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Jane Tan, Kartik K Iyer, Alexander D Tang, Asif Jamil, Ralph N Martins, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael A Nitsche, Mark R Hinder, Hakuei Fujiyama
Response inhibition, the ability to withhold a dominant and prepotent response following a change in circumstance or sensory stimuli, declines with advancing age. While non-invasive brain stimulation (NiBS) has shown promise in alleviating some cognitive and motor functions in healthy older individuals, NiBS research focusing on response inhibition has mostly been conducted on younger adults. These extant studies have primarily focused on modulating the activity of distinct neural regions known to be critical for response inhibition, including the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)...
October 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Sara Parmigiani, Luigi Cattaneo
Being able to inhibit an impending movement in response to a contextual change is a distinctive feature of action control. Such inhibitory control relies on a complex cortical-subcortical network, including posterior prefrontal regions such as caudal inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. According to hierarchical models of action control, both areas represent the intermediate level between prefronto-dependent and motor-related cortices. Going at a lower level, accumulating evidence speaks for an involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) to dorsal premotor cortex (PMCd) or supplementary motor area proper (SMA-proper) pathways in producing inhibitory control...
October 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Yao He, Hui Xu, Zichao Xiang, Hongyou Yu, Li Xu, Yongwen Guo, Ye Tian, Rui Shu, Xianrui Yang, Chaoran Xue, Mengyuan Zhao, Yiruo He, Xianglong Han, Ding Bai
During orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) receive the mechanical stimuli and transform it into myofibroblasts (Mfbs). Indeed, previous studies have demonstrated that mechanical stimuli can promote the expression of Mfb marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in PDLCs. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), as the target gene of yes-associated protein (YAP), has been proven to be involved in this process. Here, we sought to assess the role of YAP in Mfbs differentiation from PDLCs...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xia Zhang, Ming-Chao Zhang, Chun-Tian Wang
Despite advances in therapeutic strategies, heart failure-associated mortality rates remain high. Thus, understanding the pathophysiological molecular mechanisms involved in the remodeling process is essential for developing new and effective therapies. LRRs are present various prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins and important for the innate immune system via regulating protein-protein interactions. LRRC25 is a member of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing protein family. LRRC25 has been shown to negatively modulate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, a crucial factor related to cardiac hypertrophy...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Martin P Paulus, Lindsay M Squeglia, Kara Bagot, Joanna Jacobus, Rayus Kuplicki, Florence J Breslin, Jerzy Bodurka, Amanda Sheffield Morris, Wesley K Thompson, Hauke Bartsch, Susan F Tapert
The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i...
October 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Q-Q Ling, J Zhao, C-G Zheng, J Chun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the Notch signaling pathway on the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) during vascular endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) were treated with the exogenous Notch homolog 1 (Notch1) factor to activate the Notch1 pathway, and cells were then observed under the microscope for morphologic changes. Changes in the expression of related proteins were detected by Western blot...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Y-G Feng, J-F Zhao, L Xiao, W-Y Rao, C Ran, Y-H Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of microRNA-19a-3p in regulating invasion, metastasis and EMT (epithelial mesenchymal transition) of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, as well as its underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MicroRNA-19a-3p mimic and negative control plasmid were first constructed. After transfection of microRNA-19a-3p mimic or negative control in DU145 cells, expression levels of microRNA-19a-3p and SOX4 were detected by quantitative Real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hsin-I Chang, Ya-Ting Chang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Chi-Wei Huang, Shih-Wei Hsu, Mu-En Liu, Wen-Neng Chang, Chia-Yi Lien, Shu-Hua Huang, Chen-Chang Lee, Chiung-Chih Chang
Functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene are associated with brain MAOA activity and transcriptional efficiency in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated structural covariance networks mediated by MAOA-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) genotypes in patients with AD, and assessed whether this effect was associated with sex. A total of 193 patients with AD were classified into four genotype groups based on MAOA transcriptional efficiency (female low [L], low-high + high activity groups [LH + H]; male L, male H groups)...
October 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Fei-Fei Cai, Rong Wu, Ya-Nan Song, Ai-Zhen Xiong, Xiao-Le Chen, Meng-Die Yang, Li Yang, Yuanjia Hu, Ming-Yu Sun, Shi-Bing Su
Yinchenhao decoction (YCHD), comprising Yinchenhao (Artemisiae Scopariae Herba), Zhizi (Gardeniae Fructus) and Dahuang (Radix Rhei et Rhizoma), is widely used for treating various diseases. We aimed to investigate the bile acid metabolic mechanism of YCHD in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis model. Rats received DMN (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for four successive weeks for liver fibrosis induction and were treated with YCHD for the last 2 weeks. Histopathological analysis showed that YCHD prevented DMN-induced histopathological changes in liver tissues...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Paolo Ripellino, Claudio Gobbi, Andreas Cerny, Adriana Baserga, Claudia Di Bartolomeo, Florian Bihl, Gaia Deleonardi, Laura Melidona, Ana Gabriela Grondona, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Luigi Muratori
The etiology of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is unknown, though hepatotropic viruses may be potential triggers. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, an increasingly recognized cause of acute hepatitis, has been misdiagnosed as AIH due to the occurrence of autoantibodies during its acute phase. It has also been suggested that HEV infection may lead to or unmask AIH. The HEV seroprevalence has been ascertained in patients with AIH, but the prevalence of AIH-related autoantibodies in patients with HEV infection has not been systematically tested...
