gene that encodes mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Methods: The clinical data of glutamate dehydrogenase hyperinsulinism (GDH-HI) patients were reviewed, and gene mutations were confirmed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-six patients with GDH-HI heterozygous missense mutations were identified from 240 patients diagnosed as congenital hyperinsulinism over past 15 years...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Fereshte Gholami, Aso Navaee, Abdollah Salimi, Rezgar Ahmadi, Azam Korani, Rahman Hallaj
Bipolar electrochemistry (BPE) has been lately explored as a simple, reliable and novel electrochemical technique for the adjustment of various conductive substrates. Herein, BPE is performed to derive both of cathode and anode electrodes for the development of mediatorless/membraneless biofuel cell (BFC). On one hand, a preferable substrate for immobilization of bilirubin oxidase enzyme is prepared based on the electropolymerization of thiophene-3-carboxcylic acid (TCA) on an Au microfilm as a bipolar electrode...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marie A F Delgove, Matthew T Elford, Katrien V Bernaerts, Stefaan M A De Wildeman
Although Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) have gained attention in recent years, there are few cases of their upscaled application for lactone synthesis. A thermostable cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Thermocrispum municipale (TmCHMO) was applied to the oxidation of 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanone using a glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) for cofactor regeneration. The reaction progress was improved by optimizing the biocatalyst loading, with investigation into oxygen limitations. The product concentration and productivity were increased by keeping the substrate concentration below the inhibitory level via continuous substrate feeding (CSF)...
July 20, 2018: Organic Process Research & Development
Atsushi Shoji, Yusuke Takahashi, Saki Osato, Masao Sugawara
The preparation of a glass capillary pattered with lipid layers on which lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) were regionally adsorbed and its application for simultaneous detection of d-glucose and l-lactate in human serum is described. A lipid layer was formed on the surface of BSA-unabsorbed octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) inner wall of a glass capillary. The electrostatic charge of the lipid layer was a key factor for adsorbing the enzymes on the lipid layer. The fluorescence intensities were observed at each enzyme site in the presence of diaphorase (DIA), β-nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide oxidized (NAD), resazurin, d-glucose and l-lactate...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Zhaohui Cui, Luyang Wang, Letian Cao, Mingfei Sun, Nan Liang, Haiyan Wang, Yankai Chang, Xuhui Lin, Linzeng Yu, Rongjun Wang, Sumei Zhang, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
Giardia duodenalis is a gastrointestinal parasitic protozoan with important veterinary and public health implications worldwide. In this study, a total of 1440 fecal specimens were collected from dairy calves in Guangdong Province, China. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 2.2% (31/1440) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence was 8.4% and 1.1% in pre- and post-weaned calves, respectively. Both assemblages A (6.5%, 2/31) and E (93.5%, 29/31) were found based on sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA gene...
September 20, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Taojun He, Samuel E Kaplan, Luz A Gomez, Xuedong Lu, Lakshmi V Ramanathan, Mini Kamboj, Yi-Wei Tang
Fecal calprotectin (fCPT) has been used as a surrogate marker for assessment of intestinal inflammation. We explore the utility of fCPT values as a diagnostic aid in cancer patients with suspected Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 232 stool specimens submitted for GeneXpert C. difficile PCR testing were included in the study. All specimens were tested for fCPT and toxin/GDH antigens. Clinical severity of CDI cases was determined by the IDSA/SHEA criteria. Significant differences of median fCPT values between CDI (n = 117, Median 183...
