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Anuj Kumar, Ritu Batra, Vijay Gahlaut, Tinku Gautam, Sanjay Kumar, Mansi Sharma, Sandhya Tyagi, Krishna Pal Singh, Harindra Singh Balyan, Renu Pandey, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta
RWP-RKs represent a small family of transcription factors (TFs) that are unique to plants and function particularly under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These RWP-RKs have been classified in two sub-families, NLPs (NIN-like proteins) and RKDs (RWP-RK domain proteins). NLPs regulate tissue-specific expression of genes involved in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and RKDs regulate expression of genes involved in gametogenesis/embryogenesis. During the present study, using in silico approach, 37 wheat RWP-RK genes were identified, which included 18 TaNLPs (2865 to 7340 bp with 4/5 exons), distributed on 15 chromosomes from 5 homoeologous groups (with two genes each on 4B,4D and 5A) and 19 TaRKDs (1064 to 5768 bp with 1 to 6 exons) distributed on 12 chromosomes from 4 homoeologous groups (except groups 1, 4 and 5); 2-3 splice variants were also available in 9 of the 37 genes...
2018: PloS One
Yajie Gao, Thomas C de Bang, Jan K Schjoerring
Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) plays a central role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. The importance of GS1 in N remobilization during reproductive growth has been reported in cereal species but attempts to improve N utilization efficiency (NUE) by overexpressing the GS1 gene have yielded inconsistent results. Here we demonstrate that transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants using a cisgenic strategy to express an extra copy of native HvGS1-1 lead to increased HvGS1.1 expression and GS1 enzyme activity...
December 7, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
S M Mofijul Islam, Yam Kanta Gaihre, Jatish Chandra Biswas, Upendra Singh, Md Nayeem Ahmed, Joaquin Sanabria, M A Saleque
Urea deep placement (UDP) and the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation method are two promising rice production technologies. However, studies on the impact of UDP under AWD irrigation on nitrous oxide (N2 O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions are limited. In this study, the effects of UDP with AWD irrigation on these emissions, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and rice yields are investigated, compared to conventional broadcast application. N2 O and NO emissions from three fertilizer treatments - no nitrogen, UDP, and broadcast application of prilled urea (PU) - were measured...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhen-Hua Zhang, Ting Zhou, Qiong Liao, Jun-Yue Yao, Gui-Hong Liang, Hai-Xing Song, Chun-Yun Guan, Ying-Peng Hua
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient that is essential for optimal plant growth and seed yield. Allotetraploid rapeseed (An An Cn Cn , 2n = 4x = 38) has a higher requirement for N fertilizers whereas exhibiting a lower N use efficiency (NUE) than cereal crops. N limitation adaptation (NLA) is pivotal for enhancing crop NUE and reducing N fertilizer use in yield production. Therefore, revealing the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying NLA is urgent for the genetic improvement of NUE in rapeseed and other crop species with complex genomes...
December 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy, Carolina Sanhueza, Katherine Pinto, Leonardo Cifuentes, María Reguera, Vilbett Briones, Andrés Zurita-Silva, Rodrigo Álvarez, Andrea Morales, Herman Silva
Quinoa has been highlighted as a promising crop to sustain food security. The selection of physiological traits that allow identification genotypes with high Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a key factor to increase Quinoa cultivation. In order to unveil the underpinning mechanisms for N-stress tolerance in Quinoa, three genotypes with similar phenology, but different NUE were developed under high (HN) or low (LN) nitrogen conditions. N metabolism processes and photosynthetic performance were studied after anthesis and in correlation with productivity to identify principal traits related to NUE...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaomei Yi, Jing Yuan, Yuanhong Zhu, Xiaojian Yi, Qi Zhao, Kaikai Fang, Linkui Cao
Eco-agricultural systems aim to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers in order to improve sustainable production and maintain a healthy ecosystem. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of rice-frog farming on the bacterial community and N-cycling microbes in paddy rhizosphere soil. This experiment involved three rice cultivation patterns: Conventionally cultivated rice (CR), green rice-frog farming (GR), and organic rice-frog farming (OR). The rice yield, paddy soil enzyme activities, physicochemical variables and bacterial and N-cycling bacterial abundances were quantitatively analyzed...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wenfeng Liu, Hong Yang, Christian Folberth, Christoph Müller, Philippe Ciais, Karim C Abbaspour, Rainer Schulin
Increasing demand for food is driving a worldwide trend of agricultural input intensification. However, there is no comprehensive knowledge about the interrelations between potential yield gains and environmental trade-offs that would enable the identification of regions where input-driven intensification could achieve higher yields, yet with minimal environmental impacts. We explore ways of enhancing global yields, while avoiding significant nitrogen (N) emissions (Ne ) by exploring a range of N and irrigation management scenarios...
