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Basal metabolic rate

Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Dominika Dragosz-Kluska, Tomasz Pis, Katarzyna Pawlik, Filip Kapustka, Wincenty M Kilarski, Jan Kozłowski
Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
Clothilde Philouze, Philippe Obert, Stéphane Nottin, Asma Benamor, Olivier Barthez, Falah Aboukhoudir
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies are present in the literature on resting myocardial mechanics in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data are noticeably sparse regarding circumferential function and torsional mechanics. Resting deformation imaging may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle dysfunctions. The aim of this study was thus to comprehensively evaluate myocardial mechanics in patients with T2DM at rest and to investigate whether dobutamine stress echocardiography could unmask functional alterations that would remain otherwise subtle at rest...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Franz Josef Söbbeler, Inés Carrera, Kirby Pasloske, Millagahamada Gedara Ranasinghe, Patrick Kircher, Sabine Beate Rita Kästner
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone on the canine brain metabolite bioprofile, measured with single voxel short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla. Ten adult healthy Beagle dogs were assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone at 3 different dose rates each in a randomized cross-over study design. Doses for isoflurane, sevoflurane, propofol and alfaxalone were FE 'Iso 1...
March 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Joaquín Sánchez-Molina, José J Robles-Pérez, Vicente J Clemente-Suárez
Soldiers´ training and experience can influence the outcome of the missions, as well as their own physical integrity. The objective of this research was to analyze the psycho-physiological response and specific motor skills in an urban combat simulation with two units of infantry with different training and experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: psychophysiological parameters -Heart Rate, blood oxygen saturation, glucose and blood lactate, cortical activation, anxiety and heart rate variability-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in 31 male soldiers of the Spanish Army, 19 belonging to the Light Infantry Brigade, and 12 to the Heavy Forces Infantry Brigade, before and after an urban combat simulation...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Agnese Barnabei, Lidia Strigari, Agnese Persichetti, Roberto Baldelli, Laura Rizza, Claudia Annoscia, Rosa Lauretta, Giovanni Cigliana, Maddalena Barba, Aurora De Leo, Marialuisa Appetecchia, Francesco Torino
Purpose: Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is currently used in follow-up of patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Age, sex, weight, body mass index, body surface area (BSA) and renal function are known factors affecting serum TSH peak levels, but the proper rhTSH dose to deliver to single patient remains elusive. In this study, the correlations of basal metabolic rates with serum TSH peak following rhTSH administration were investigated. Methods: We evaluated 221 patients affected by thyroid cancer that received a standard dose rhTSH...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Chao Lei, Sheng Fan, Ke Li, Yuan Meng, Jiangping Mao, Mingyu Han, Caiping Zhao, Lu Bao, Dong Zhang
Adventitious root (AR) formation, which is controlled by endogenous and environmental factors, is indispensable for vegetative asexual propagation. However, comprehensive proteomic data on AR formation are still lacking. The aim of this work was to study indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced AR formation in the dwarf apple rootstock 'T337'. In this study, the effect of IBA on AR formation was analysed. Subsequent to treatment with IBA, both the rooting rate and root length of 'T337' increased significantly. An assessment of hormone levels in basal stem cuttings suggested that auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolide were higher in basal stem cuttings that received the exogenous IBA application; while zeatin riboside, gibberellins, and jasmonic acid were lower than non-treated basal stem cuttings...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andrey Bushuev, Oleg Tolstenkov, Ekaterina Zubkova, Eugenia Solovyeva, Anvar Kerimov
The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines...
February 2018: Current Zoology
Veroniqa Lundbäck, Agne Kulyte, Rona J Strawbridge, Mikael Ryden, Peter Arner, Claude Marcus, Ingrid Dahlman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: By genome-wide association meta-analysis, 17 genetic loci associated with fasting serum insulin (FSI), a marker of systemic insulin resistance, have been identified. To define potential culprit genes in these loci, in a cross-sectional study we analysed white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of 120 genes in these loci in relation to systemic and adipose tissue variables, and functionally evaluated genes demonstrating genotype-specific expression in WAT (eQTLs). METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from 114 women...
February 27, 2018: Diabetologia
James A Bradley, Jan P Amend, Douglas E LaRowe
Marine sediments constitute one of the most energy-limited habitats on Earth, in which microorganisms persist over extraordinarily long timescales with very slow metabolisms. This habitat provides an ideal environment in which to study the energetic limits of life. However, the bioenergetic factors that can determine whether microorganisms will grow, lie dormant, or die, as well as the selective environmental pressures that determine energetic trade-offs between growth and maintenance activities, are not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dhananjay Yadav, Suk-Jeong Kim, Jae-Ryong Kim, Kyung-Hyun Cho
BACKGROUND: Central blood pressure is closely related to the important cardiovascular intermediate end points, such as vascular hypertrophy and extent of carotid atherosclerosis. Therefore it is prudent to study correlation among central aortic blood pressure, body composition, lipid profiles, and pulse wave velocity in population-based study. Consequently, we investigate the correlation between central aortic blood pressure and other risk parameters of hypertension such as body composition and lipid profile...
