Read by QxMD icon Read

Basal metabolic rate

H Cumming, N A Herbert
Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species (Pagrus auratus) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (<10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 nephelometric turbidity units) for 30 days...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Stephen B Smith, Zhaobin Xu, Tatiana Novitskaya, Bo Zhang, Elena Chepurko, Xin-An Pu, Debra G Wheeler, Mark Ziolo, Richard J Gumina
AIMS: Prior work suggests that ischemic preconditioning increases the level of CD39 in the heart and contributes to cardiac protection. Therefore, we examined if targeted cardiac expression of CD39 protects against myocardial injury. MAIN METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific expression of human CD39 (αMHC/hCD39-Tg) were generated, characterized and subjected to left coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct size at 24h following injury quantified. KEY FINDINGS: αMHC/hCD39-Tg mice have increased in cardiac ATPase and ADPase activity compared to WT littermates...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
S Mudaliar, R R Henry, T P Ciaraldi, D A Armstrong, P M Burke, J H Pettus, P Garhyan, S L Choi, M P Knadler, E C Q Lam, M J Prince, N Bose, N K Porksen, V P Sinha, H Linnebjerg, S J Jacober
AIMS: Basal insulin peglispro (BIL), a novel PEGylated basal insulin with a large hydrodynamic size, has a delayed absorption and reduced clearance that prolongs the duration of action. The current study compared the effects of BIL and insulin glargine (GL) on endogenous glucose production (EGP), glucose disposal rate (GDR) and lipolysis in patients with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, four-period, crossover study. Patients received intravenous infusions of BIL and GL, each at two dose levels selected for partial and maximal suppression of EGP, during an 8 to 10 h euglycemic clamp procedure with d-[3-(3) H] glucose...
October 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ilaria Croci, Nuala M Byrne, Veronique S Chachay, Andrew P Hills, Andrew D Clouston, Trisha M O'Moore-Sullivan, Johannes B Prins, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman
AIM: To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Veeran Srinivasan, Periyakali Saravana Bhavan, Gopalan Rajkumar, Thangavelu Satgurunathan, Thirunavukkarasu Muralisankar
This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0...
October 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Indumathi Chennamsetty, Michael Coronado, Kévin Contrepois, Mark P Keller, Ivan Carcamo-Orive, John Sandin, Giovanni Fajardo, Andrew J Whittle, Mohsen Fathzadeh, Michael Snyder, Gerald Reaven, Alan D Attie, Daniel Bernstein, Thomas Quertermous, Joshua W Knowles
We recently identified human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) as an insulin resistance (IR) gene. Here, we examine the cellular mechanism linking NAT2 to IR and find that Nat1 (mouse ortholog of NAT2) is co-regulated with key mitochondrial genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of Nat1 led to mitochondrial dysfunction characterized by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial fragmentation as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, biogenesis, mass, cellular respiration, and ATP generation...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Edoardo Vitolo, Eleonora Santini, Antonio Salvati, Duccio Volterrani, Valerio Duce, Rosa Maria Bruno, Anna Solini
OBJECTIVE: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm) perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. METHODS: We measured GFR (mGFR) by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF) by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
Christina Mølck, James Ryall, Laura M Failla, Janine L Coates, Jean-Marc Pascussi, Joan K Heath, Gregory Stewart, Frédéric Hollande
PURPOSE: Adenosine is a multifaceted regulator of tumor progression. It modulates immune cell activity as well as acting directly on tumor cells. The A2b adenosine receptor (A2b-AR) is thought to be an important mediator of these effects. In this study we sought to analyze the contribution of the A2b-AR to the behavior of colorectal cancer cells. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: The A2b-AR antagonist PSB-603 changed cellular redox state without affecting cellular viability. Quantification of cellular bioenergetics demonstrated that PSB-603 increased basal oxygen consumption rates, indicative of enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Letters
Zulaykho Shamansurova, Paul Tan, Basma Ahmed, Emilie Pepin, Ondrej Seda, Julie L Lavoie
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. METHODS: An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
J Ryan Shipley, Polly Campbell, Jeremy B Searle, Bret Pasch
Aerobic respiration is a fundamental physiological trait dependent on coordinated interactions between gene products of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Mitonuclear mismatch in interspecific hybrids may contribute to reproductive isolation by inducing reduced viability (or even complete inviability) due to increased metabolic costs. However, few studies have tested for effects of mitonuclear mismatch on respiration at the whole organism level. We explored how hybridization affects metabolic rates in closely related species of grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to better understand the role of metabolic costs in reproductive isolation...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ko-Onn Lee, Chin-Meng Khoo, Balram Chowbay, Yiong-Huak Chan, Meng-Kwoon Sim
Des-aspartate-angiotensin I (DAA-I) is an endogenous angiotensin peptide and a prototype angiotensin receptor agonist (ARA). It acts on the angiotensin AT1 receptor and antagonises the deleterious actions of angiotensin II. DAA-I attenuates animal models of human disease in which angiotensin II has been implicated, such as cardiac hypertrophy, neointima formation, arteriosclerosis, renal failure, post-infarction injuries, diabetes, viral infection, chemical-induced inflammation, heat stroke, cancer, and gamma radiation lethality...
