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Sandra Fehsenfeld, Chris M Wood
In teleost fishes, renal contributions to acid-base and ammonia regulation are often neglected compared to the gills. In goldfish, increased renal acid-excretion in response to feeding was indicated by increased urine ammonia and inorganic phosphate concentrations and decreased urine pH. By micro-dissecting the kidney tubules and performing quantitative real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemistry, we profiled the section-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS), Na+ /H+ -exchanger 3 (NHE3), carbonic anhydrase II (CAIIa), V-H+ -ATPase subunit 1b, Cl- /HCO3 - -exchanger 1 (AE1), Na+ /HCO3 - -cotransporter 1 (NBC1), Na+ /K+ -ATPase subunit 1α, and Rhesus-proteins Rhbg, Rhcg1a and Rhcg1b...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yoo Seok Lee, Seung Woo Baek, Hyeryeong Lee, Stacy Simai Reginald, Yeongeun Kim, Hyunsoo Kang, Ingeol Choi, In Seop Chang
The direct electron transfer (DET) between enzymes and electrodes is a key issue for practical use of bioelectrocatalytic devices as a bioenergy process, such as enzymatic electrosynthesis, biosensors and enzyme biofuel cells. To date, based on the DET of bioelectrocatalysis, less than 1% of the calculated theoretical current was transferred to final electron acceptor due to energy loss at enzyme-electrode interface. This study describes the design and construction of a synthetic glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; α and γ subunits) combined with a gold binding peptide at its amino- or carboxy- terminus for direct contact between enzyme and electrode...
August 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kohei Ito, Junko Okuda-Shimazaki, Kazushige Mori, Katsuhiro Kojima, Wakako Tsugawa, Kazunori Ikebukuro, Chi-En Lin, Jeffrey La Belle, Hiromi Yoshida, Koji Sode
Fungi-derived flavin adenine dinucleotide glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) are currently the most popular and advanced enzymes for self-monitoring of blood glucose sensors; however, the achievement of direct electron transfer (DET) with FADGDHs is difficult. In this study, a designer FADGDH was constructed by fusing Aspergillus flavus derived FADGDH (AfGDH) and a Phanerochaete chrisosporium CDH (PcCDH)-derived heme b-binding cytochrome domain to develop a novel FADGDH that is capable of direct electron transfer with an electrode...
July 26, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yuko Iijima, Naoyuki Itoh, Yoichi Ito, Yuya Kimura
Giardia duodenalis is a pathogenic protozoan that causes diarrhea in mammalian hosts including humans and companion animals, and the host specificity differs depending on the genetic assemblages. The purpose of the present study is to perform multilocus genotyping at four loci of G. duodenalis isolates from household cats and pet shop kittens in Japan and evaluate the zoonotic potential. Fifty-seven fecal samples from cats (household cats: 13, pet shop kittens: 44), which were positive for Giardia-specific antigen as determined by an ELISA kit, were the subjects of our analysis...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Doaa Naguib, Adel H El-Gohary, Amro A Mohamed, Dawn M Roellig, Nagah Arafat, Lihua Xiao
Little is known of the occurrence and age patterns of species/genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in calves in Egypt. In this study, 248 fecal specimens were collected from dairy calves aged 1 day to 6 months on eight farms in three provinces during March 2015 to April 2016. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected and genotyped by using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene, while G. duodenalis was detected and genotyped by using PCR and sequence analyses of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and β-giardin (bg) genes...
July 25, 2018: Parasitology International
Junli Wang, Zishi Fu, Guifa Chen, Guoyan Zou, Xiangfu Song, Fuxing Liu
Nitrogen (N), one of the most important nutrients for plants, also can be a pollutant in water environments. N metabolism is sensitive to N fertilization application and related to rice growth. Different levels of N fertilization treatment (N0, control without N fertilizer application; N100, chemical fertilizer of 100 kg N ha-1 ; N200, chemical fertilizer of 200 kg N ha-1 ; N300, chemical fertilizer of 300 kg N ha-1 ) were tested to investigate N loss due to surface runoff and to explore the possible involvement of rice N metabolism responses to different N levels...