November 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Luigi Manfredi, Alfred Cuschieri
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are smart materials used in robotics because of its light weight and high force-to-weight ratio. The low energy efficiency, up to 5%, has limited their use for large actuators. However, they have shown advantages in the design of mini-robots because of the limited volume required for the actuation system. The present study reports the design and construction of a mini compliant joint (MCJ) with a 2 degrees of freedom (DOFs) intersecting axis. The MCJ prototype has a 20 mm external diameter surrounding a cavity of 8 mm, weighs 2 g, is 20 mm high and can perform an angle rotation of 30 ∘ in less than 260 ms...
October 17, 2018: Materials
Fahmida Jahan, Natalie M Landry, Sunil G Rattan, Ian M C Dixon, Jeffrey T Wigle
Following cardiac injury, fibroblasts are activated and are termed as myofibroblasts, and these cells are key players in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and fibrosis, itself a primary contributor to heart failure. Nutraceuticals have been shown to blunt cardiac fibrosis in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies. However, nutraceuticals have had conflicting results in clinical trials, and there are no effective therapies currently available to specifically target cardiac fibrosis. We have previously shown that expression of the zinc finger E box-binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) transcription factor increases as fibroblasts are activated...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yi-Ning Qiu, Guo-Hui Wang, Fen Zhou, Jin-Jin Hao, Li Tian, Long-Fei Guan, Xiao-Kun Geng, Yu-Chuan Ding, He-Wen Wu, Ke-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The increasing epidemic of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a serious threat to human health. It induces the occurrence of liver fibrosis, but its molecular mechanism is not yet clear. The molecular mechanisms of PM2.5 inducing liver fibrosis were investigated in this study. METHODS: The cell viability of LX-2 cells and primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Dingyuan Tian, Xi Zeng, Weisen Wang, Zhi Wang, Yi Zhang, Yun Wang
Neointima hyperplasia is one of the predominant features of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, and is also responsible for the restenosis of vascular surgery including arteriovenous fistula and stent implantation. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to neointima hyperplasia by activation of the Notch or TGF-β signaling pathway. Rapamycin has been utilized as anti-restenosis drug due to its anti-proliferative activity. However, its effects on the EndMT have not been investigated yet...
October 15, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Jiang Du, Yong Zhu, Xiaoxiao Meng, Hui Xie, Jinfeng Wang, Zhigang Zhou, Ruilan Wang
AIM: This study investigated the effects of atorvastatin (ATS) on the paraquat (PQ)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the potential mechanism through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a control group (n = 5), PQ group (n = 20), PQ + ATS L group (n = 20, ATS 20 mg/kg daily) and PQ + ATS H group (n = 20, ATS 40 mg/kg daily). All treated rats were given a 20% PQ solution (50 mg/kg) once by gavage and then sacrificed 12, 24, 72 and 168 h after PQ exposure...
October 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Julia Fernández-Pérez, Mark Ahearne
PURPOSE: To identify biochemical cues that could promote a keratocyte-like phenotype in human corneal stromal cells that had become fibroblastic when expanded in serum-supplemented media while also examining the effect on cell proliferation and migration. METHODS: Proliferation was assessed by PrestoBlueTM , morphology was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, phenotype was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunochemistry and flow cytometry, and migration was studied with a scratch assay...
October 18, 2018: Current Eye Research
Matthew E R Butchbach
Systems biology uses a combination of experimental and mathematical approaches to investigate the complex and dynamic interactions with a given system or biological process. Systems biology integrates genetics, signal transduction, biochemistry and cell biology with mathematical modeling. It can be used to identify novel pathways implicated in diseases as well as to understand the mechanisms by which a specific gene is regulated. This review describes the development of mathematical models for the regulation of an endogenous modifier gene, SMN2, in spinal muscular atrophy-an early-onset motor neuron disease that is a leading genetic cause of infant mortality worldwide-by cAMP signaling...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Takashi Ueki, Shuntato Nagai, Tatsuya Manabe, Ryo Koba, Kinuko Nagayoshi, Masafumi Nakamura, Masao Tanaka
Laparoscopic D3 lymph node dissection for transverse colon cancer is technically demanding because of complicated anatomy. Here, we reviewed the vascular structure of the transverse mesocolon, explored the extent of the base of the transverse mesocolon, and evaluated the feasibility and oncological safety of D3 lymph node dissection. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 42 patients with advanced transverse colon cancer who underwent curative surgery and D3 dissection at Kyushu University Hospital between January 2008 and December 2015...
October 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Shahid Shah, Caroline Fourgeaud, Simon Derieux, Shahsoltan Mirshahi, Geneviève Contant, Cynthia Pimpie, Rea Lo Dico, Jeannette Soria, Marc Pocard, Massoud Mirshahi
Heparanase (HPSE), a heparan sulfate-specific endo-β-D-glucuronidase, plays an important role in tumor cell metastasis through the degradation of extracellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Suramin, a polysulfonated naphthylurea, is an inhibitor of HPSE with suramin analogues. Our objective was to analyze the HPSE involvement in gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (SRCA) invasion. High expression of HPSE mRNA and protein was found in the tumor and in ascites of SRCA as well as in KATO-III cell line...
September 18, 2018: Oncotarget
Siqi Fu, Jing Zhang, Yi Zhan, Huiming Zhang, Edward I Herman, Qianjin Lu, Ying Zhou, Guiying Zhang
Dermatomyofibroma is a benign and rare proliferation of myofibroblasts and fibroblasts of the skin. Dermatomyofibroma commonly locates at the shoulder and neck of young adults and adolescents. Other frequently affected anatomic sites are upper arms, thigh, chest wall, back, axillary region and abdomen. Herein, we reported a case of dermatomyofibroma occurred in the nasion. The asymptomatic firm nodule and histopathological features were consistent with dermatomyofibroma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed vimentin, HHF35 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)...
September 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
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