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F Y Kwok, S Venugobal
BACKGROUND: Induction of anaesthesia with propofol is often associated with a significant decrease in arterial pressure, especially in the older population. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of phenylephrine in two different doses i.e. 100mcg and 200mcg, given during induction to counteract the anticipated hypotensive effect of propofol in older patients aged over 55 years. METHODS: Seventy-two ASA physical status I - II patients aged 55 years or older were randomly allocated to group 1 (received propofol mixed with normal saline), group 2 (propofol mixed with 100mcg of phenylephrine) or group 3 (propofol mixed with 200mcg of pheynylphrine)...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Milad C El Hajj, Van K Ninh, Elia C El Hajj, Jessica M Bradley, Jason D Gardner
We have previously demonstrated the cardioprotective effects of ovarian hormones against adverse ventricular remodeling imposed by chronic volume overload. Here, we assess the estrogen receptor dependence of this cardioprotection. Four groups of female rats were studied: sham-operated (SHAM), volume overloaded (ACF), SHAM treated with estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 (SHAM+ICI), and ACF treated with ICI. Cardiac function was assessed temporally using echocardiogram and tissue samples were collected at 5 days and 6 weeks post-surgery...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Laura M G Meems, Hasan Mahmud, Hendrik Buikema, Jorg Tost, Sven Michel, Janny Takens, Rikst N Verkaik-Schakel, Inge Vreeswijk-Baudoin, Irene V Mateo-Leach, Torsten Plosch, Rudolf A de Boer
Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide. Maternal vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to hypertension in offspring but the reasons for this remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if parental vitamin D deficiency leads to altered DNA methylation in offspring that may relate to hypertension. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard or vitamin D depleted diet. After 10 weeks, non-sibling rats were mated. The conceived pups received standard chow...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Magaly Rodriguez de Bittner, Viktor V Chirikov, Ian M Breunig, Roxanne W Zaghab, Fadia Tohme Shaya
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and cost savings of a real-world, continuous, pharmacist-delivered service with an employed patient population with diabetes over a 5-year period. SETTING: The Patients, Pharmacists Partnerships (P(3) Program) was offered as an "opt-in" benefit to employees of 6 public and private self-insured employers in Maryland and Virginia. Care was provided in ZIP code-matched locations and at 2 employers' worksites. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Six hundred two enrolled patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes were studied between July 2006 and May 2012 with an average follow-up of 2...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Min Hee Suh, Linda M Zangwill, Patricia Isabel C Manalastas, Akram Belghith, Adeleh Yarmohammadi, Felipe A Medeiros, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Luke J Saunders, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To investigate factors associated with dropout of the parapapillary deep retinal layer microvasculature assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in glaucomatous eyes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-one eyes from 71 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with β-zone parapapillary atrophy (βPPA) enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. METHODS: Parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout was defined as a complete loss of the microvasculature located within the deep retinal layer of the βPPA from OCTA-derived optic nerve head vessel density maps by standardized qualitative assessment...
October 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
Colm R Breatnach, Orla Franklin, Naomi McCallion, Afif El-Khuffash
Systemic hypoperfusion secondary to a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is thought to only affect post-ductal vessels. In a prospective observational study of 51 preterm infants, we demonstrated that a persistent PDA by day 5-7 is associated with reversed diastolic flow in the brachiocephalic artery when compared with those without a PDA.
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Camilla T Damsgaard, Lotte Lauritzen, Hanne Hauger, Stine Vuholm, Marie N Teisen, Christian Ritz, Max Hansen, Janni Niclasen, Christian Mølgaard
BACKGROUND: Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in healthy children...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Michael Coll Barroso, Frank Kramer, Stephen J Greene, Daniel Scheyer, Till Köhler, Martin Karoff, Melchior Seyfarth, Mihai Gheorghiade, Wilfried Dinh
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) modulates the biological activities of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Previous studies demonstrated the prognostic value of IGFBP-7 and IGF-1 among patients with systolic heart failure (HF). This study aimed to evaluate the IGF1/IGFBP-7 axis in HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-7 levels were measured in 300 eligible consecutive patients who underwent comprehensive cardiac assessment...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Jacob J Glaser, Cassandra Cardarelli, Samuel Galvagno, Thomas M Scalea, Sarah B Murthi
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound often includes cardiac ultrasound. It is commonly used to evaluate cardiac function in critically ill patients but lacks the specific quantitative anatomic assessment afforded by standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We developed the Focused Rapid Echocardiographic Examination (FREE), a hybrid between a cardiac ultrasound and TTE that places an emphasis on cardiac function rather than anatomy. We hypothesized that data obtained from FREE correlate well with TTE while providing actionable information for clinical decision making...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Joré Céline, Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a major regulator of blood viscosity. Its long lasting action analogue methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-β (MIRCERA®) seems to be also employed in modern doping. We took the opportunity of a study aiming at developing a detection of recent MIRCERATM injection in the context of doping detection to assess the effects of this EPO analogue on red blood cells (RBC) aggregation. A single dose 200 μg of MIRCERA® was injected to 10 male volunteers and blood samplings were drawn over 24 days...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Jong Hwan Jung, Yoon Jung Chae, Dong Hwan Lee, Young I Cho, Mi Mi Ko, Sung Kwang Park, Won Kim