July 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P Tůmová, L Mazánek, L Lecová, J Dluhošová, H Typovská, V Kotrašová, V Ticháčková, E Nohýnková
Here, we report a case of direct zoonotic transmission of giardiasis between a pet chinchilla and a human. Microscopic and molecular examinations of stool samples from a child and samples of chinchilla droppings revealed cysts/DNA of Giardia intestinalis. The transmission from the chinchilla to the child has been confirmed as coprophagous after the 1-year-old toddler ingested pet chinchilla droppings. Molecular analysis of the gdh gene from both hosts classified the G. intestinalis cysts into the assemblage B genetic group, which has been previously shown to be characteristic of both human and chinchilla giardiasis...
July 24, 2018: Parasitology International
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Álvaro Marín-Hernández, Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez, Citlali Vázquez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Emma Saavedra
To unveil what controls mitochondrial ROS detoxification, the NADPH supply and GSH/GSSG recycling for oxidative stress management were analyzed in cancer and non-cancer mitochondria. Therefore, proteomic and kinetomic analyses were carried out of the mitochondrial (i) NADPH producing and (ii) GSH/GSSG recycling enzymes associated to oxidative stress management. The protein contents of the eight enzymes analyzed were similar or even higher in AS-30D rat hepatoma mitochondria (HepM) than in rat liver (RLM) and rat heart (RHM) mitochondria, suggesting that the NADPH/GSH/ROS pathway was fully functional in cancer mitochondria...
July 24, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maria Fantinatti, Aline Cardoso Caseca, Alexandre Ribeiro Bello, Octavio Fernandes da Silva Filho, Alda Maria Da-Cruz
BACKGROUND: Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic protozoan that is classified into 8 genotypes and is distributed worldwide. Assemblages A and B were found to infect dogs and humans, whereas assemblages C and D are dog host-specific. Our objective was to investigate the G. lamblia genotypes circulating in a canine population in Rio de Janeiro, RJ. RESULTS: Sixty stool samples positive for G. lamblia from street dogs were characterized. Fragments of the conserved genes encoding beta-giardin (β-gia) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) were used as targets...
July 22, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ivan Domith, Aline T Duarte-Silva, Carlos Gustavo Garcia, Karin da Costa Calaza, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho, Marcelo Cossenza
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are a group of phenolic compounds found in worldwide consumed beverages such as coffee and green tea. They are synthesized from an esterification reaction between cinnamic acids, including caffeic (CFA), ferulic and p-coumaric acids with quinic acid (QA), forming several mono- and di-esterified isomers. The most prevalent and studied compounds are 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA) and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), widely described as having antioxidant and cell protection effects...
July 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Antoni Llopis-Lorente, Beatriz de Luis, Alba García-Fernández, Sandra Jimenez-Falcao, Mar Orzáez, Félix Sancenón, Reynaldo Villalonga, Ramón Martínez-Máñez
Here, we present the design of smart nanodevices capable of reading molecular information from the environment and acting accordingly by processing Boolean logic tasks. As proof of concept, we prepared Au-mesoporous silica (MS) nanoparticles functionalized with the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) on the Au surface and with supramolecular nanovalves as caps on the MS surface, which is loaded with a cargo (dye or drug). The nanodevice acts as an AND logic gate and reads information from the solution (presence of glucose and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ )), which results in cargo release...
August 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Melis Karaca, Juliette Martin-Levilain, Mariagrazia Grimaldi, Lingzi Li, Eva Dizin, Yalin Emre, Pierre Maechler
Ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis are major hepatic functions mutually connected through amino acid metabolism. The liver is rich in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia, thus bridging amino acid to glucose pathways. Here we generated inducible liver-specific GDH knockout mice (Hep Glud1 -/- ) in order to explore the role of hepatic GDH on metabolic homeostasis. Investigation of nitrogen metabolism revealed altered ammonia homeostasis in Hep Glud1 -/- mice characterized by increased circulating ammonia associated with reduced detoxification process into urea...
