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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933716/risks-and-treatment-strategies-for-de-novo-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-from-anti-hbc-positive-donors-in-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#1
Chong Dong, Wei Gao, Nan Ma, Chao Sun, Wei-Ping Zheng, Kai Wang, Zhong-Yang Shen
The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and risk factors of de novo HBV infection in pediatric patients receiving living donor liver transplants (LDLT) from HBcAb-positive donors, and to explore its treatment strategies. The data of 101 pediatric recipients receiving LDLT in Tianjin First Central Hospital between September 2006 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The HBV markers were regularly tested before and after the surgery, including HBsAb, HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb. The median follow-up period was 25...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933698/sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-3-infection-in-india
#2
S R Shah, A Chowdhury, R Mehta, D Kapoor, A Duseja, A Koshy, A Shukla, A Sood, K Madan, R Sud, S Nijhawan, R Pawan, M Prasad, K Kersey, D Jiang, E Svarovskaia, B Doehle, B Kanwar, M Subramanian, S K Acharya, S Sarin
Until 2014, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin was the recommended standard of care for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. This open-label phase 3b study, conducted across 14 sites in India between 31 March 2014 and 30 November 2015, evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin therapy among treatment-naïve patients with chronic genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection. A total of 117 patients with genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection were randomized 1:1 to receive sofosbuvir 400 mg and weight-based ribavirin (1000 or 1200 mg) daily for 16 or 24 weeks...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933593/inflammation-induced-cd69-kupffer-cell-feedback-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#3
Xiang Zhang, Zhengping Jiang, Yan Gu, Yanfang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yanmei Han
Kupffer cells, tissue-resident macrophage lineage cell, are enriched in vertebrate liver. The mouse F4/80(+) Kupffer cells have been subclassified into two subpopulations according to their phenotype and function: CD68(+) subpopulation with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytic capacities, and CD11b(+) subpopulation with a potent capacity to produce T helper 1 cytokines. In addition, CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages may be migrated from the bone marrow or spleen, especially in inflammatory conditions of the liver...
December 6, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933538/systems-genetics-of-liver-fibrosis
#4
Rabea A Hall, Frank Lammert
This systems genetics analysis comprises quantitative measurements of hepatic fibrogenesis in mouse models and mapping of quantitative traits in mouse genetic reference populations. It is part of a large mapping project of fibrogenic genes including the analyses of experimental crosses from different inbred mouse strains. Extensive quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of fibrosis phenotypes and liver expression profiling in combination with in silico mapping facilitated the identification of QTL regions and underlying candidate genes that confer fibrosis susceptibility also in humans...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933510/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-and-ligustrazine-injection-on-lx-2-cells-involved-with-increased-n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-2-expression
#5
Jin Zheng, Li-Tian Ma, Qin-You Ren, Yue Hu, Yang Bai, Huan Bian, Yi Zhang, Yong-Chun Zhou, Ming-Hui Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Ligustrazine Injection (SML) on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cell LX-2 and the expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2, a tumor suppressor gene). METHODS: HSCs from the LX-2 cell line were cultured in vitro. The proliferative state of different initial LX-2 cell numbers was measured using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay...
December 8, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933509/effect-of-shuanghu-qinggan-granule-and-yigan-yiqi-jieyu-granule-plus-lamivudine-on-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Yong-An Ye, De-Lu Tian, Jian Jiang, Jun Li, Jian-Jie Chen, Zhi-Hong Li, Wei-Guo Ma, Yi-Ming Zhao, Rong-Bing Wang, Shi-Zhong Yang, Feng-Zhen Shao, Guang Ji, Da-Qiao Zhou, Tie-Jun Liu, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Wei Zhang, Ke-Wei Sun, Yu-Fen Wang, Le-Quan Min, Xiao-Ke Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of Shuanghu Qinggan Granule ( , SQG) plus Yigan Yiqi Jieyu Granule (, YYJG) combined with lamivudine (LAM) on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded and parallel controlled trial. A total of 320 patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups equally: 160 patients (treatment group) were given SQG and YYJG combined with LAM; and 160 patients (control group) were given LAM plus Chinese herb placebo, respectively...