November 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Sonia Hamiche, Sondes Mechri, Lamia Khelouia, Rachid Annane, Mohamed El Hattab, Abdelmalek Badis, Bassem Jaouadi
The current paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of two extracellular keratinolytic enzymes, with moderate elastolytic activity, from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain S13 newly isolated from the brown alga Zonaria tournefortii. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity by precipitation with (NH4 )2 SO4 -dialysis, followed by size exclusion HPLC column, and submitted to biochemical characterization assays. The findings revealed that the pure enzymes designated KERZT-A and B were monomers with molecular masses of 28 and 47 kDa, respectively...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Niels West, Hjalte Sass, Martin Nue Møller, Per Cayé-Thomasen
Facial nerve schwannomas (FS) can symptomatically mimic vestibular schwannomas (VS). In addition, FS can be difficult to distinguish from VS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although disequilibrium is not uncommon in patients with FS, no previous studies have investigated the vestibular function in such patients. Three cases of FS presented vestibular dysfunction as measured with caloric test, video head impulse test (VHIT), and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). All patients in this study had a considerable affection of the vestibular function as assessed by the vestibular test panel...
October 29, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Kamaljit Banger, Emerson D Nafziger, Junming Wang, Umar Muhammad, Cameron M Pittelkow
Nutrient loss reduction strategies have recently been developed in the U.S. Midwest to decrease the environmental footprint associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer use. Although these strategies generally suggest decreasing N rates and shifting the timing of N application from fall to spring, the spatiotemporal impacts of these practices on maize yield and fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE, kg grain yield increase per kg N applied) have not been assessed at the watershed scale using crop simulation models. We simulated the effects of N fertilizer rate (0, 168, 190, 224 kg N ha-1) and application timing [fall-applied N (FN): 100% N applied on 1 December; spring-applied N (SN): 100% N applied 10 days before planting; split N: 66% N applied on 1 December + 34% N applied 10 days before planting] on maize grain yield (GY) across 3042 points in Illinois during 2011-2015 using the DSSAT-CERES-Maize model...
2018: PloS One
Xiukang Wang, Ning Wang, Yingying Xing, Jia Yun, Huihui Zhang
The demand for increased grain production to support population and consumption growth has led to increased interest in field management approaches that incorporate plastic mulching and fertilization management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of plastic mulching and basal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer application depth on N balance estimations, N use efficiency (NUE) and maize yield. The experiment was conducted in 2014 and 2015 with six treatments: no N fertilizer and no mulching (CK), traditional broadcast N fertilizer with mulching (T0), basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 6 cm with no mulching (T1), basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 6 cm with plastic mulching (T2), basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 12 cm with no mulching (T3) and basal N-fertilizer application at a depth of 12 cm with plastic mulching (T4)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Narendra Sharma, Vimlendu Bhushan Sinha, Neha Gupta, Soumya Rajpal, Surekha Kuchi, Vetury Sitaramam, Rajender Parsad, Nandula Raghuram
The biological improvement of fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is hampered by the poor characterization of the phenotype and genotype for crop N response and NUE. In an attempt to identify phenotypic traits for N-response and NUE in the earliest stages of plant growth, we analyzed the N-responsive germination, respiration, urease activities, and root/shoot growth of 21 Indica genotypes of rice ( Oryza sativa var. indica ). We found that N delays germination from 0 to 12 h in a genotype-dependent and source-dependent manner, especially with urea and nitrate...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chaoqiang Jiang, Dianjun Lu, Chaolong Zu, Jianmin Zhou, Huoyan Wang
It is urgently to minimize nitrogen (N) loss while simultaneously ensuring high yield for maize in China. A two-year field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of root-zone fertilization (RZF) and split-surface broadcasting (SSB) on grain yield, N use efficiency (NUE), and urea-15 N fate under different N rates (135, 180 and 225 kg ha-1 ). Results showed that RZF increased grain yield by 11.5%, and the N derived from fertilizer (Ndff%) by 13.1-19.6%, compared with SSB. The percentage of residual 15 N in the 0-80 cm soil was 37...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sumeth Wongkiew, Mee-Rye Park, Kartik Chandran, Samir Kumar Khanal
Aquaponics is a technology for food production (fish and vegetables/fruits) with concomitant remediation of nitrogen-rich aquaculture effluent. There is, however, a critical need to improve the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in aquaponics. Here, we employed quantitative polymerase chain reactions and next-generation sequencing to evaluate the bacterial communities and their links to nitrogen transformations for improving NUEs in four bench-scale plant-based floating-raft aquaponics (pak choi, lettuce, chive, and tomato) and three pH levels (7...