September 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Toshio Ohshima, Takako Osaki, Yukari Yamamoto, Satomi Asai, Hayato Miyachi, Shigeru Kamiya
In recent years, the diagnostic method of choice for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a rapid enzyme immunoassay in which glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and C. difficile toxin can be detected ( C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE®: Alere Inc.) (QUIK CHEK). However, the clinical significance remains unclear in cases which demonstrate a positive result for GDH antigen and are negative for toxin. In this study, we used the QUIK CHEK test kit on fecal samples with an additional toxin detection step using toxigenic culture assay for the above cases...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Carlos Gaspar, Jonás I Silva-Marrero, Anna Fàbregas, Montserrat Miñarro, Josep R Ticó, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays a major role in amino acid catabolism. To increase the current knowledge of GDH function, we analysed the effect of GDH silencing on liver intermediary metabolism from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Sequencing of GDH cDNA from S. aurata revealed high homology with its vertebrate orthologues and allowed us to design short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to knockdown GDH expression. Following validation of shRNA-dependent downregulation of S. aurata GDH in vitro, chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles complexed with a plasmid encoding a selected shRNA (pCpG-sh2GDH) were produced to address the effect of GDH silencing on S...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Yoon Jin Cha, Haerin Jang, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: We evaluated the expression of glutaminolysis-related proteins in Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN) and follicular neoplasms (FN) of the thyroid, and investigated its clinical implication. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed from 264 FNs (112 follicular carcinomas [FCs] and 152 follicular adenomas [FAs]) and 108 HCNs (27 Hurthle cell carcinomas [HCCs] and 81 Hurthle cell adenomas [HCAs]. The immunohistochemical staining result of 3 glutaminolysis-related proteins (Glutaminase 1 [GLS1], glutaminate dehydrogenase [GDH] and alanine- serine, cysteine-preferring transporter 2 [ASCT2]) was analyzed...
September 7, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Francesco Sestili, Youssef Rouphael, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Anna Pucci, Paolo Bonini, Renaud Canaguier, Giuseppe Colla
Plant-derived protein hydrolysates (PHs) have received increased attention in the last decade because of their potential to improve yield, nutritional quality as well as tolerance to abiotic stressors. The current study investigated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of a legume-derived PH under optimal and sub-optimal nitrogen (N) concentrations (112 and 7 mg L-1 , respectively) in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.). Growth and mineral composition of tomato plants treated with PHs by foliar spray or substrate drench were compared to untreated plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Duan Yin Gu, Xiu Feng Wang, Jun Jie Gao, Juan Jiao, Zhong Liang Liu, Yan Yan Zhang
To investigate the effects of purified humic acid (PHA) on the growth and nitrogen metabolism of cucumber under different levels of nitrogen stress and to explore the mechanism of PHA's alleviation on abiotic stress, we examined the effects of PHA on 'Xintaimici' cucumber growth and nitrogen metabolism under low nitrogen (1.0 mmol·L-1 NO3 - ) stress and high nitrogen (101 mmol·L-1 NO3 - ) stress in hydroponics compared with normal level (11 mmol·L-1 NO3 - ). The results showed that the growth of cucumber seedlings was inhibited under nitrogen stress treatments...
August 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zhijun Zhong, Jiaming Dan, Guangwen Yan, Rui Tu, Yinan Tian, Suizhong Cao, Liuhong Shen, Junliang Deng, Shumin Yu, Yi Geng, Xiaobin Gu, Ya Wang, Haifeng Liu, Guangneng Peng
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common human and animal pathogens. They have increasingly been reported in dairy calves in recent years; however, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium infecting pre-weaned dairy calves in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned dairy calves in central Sichuan province was determined and the pathogens were analyzed molecularly. Of 278 fecal samples from pre-weaned dairy calves, 26 (9...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Li-Qun Jin, Wei Xu, Bo Yang, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Yu-Guo Zheng
Xylitol is an important functional sugar alcohol which is widely used in industries. To efficiently produce xylitol from xylose by xylose reductase in a single step, the coupled system and the coexpression system using xylose reductase (XR) from Rhizopus oryzae and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Exiguobacterium sibiricum were constructed, the latter of which was used for cofactor regeneration. One hundred fifty grams/liter of xylose could be fully converted to xylitol by employing the two-enzyme coupled system with cell-free extract, and xylitol productivity of 21...
September 3, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Tongxin Wang, Weilei Yao, Qiongyu He, Yafei Shao, Ruilong Zheng, Feiruo Huang
The liver is the most essential organ for the metabolism of ammonia, in where most of ammonia is removed by urea and glutamine synthesis. Regulated by leucine, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of glutamate to ammonia. To determine the mechanism of leucine regulating GDH, pigs weighing 20 ± 1 kg were infused for 80 min with ammonium chloride or alanine in the presence or absence of leucine. Primary pig hepatocytes were incubated with or without leucine. In the in vivo experiments with either ammonium or alanine as the nitrogen source, addition of leucine significantly inhibited ureagenesis and promoted the production of glutamate and glutamine in the perfused pig liver ( P  < 0...