February 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Olivier Reynaud, François Chabot, Jocelyne Mercier, David E Andrich, David H St-Pierre, Gilles Gouspillou
Multiple aspects of mitochondrial function and dynamics remain poorly studied in the skeletal muscle of pediatric models in response to a short-term high-fat diet (HFD). This study investigated the impact of a short-term HFD on mitochondrial function and dynamics in the oxidative soleus (SOL) and glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in young rats. Young male Wistar rats were submitted to either HFD or normal chow (NCD) diets for 14 days. Permeabilized myofibers from SOL and EDL were prepared to assess mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Gary C Packard
Studies performed over the last 20 years have repeatedly documented a slight convex curvature (relative to the x-axis) in double-logarithmic plots of basal metabolic rate (BMR) versus body mass in mammals. This curvilinear pattern has usually been interpreted in the context of a simple, two-parameter power function on the arithmetic scale, y  =  a  ×  xb , with the exponent in the equation supposedly increasing systematically with body size. An equation of this form has caused concern among ecologists because a variable exponent is inconsistent with an assumption underlying the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE)...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Alba Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta Camacho-Cardenosa, Martin Burtscher, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Rafael Timon, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Guillermo Olcina
A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Miguel A Martinez-Olmos, Ana Canton, Lucia Ordoñez-Mayan, Ignacio Sajoux, Cristobal Galban, Diego Bellido, Felipe F Casanueva
Background: The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method: From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA and MF-Bioimpedance, and RMR by indirect calorimetry, were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1, basal, initial fat mass (FM) and free fat mass (FFM); visit C-2, - 7...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Paula Natália Pereira, Marília Gaspar, J Andrew C Smith, Helenice Mercier
Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae) is a tropical epiphyte capable of upregulating crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in its photosynthetic tissues in response to changing nutrient and water availability. Previous studies have shown that under drought there is a gradient of increasing CAM expression from the basal (youngest) to apical (oldest) portion of the leaves, and additionally that nitrogen deficiency can further increase CAM intensity in the leaf apex of this bromeliad. The present study investigated the interrelationships between nitrogen source (nitrate and/or ammonium) and water deficit in regulating CAM expression in G...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kathleen C Rankin, Laura C O'Brien, Ashraf S Gorgey
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may accurately quantify trunk lean mass (LM) after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to investigate the relationships between trunk LM, visceral adiposity, trunk fat mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR). DESIGN: Cross-sectional design and correlational analysis. SETTING: Research setting in a medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two men with motor complete paraplegia (n = 14; T4-T11) and tetraplegia (n = 8; C5-C7) were recruited as part of a clinical trial...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
W X Li, Y Q Chen, L H Zhao, Q G Ma, J Y Zhang, C Ji
Over supplementation of copper (Cu) in animal diets may cause serious pollution in soil, water and harvested crops. To minimize the potential pollution, the effects of corn-soybean basal diet with or without supplementation of 8 mg Cu/kg on laying performance, plasma biochemical metabolic indices, and antioxidant status in laying hens were evaluated under normal and cyclic high temperatures. A total of 240 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 10 hens per replicate according to factorial design involved in 2 temperatures [normal temperature (NT) vs...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Doug M Boyer, Arianna R Harrington
Supplying the central nervous system with oxygen and glucose for metabolic activities is a critical function for all animals at physiologic, anatomical, and behavioral levels. A relatively proximate challenge to nourishing the brain is maintaining adequate blood flow. Euarchontans (primates, dermopterans and treeshrews) display a diversity of solutions to this challenge. Although the vertebral artery is a major encephalic vessel, previous research has questioned its importance for irrigating the cerebrum. This presents a puzzling scenario for certain strepsirrhine primates (non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms) that have reduced promontorial branches of the internal carotid artery and no apparent alternative encephalic vascular route except for the vertebral artery...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Felipe Paredes, Kely Sheldon, Bernard Lassègue, Holly C Williams, Elizabeth A Faidley, Gloria A Benavides, Gloria Torres, Fernanda Sanhueza-Olivares, Samantha M Yeligar, Kathy K Griendling, Victor Darley-Usmar, Alejandra San Martin
Although the addition of the prosthetic group lipoate is essential to the activity of critical mitochondrial catabolic enzymes, its regulation is unknown. Here, we show that lipoylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKDH) complexes is a dynamically regulated process that is inhibited under hypoxia and in cancer cells to restrain mitochondrial respiration. Mechanistically, we found that the polymerase-δ interacting protein 2 (Poldip2), a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein of unknown function, controls the lipoylation of the pyruvate and α-KDH dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase subunits by a mechanism that involves regulation of the caseinolytic peptidase (Clp)-protease complex and degradation of the lipoate-activating enzyme Ac-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1)...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Timothy B Lautz, Simon Eaton, Lisa Keys, Joy Ito, Mario Polo, Jonathan C K Wells, Agostino Pierro, Riccardo A Superina
BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) in children is often associated with growth restriction, which improves after the restoration of portal venous flow with a meso-Rex bypass, but the physiologic mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of growth delay in children with EHPVO by detailing the metabolic and nutritional profile before and after meso-Rex bypass. METHODS: Twenty consecutive children with EHPVO were prospectively studied before and 1 year after meso-Rex bypass...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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