Whole blood viscosity (WBV) plays a role in hemorheology and is determined by many factors such as red blood cell factors, plasma protein and blood volume. As WBV changes during hemodialysis, mortality may be due to changes in WBV in patients on hemodialysis. However, there are few prospective data on the relationship between changes in WBV and overall mortality in dialysis patients. We tried to investigate the correlations between values of WBV at variable shear rates before and after hemodialysis and overall or atherosclerosis-related mortality in patients with end-stage kidney disease...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Katarina E A Nostell, Sanna S Lindåse, Johan T Bröjer
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) in humans is related to hypertension and impaired vasodilation. Insulin administration has been shown to lower blood pressure both in insulin resistant as well as in insulin sensitive individuals. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between insulin sensitivity and alterations in blood pressure in healthy horses before and after a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC). A 3-h EHC was performed in 13 healthy horses (11 mares, 2 geldings)...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Kyung Jin Yun, Hye Ji Kim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Ki Hyun Baek, Young Jung Roh, Ki Ho Song
BACKGROUND: Some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not develop diabetic kidney disease (DKD) despite the presence of advanced diabetic retinopathy (DR). We aimed to investigate the presence of DKD and its risk factors in patients with T2DM and advanced DR. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 317 patients with T2DM and advanced DR. The phenotypes of DKD were divided into three groups according to the urine albumin/creatinine ratio (uACR, mg/g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min/1...
September 20, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ana Claudia Gomes Pereira Petisco, Jorge Eduardo Assef, Carlos Alberto de Jesus, Mohamed Hassan Saleh, Jose Eduardo Martins Barbosa, David Costa de Souza Le Bihan, Ibraim Masciarelli França Pinto, Simone Rolim Fernandes Fontes Pedra, Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos Barretto, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego Sousa
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among women in several countries. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) could enable the adoption of preventive measures to avoid cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SA in Brazilian asymptomatic postmenopausal women in Framingham Risk Score (FRS) low and intermediate groups. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans were performed in 138 asymptomatic postmenopausal women (56.1 ± 4.9 years of age) to survey for coronary artery and aortic calcification (CT scan) and assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and identify carotid plaques (US)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Nasser Razmaraii, Hossein Babaei, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Gholamreza Assadnassab, Javad Ashrafi Helan, Yadollah Azarmi
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of grape seed extract (GSE) as a powerful antioxidant in preventing adverse effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on heart function. Methods: Male rats were divided into three groups: control, DOX (2 mg/kg/48h, for 12 days) and GSE (100 mg/kg/24h, for 16 days) plus DOX. Left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using echocardiography, electrocardiography and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological analysis and in vitro antitumor activity were also evaluated...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Christina M Cromwell, Kristin R Aichele, Joyann E Oakman, Michael P Neal, Jessica M Lenzo, Avery N Perez, Naomi L Bye, Erica L Santaniello, Jessica A Hill, Rachel C Evans, Karla A Thiele, Lauren N Chavis, Allyson K Getty, Tia R Wisdo, Deborah L Feairheller
Previous studies have investigated carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and blood pressure and found a direct correlation between the two. It is known that adult females have better cardiovascular health than males until a certain stage of life, yet limited research has examined gender differences in vascular function. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate vascular structure and function, blood pressure, and blood glucose/cholesterol levels in relation to gender differences in young healthy adults...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan Harper, Neil Derek Eves
COPD is associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and large increases in negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP). The individual and interactive effect of these stressors on left ventricular (LV) filling, emptying and geometry, and the role of direct ventricular interaction (DVI) in mediating these interactions have not been fully elucidated. Twenty healthy subjects were exposed to the following stressors alone and in combination: 1) inspiratory resistive loading of -20 cmH2O (nITP), 2) expiratory resistive loading to cause dynamic hyperinflation (DH), and 3) normobaric-hypoxia to increase PVR (hPVR)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Raquel González-Martínez, Ma Del Mar Jovani-Sancho, Isidoro Cortell-Ballester
PURPOSE: Our purpose were to determine the influence of psychological profile on hemodynamic changes in patients who undergo surgical removal of the third molars under intravenous sedation and to evaluate the effect on patients' anxiety and postoperative recovery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 100 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II; aged ≥18 years) seen in the CIMIVClinic (Department of Oral Surgery, Casa de Salud University Hospital, Valencia, Spain) who underwent extractions of all third molars under intravenous sedation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Kapil Suchal, Salma Malik, Nanda Gamad, Rajiv Kumar Malhotra, Sameer N Goyal, Jagriti Bhatia, Dharamvir Singh Arya
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the availability of current therapeutic modalities. Kaempferol (KMP), a dietary flavonoid, possesses good antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-apoptotic properties and has been evaluated in the present study for its role in mitigating myocardial injury following MI. PURPOSE: In this study, the ability of KMP to protect heart against isoproterenol (ISO) induced oxidative stress and myocardial infarction was evaluated...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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