September 2018: Animal nutrition
Lingjun Si, Luqing Pan, Hongdan Wang, Xin Zhang
In Portunus trituberculatus , a full-length cDNA of Rhesus-like glycoprotein (Rh protein), the whole 478 amino acids, has been identified in gills, which plays an essential role in ammonia (NH3 /NH4 + ) excretion. Phylogenetic analysis of the Rh-like proteins from crabs was clustered, showing high conservation of the ammonium transporter domain and transmembrane segments essential to the function of Rh protein. Rh protein of P. trituberculatus ( Pt Rh) was detected in all tested tissues, and showed the highest expression in gills...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Raimundo Seguí, Carla Muñoz-Antoli, Debora R Klisiowicz, Camila Y Oishi, Pamela C Köster, Aida de Lucio, Marta Hernández-de-Mingo, Paula Puente, Rafael Toledo, José G Esteban, David Carmena
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoan parasites are major contributors to the global burden of gastrointestinal disease causing significant socioeconomic consequences. Children living in resource-poor settings with restricted access to water and sanitary services are particularly at risk of these infections. METHODS: A prospective, community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Paraná (southern Brazil) between May 2015 and May 2016. A total of 766 stool samples were individually collected from volunteers (male/female ratio: 0...
August 30, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
I A Kazantseva, S V Kotov, E V Borodataya, O P Sidorova, A V Borodin
AIM: To determine the mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen adult patients with MS and 23 healthy people were examined. Cytochemical analysis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood was carried out. The activity of the mitochondrial enzymes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), amino acids (glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH), fatty acids (alpha-glycerophosphate, α-GPDH) and II complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (succinate dehydrogenase, LDH), and the level of lactate in the blood were measured...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Yahong Wang, Yajun Bai, Tai-Ping Fan, Xiaohui Zheng, Yujie Cai
AIMS: The purpose of this work was to find an efficient enzyme to synthesize D-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen lactic acid bacteria strains were screened for production of D-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (D-DSS) using 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (DPA) as a substrate. Lactobacillus reuteri JN516 exhibited the highest D-DSS yield. A non-specific coenzyme, D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH82319), from Lactobacillus reuteri JN516 with high DPA reducing activity was identified...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sandra Fehsenfeld, Chris M Wood
In teleost fishes, renal contributions to acid-base and ammonia regulation are often neglected compared to the gills. In goldfish, increased renal acid-excretion in response to feeding was indicated by increased urine ammonia and inorganic phosphate concentrations and decreased urine pH. By micro-dissecting the kidney tubules and performing quantitative real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemistry, we profiled the section-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS), Na+ /H+ -exchanger 3 (NHE3), carbonic anhydrase II (CAIIa), V-H+ -ATPase subunit 1b, Cl- /HCO3 - -exchanger 1 (AE1), Na+ /HCO3 - -cotransporter 1 (NBC1), Na+ /K+ -ATPase subunit 1α, and Rhesus-proteins Rhbg, Rhcg1a and Rhcg1b...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yoo Seok Lee, Seungwoo Baek, Hyeryeong Lee, Stacy Simai Reginald, Yeongeun Kim, Hyunsoo Kang, In-Geol Choi, In Seop Chang
Direct electron transfer (DET) between enzymes and electrodes is a key issue for practical use of bioelectrocatalytic devices as a bioenergy process, such as enzymatic electrosynthesis, biosensors, and enzyme biofuel cells. To date, based on the DET of bioelectrocatalysis, less than 1% of the calculated theoretical current was transferred to final electron acceptor due to energy loss at enzyme-electrode interface. This study describes the design and construction of a synthetic glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; α and γ subunits) combined with a gold-binding peptide at its amino or carboxy terminus for direct contact between enzyme and electrode...
August 29, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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