July 12, 2018: Diabetes
Kazuya Ishida, Kouhei Orihara, Hitoshi Muguruma, Hisanori Iwasa, Atsunori Hiratsuka, Katsumi Tsuji, Takahide Kishimoto
Direct and mediated electron transfer (DET and MET) in enzyme electrodes with a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) from fungi are compared for the first time. DET is achieved by placing a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) between GDH and a flat gold electrode where the CNT is close to FAD within the distance for DET. MET is induced by using a free electron transfer mediator, potassium hexacyanoferrate, and shuttles electrons from FAD to the gold electrode. Cyclic voltammetry shows that the onset potential for glucose response current in DET is smaller than in MET, and that the distinct redox current peak pairs in MET are observed whereas no peaks are found in DET...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Katherine Schultz, Emily Sickbert-Bennett, Ashley Marx, David J Weber, Lauren M DiBiase, Stacy Campbell-Bright, Lauren E Bode, Mike Baker, Tom Belhorn, Mark Buchanan, Sherie Goldbach, Jacci Harden, Emily Hoke, Beth Huenniger, Jonathan J Juliano, Michael Langston, Heather Ritchie, William A Rutala, Jason Smith, Shelley Summerlin-Long, Lisa Teal, Peter Gilligan
Healthcare facility-onset Clostridium difficile infections (HO-CDI) are an important national problem, causing increased morbidity and mortality, with longer and more costly hospital stays. HO-CDI is an important metric for the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service's (CMS) performance measures. Hospitals that fall into the worst-performing quartile in preventing hospital acquired infections, including HO-CDI, may lose millions of dollars in reimbursement. Under pressure to reduce CDI and without a clear optimal method for C...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jian-Zhong Xu, Ze-Hua Wu, Shi-Jun Gao, Weiguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oxaloacetate (OAA) and L-glutamate are essential precursors for the biosynthesis of L-lysine. Reasonable control of all potentially rate-limiting steps, including the precursors supply rate, is of vital importance to maximize the efficiency of L-lysine fermentation process. RESULTS: In this paper, we have rationally engineered the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that increased the carbon yield (from 36.18 to 59.65%), final titer (from 14.47 ± 0.41 to 23...
July 7, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Martina Krehelova, Otakar Nyč, Eva Sinajová, Marcela Krutova
This study aimed to implement a toxigenic culture as an optional third diagnostic step for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-positive and toxin A/B-negative diarrheal stool samples into a diagnostic algorithm for Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI), and to characterise C. difficile isolates for epidemiological purposes. During the 5-month study, 481 diarrhoeal stool samples from three Slovak hospitals were investigated and 66 non-duplicated GDH-positive stool samples were found. Of them, 36 were also toxin A/B-positive...
July 3, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Sheo M Prasad
In the present study, the role of sulfur (K2 SO4 : S; 60 mg S kg-1 sand) and/or calcium (CaCl2 : Ca; 250 mg Ca kg-1 sand) applied alone as well as in combination on growth, photosynthetic performance, indices of chlorophyll a fluorescence, nitrogen metabolism, and protein and carbohydrate contents of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) seedlings in the absence and presence of arsenic (Na2 HAsO4 .7H2 O: As1 ; 15 mg As kg-1 sand and As2 ; 30 mg As kg-1 sand) stress was analyzed. Arsenic with its rising concentration negatively affected the fresh weight, root/shoot ratio, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments content, photosynthetic oxygen yield, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters: the O-J, J-I and I-P rise, QA - kinetic parameters, i...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ting Li, Anne Le
Metabolism is the fundamental process for all cellular functions. For decades, there has been growing evidence with regard to the relationship between metabolism and malignant cell proliferation. Unlike normal differentiated cells, however, cancer cells have reprogrammed metabolisms in order to fulfill their energy requirements. These cells display crucial modifications in many metabolic pathways, including glucose transport, glutaminolysis which includes the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the electron transport chain (ETC), and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) [1]...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lambros Mathioudakis, Mara Bourbouli, Elisavet Daklada, Sofia Kargatzi, Kleita Michaelidou, Ioannis Zaganas
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia. In mammals, GDH contributes to important processes such as amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, energy production, ammonia management, neurotransmitter recycling and insulin secretion. In humans, two isoforms of GDH are found, namely hGDH1 and hGDH2, with the former being ubiquitously expressed and the latter found mainly in brain, testis and kidney. These two iso-enzymes display highly divergent allosteric properties, especially concerning their basal activity, ADP activation and GTP inhibition...
June 25, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Kai Liu, Xiaokang Ren, Jianxuan Sun, Qianli Zou, Xuehai Yan
The emergence of light-energy-utilizing metabolism is likely to be a critical milestone in prebiotic chemistry and the origin of life. However, how the primitive pigment is spontaneously generated still remains unknown. Herein, a primitive pigment model based on adaptive self-organization of amino acids (Cystine, Cys) and metal ions (zinc ion, Zn2+ ) followed by chemical evolution under hydrothermal conditions is developed. The resulting hybrid microspheres are composed of radially aligned cystine/zinc (Cys/Zn) assembly decorated with carbonate-doped zinc sulfide (C-ZnS) nanocrystals...
June 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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