September 28, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaoli Fan, Wei Zhang, Na Zhang, Mei Chen, Shusong Zheng, Chunhua Zhao, Jie Han, Jiajia Liu, Xilan Zhang, Liqiang Song, Jun Ji, Xigang Liu, Hongqing Ling, Yiping Tong, Fa Cui, Tao Wang, Junming Li
QTL for a wheat ideotype root system and its plasticity to nitrogen deficiency were characterized. Root system architecture-related traits (RRTs) and their plasticity to nitrogen availability are important for nitrogen acquisition and yield formation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted under different nitrogen conditions, using the seedlings of 188 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Kenong 9204 and Jing 411. Fifty-three QTL for seven RRTs and fourteen QTL for the plasticity of these RRTs to nitrogen deficiency were detected...
December 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Xiukang Wang, Ning Wang, Yingying Xing, Mohamed Ben El Caid
Nitrogen (N) fertilization potentially affects the amount of N uptake and N translocation (NT) within plants, but the synergetic effects of plastic mulching and N application rates on the grain yield (GY), N uptake and NT of maize have not been studied. A fertilization experiment with six N application rates (0, 80, 160, 240, 350 and 450 kg ha-1 ) with or without mulch was conducted in 2015 and 2016 in the Loess Plateau of China. There were significant interactions between mulch and the N fertilizer rate on the GY...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Muhammad Waqas, Shizhong Feng, Hira Amjad, Puleng Letuma, Wenshan Zhan, Zhong Li, Changxun Fang, Yasir Arafat, Muhammad Umar Khan, Muhammad Tayyab, Wenxiong Lin
Nitrogen (N) is an essential element usually limiting in plant growth and a basic factor for increasing the input cost in agriculture. To ensure the food security and environmental sustainability it is urgently required to manage the N fertilizer. The identification or development of genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) which can grow efficiently and sustain yield in low N conditions is a possible solution. In this study, two isogenic rice genotypes i.e., wild-type rice kitaake and its transgenic line PP2C9TL overexpressed protein phosphatase gene ( PP2C9 ) were used for comparative proteomics analysis at control and low level of N to identify specific proteins and encoding genes related to high NUE...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yingke Fang, Xinhan Chen, Zhen Hu, Daoxing Liu, Hang Gao, Lichao Nie
The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of algal-bacterial-based aquaponics (AA) were investigated in this study. Both the highest fish growth and algal biomass increase were observed in the AA system at 2-day HRT, resulting in the highest nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) (39.28%) in this microcosm. On the contrary, ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) abundance at 4-day HRT was approximately ten times higher than that at 2-day HRT, since longer HRT would benefit bacterial growth. The 15 N labeling study showed that microalgae assimilation was the main pathway of NH4 + removal in the AA system, and oxygen produced by microalgae could in situ support complete nitrification, thus leading to much lower NH4 + concentrations at 2-day HRT...
November 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jin Peng Chu, Wen Mei Zhu, Li Jun Yin, Yu Hua Shi, Shu Zhen Deng, Liang Zhang, Ming Rong He, Xing Long Dai
The effects of wide-range planting (WR) versus drilling-planting (DP) on grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and nitrogen uptake efficiency (UPE) were investigated using winter wheat cultivar Tainong 18 at experimental fields in Tai'an and Yanzhou during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016. The results showed that planting pattern, experimental field location, and their interaction significantly affected the grain yield, NUE, and related indices of cultivar Tainong 18. Compared to DP, the WR pattern significantly increased grain yield by 22...
August 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Hongxiang Zhang, Yingzhi Gao, Buli Yohannis Tasisa, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Xiao-Tao Lü, Daowei Zhou
Water and nitrogen (N) availability to plants are spatially and temporally variable in arid and semi-arid grasslands. We aimed to investigate the eco-physiological responses of three bunchgrass species to water and N addition along a gradient of habitat degradation in the Inner Mongolian typical grasslands. The effects of water and N addition on aboveground and belowground growth and biomass allocation and water- and nitrogen-use efficiency (WUE and NUE) of Stipa grandis, Agropyron cristatum and Cleistogenes squarrosa from non-degraded, moderately-degraded and heavily-degraded grasslands, respectively, were compared...
January 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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