December 8, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933441/multimodality-imaging-to-assess-immediate-response-following-irreversible-electroporation-in-patients-with-malignant-hepatic-tumors
#7
Katsutoshi Sugimoto, Fuminori Moriyasu, Kazuhiro Saito, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Takao Itoi
PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), contrast-enhanced multiphase CT (CECT), and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) in identifying residual tumor in the subacute follow-up of patients with malignant hepatic tumors treated by irreversible electroporation (IRE). METHODS: We enrolled 16 patients with 21 hepatic lesions treated by IRE and examined by CEUS and CECT at 1 day after IRE and by EOB-MRI at 7 days after IRE...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933440/modern-role-of-clinical-ultrasound-in-liver-abscess-and-echinococcosis
#8
REVIEW
Rita Barosa, João Pinto, Ana Caldeira, Eduardo Pereira
In the Western world, liver abscesses are predominantly of pyogenic origin and can present a wide range of ultrasonographic features, from a solid mass to a cystic cavity. Amoebic abscesses are endemic in tropical areas and typically round single lesions. Echinococcal cyst is diagnosed by ultrasound (US). Serology is particularly useful when pathognomonic US features are absent. Treatment is determined based on the WHO ultrasonographic classification, and puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration (PAIR) is a US-guided therapeutic option...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933310/dynamics-of-antigen-presentation-to-transgene-product-specific-cd4-t-cells-and-of-treg-induction-upon-hepatic-aav-gene-transfer
#9
George Q Perrin, Irene Zolotukhin, Alexandra Sherman, Moanaro Biswas, Ype P de Jong, Cox Terhorst, Andrew M Davidoff, Roland W Herzog
The tolerogenic hepatic microenvironment impedes clearance of viral infections but is an advantage in viral vector gene transfer, which often results in immune tolerance induction to transgene products. Although the underlying tolerance mechanism has been extensively studied, our understanding of antigen presentation to transgene product-specific CD4(+) T cells remains limited. To address this, we administered hepatotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vector expressing cytoplasmic ovalbumin (OVA) into wt mice followed by adoptive transfer of transgenic OVA-specific T cells...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933202/screening-and-management-of-viral-hepatitis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-mongolia-results-from-a-survey-of-mongolian-physicians-from-all-major-provinces-of-mongolia
#10
Yoona A Kim, Jacqueline Estevez, An Le, Dennis Israelski, Oidov Baatarkhuu, Tserenchimed Sarantuya, Sonom Narantsetseg, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Richard H Le, Man-Fung Yuen, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Mario Rizzetto, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: According to Globocan, Mongolia has the highest worldwide hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence (78.1/100 000, 3.5× higher than China). AIMS AND METHODS: We conducted an anonymous survey of physicians from major provinces who attended an educational liver symposium, analysing their demography, practice, knowledge, perceptions and proposed solutions. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate OR relating demography and practice factors with higher provider knowledge and improvement...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933201/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-liver-histology-among-nafld-patients-without-diabetes
#11
Pushpjeet Kanwar, James E Nelson, Katherine Yates, David E Kleiner, Aynur Unalp-Arida, Kris V Kowdley
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this observational study was to examine the relationship of MetS and a diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients without diabetes in the NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN). METHODS: Clinical, demographic, histological, laboratory and anthropometric data were collected on 356 adult patients without diabetes with NAFLD. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933176/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia-and-hyperglucagonemia-due-to-a-glucagon-receptor-splice-mutation
#12
Etienne Larger, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Lars H Hansen, Richard W Gelling, Jacqueline Capeau, Carolyn F Deacon, Ole D Madsen, Fumiatsu Yakushiji, Pierre De Meyts, Jens J Holst, Erica Nishimura
: Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3' mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933174/a-case-of-hepatitis-c-associated-osteosclerosis-accelerated-bone-turnover-controlled-by-pulse-steroid-therapy
#13
Nobuhiro Miyamura, Shuhei Nishida, Mina Itasaka, Hirofumi Matsuda, Takeshi Ohtou, Yasuhiro Yamaguchi, Daisuke Inaba, Sadahiro Tamiya, Tetsuo Nakano
: Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO), a very rare disorder in which an extremely rapid bone turnover occurs and results in osteosclerosis, was acknowledged in 1990s as a new clinical entity with the unique bone disorder and definite link to chronic type C hepatitis, although the pathogenesis still remains unknown. Affected patients suffer from excruciating deep bone pains. We report the 19th case of HCAO with diagnosis confirmed by bone biopsy, and treated initially with a bisphosphonate, next with corticosteroids and finally with direct acting antivirals (DAA: sofosbuvir and ribavirin) for HCV infection...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933062/no-role-for-mast-cells-in-obesity-related-metabolic-dysregulation
#14
Jindřich Chmelař, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marta Prucnal, David Voehringer, Axel Roers, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Obesity-related adipose tissue (AT) inflammation that promotes metabolic dysregulation is associated with increased AT mast cell numbers. Mast cells are potent inducers of inflammatory responses and could potentially contribute to obesity-induced AT inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. Conflicting findings were reported on obesity-related metabolic dysfunction in mast cell-deficient mice, thus creating a controversy that has not been resolved to date. Whereas traditional Kit hypomorphic mast cell-deficient strains featured reduced diet-induced obesity and diabetes, a Kit-independent model of mast cell deficiency, Cpa3(Cre/+) mice, displayed no alterations in obesity and insulin sensitivity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932556/orally-administered-berberine-modulates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-by-altering-microbial-bile-acid-metabolism-and-the-intestinal-fxr-signaling-pathway
#15
Runbin Sun, Na Yang, Bo Kong, Bei Cao, Dong Feng, Xiaoyi Yu, Chun Ge, Jingqiu Huang, Jianliang Shen, Pei Wang, Siqi Feng, Fei Fei, Jiahua Guo, Jun He, Nan Aa, Qiang Chen, Yang Pan, Justin D Schumacher, Chung S Yang, Grace L Guo, Jiye Aa, Guangji Wang
Previous studies suggest that the lipid-lowering effect of BBR involves actions on the LDL receptor and the AMPK signaling pathways. However, the implication of these mechanisms is unclear because of the low bioavailability of BBR. Because the main action site of BBR is the gut and intestinal FXR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that the effects of BBR on intestinal FXR signaling pathway might account for its pharmacological effectiveness. Using wild type (WT) and intestine-specific FXR knockout (FXRint-/-) mice, we found that BBR prevented the development of high-fat-diet induced obesity and ameliorated triglyceride accumulation in livers of WT, but not FXRint-/- mice...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932515/genotoxic-effect-of-iron-overload-and-disease-complications-in-transfused-%C3%AE-thalassaemic-patients
#16
Elisa Ferro, Giuseppa Visalli, Maria Angela La Rosa, Basilia Piraino, Rosa Civa, Gaetano Randazzo Papa, Angela Di Pietro
In previously reported studies, we observed significantly high genotoxicity biomarkers in regularly transfused thalassaemic patients, thus, in this study, we better investigated the genotoxic effect of iron overload and of thalassaemia complications, including their drug treatments. The assessment was performed in 64 regularly transfused thalassaemic patients using cytokinesis-block micronucleus and comet assays. All patients were splenectomised and undergoing iron chelation therapy. To reduce hypoxia-induced oxidative damage, the patients with haemoglobin levels <9...
December 8, 2016: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932435/radical-resection-and-improvised-surgical-reconstruction-for-a-rare-malignant-triton-tumour-of-intercostal-nerve-in-a-patient-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#17
Ikram Ulhaq Chaudhry, Ahsan Iqbal Cheema, Hadi Mutari, Samir S Amr
A man aged 28 years, with neurofibromatosis type 1, presented with abdominal pain and visible right lower chest swelling. He had cutaneous neurofibromas and several café-au-lait spots. CT scan of the chest and abdomen revealed a giant mass most likely originating from the right 7th intercostal nerve, extending downwards into the abdomen causing massive hepatic compression. A Trucut biopsy showed malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. Radical surgical resection with wide margins was performed. The chest wall and diaphragm were reconstructed with improvised surgical technique with excellent results...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932311/daclatasvir-prevents-hepatitis-c-virus-by-blocking-transfer-of-viral-genome-to-assembly-sites
#18
Bertrand Boson, Solène Denolly, Fanny Turlure, Christophe Chamot, Marlène Dreux, François-Loïc Cosset
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Daclatasvir is a direct-acting antiviral agent and potent inhibitor of NS5A, which is involved in replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome, presumably via membranous web shaping, and assembly of new virions, likely via transfer of the HCV RNA genome to viral particle assembly sites. Daclatasvir inhibits the formation of new membranous web structures and, ultimately, of replication complex vesicles, but also inhibits an early assembly step. We investigated the relationship between daclatasvir-induced clustering of HCV proteins, intracellular localization of viral RNAs and inhibition of viral particle assembly...
December 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932294/large-scale-structure-based-prediction-and-identification-of-novel-protease-substrates-using-computational-protein-design
#19
Manasi A Pethe, Aliza B Rubenstein, Sagar D Khare
Characterizing the substrate specificity of protease enzymes is critical for illuminating the molecular basis of their diverse and complex roles in a wide array of biological processes. Rapid and accurate prediction of their extended substrate specificity would also aid in the design of custom proteases capable of selectively and controllably cleaving biotechnologically or therapeutically relevant targets. However, current in silico approaches for protease specificity prediction, rely on, and are therefore limited by, machine learning of sequence patterns in known experimental data...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932263/long-term-disease-and-economic-outcomes-of-prior-authorization-criteria-for-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-pennsylvania-medicaid
#20
Mina Kabiri, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Julie M Donohue, Mark S Roberts, A Everette James, Michael A Dunn, Walid F Gellad
BACKGROUND: Several highly effective but costly therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are available. As a consequence of their high price, 36 state Medicaid programs limited treatment coverage to patients with more advanced HCV stages. States have only limited information available to predict the long-term impact of these decisions. METHODS: We adapted a validated hepatitis C microsimulation model to the Pennsylvania Medicaid population to estimate the existing HCV prevalence in Pennsylvania Medicaid and estimate the impact of various HCV drug coverage policies on disease outcomes and costs...
December 5, 2016: Healthcare
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