September 28, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Thomas W Bastian, William C von Hohenberg, Daniel J Mickelson, Lorene M Lanier, Michael K Georgieff
Iron deficiency (ID), with and without anemia, affects an estimated 2 billion people worldwide. ID is particularly deleterious during early-life brain development, leading to long-term neurological impairments including deficits in hippocampus-mediated learning and memory. Neonatal rats with fetal/neonatal ID anemia (IDA) have shorter hippocampal CA1 apical dendrites with disorganized branching. ID-induced dendritic structural abnormalities persist into adulthood despite normalization of the iron status. However, the specific developmental effects of neuronal iron loss on hippocampal neuron dendrite growth and branching are unknown...
September 27, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Donghao Wang, Yongmei Cao, Yi Lyu, Yingchuan Li, Tao Han
PURPOSE: To evaluate the corrective effect of norepinephrine on hypotension induced by dexmedetomidine through monitoring sedation status, hemodynamics as well as oxygen metabolism. METHODS: 100 patients administered standard-dose dexmedetomidine therapy with RASS between -2 and 0 in the intensive care unit (ICU) were included in the study. According to the application of norepinephrine to correct hypotension after dexmedetomidine therapy, the patients were divided into two groups: group A and group B...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
A Chico, L Herranz, R Corcoy, O Ramírez, M M Goya, J Bellart, S González-Romero, M Codina, P Sánchez, A Cortázar, D Acosta, M J Picón, J A Rubio, A Megía, M A Sancho, M Balsells, E Solá, N L González, J López-López
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential role of the type of basal insulin on glycemic control and maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of pregnancies attended at 18 Spanish tertiary hospitals. INCLUSION CRITERIA: T1DM, singleton pregnancies, delivery between 2002-2010, and use of the same basal and prandial insulin from before pregnancy until delivery. RESULTS: A total of 1534 pregnancies were included...
September 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
S Lazzer, G Tringali, M Caccavale, R De Micheli, L Abbruzzese, A Sartorio
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O2max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O2max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. METHODS: Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Sarah J Annesley, Sui T Lay, Shawn W De Piazza, Oana Sanislav, Eleanor Hammersley, Claire Y Allan, Lisa M Francione, Minh Q Bui, Zhi-Ping Chen, Kevin R W Ngoei, Flora Tassone, Bruce E Kemp, Elsdon Storey, Andrew Evans, Danuta Z Loesch, Paul R Fisher
In combination with studies of post-mortem PD brains, pharmacological and genetic models of Parkinson's Disease (PD) have suggested that two fundamental, interacting cellular processes are impaired - proteostasis and mitochondrial respiration. We have re-examined the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphoblasts isolated from patients with idiopathic PD and an age-matched control group. As previously reported for various PD cell types, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PD lymphoblasts was significantly elevated...
September 16, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Cornelia W Twining, J Thomas Brenna, Peter Lawrence, J Ryan Shipley, Troy N Tollefson, David W Winkler
Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hoi Lun Cheng, Mazen Amatoury, Katharine Steinbeck
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a time of rapid growth and changing energy requirements and is a risk period for obesity. There is little high-quality evidence on the pubertal alterations of energy expenditure and intake, and this has limited our understanding of energy balance during this important life stage. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize existing evidence on pubertal energy expenditure and intake in healthy nonobese adolescents. DESIGN: Studies were identified through CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maria Chondronikola, Rabia Asghar, Xiaojun Zhang, Edgar L Dillon, William J Durham, Zhanpin Wu, Craig Porter, Maria Camacho-Hughes, Yingxin Zhao, Allan R Brasier, Elena Volpi, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Nicola Abate, Labros Sidossis, Demidmaa Tuvdendorj
BACKGROUND: Circulating acyl-carnitines (acyl-CNTs) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in both rodents and humans. However, the mechanisms whereby circulating acyl-CNTs are increased in these conditions and their role in whole-body metabolism remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if, in humans, blood cells contribute in production of circulating acyl-CNTs and associate with whole-body fat metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight non-diabetic healthy women (age: 47 ± 19 y; BMI: 26 ± 1 kg·m(-2)) underwent stable isotope tracer infusion and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study to determine in vivo whole-body fatty acid flux and insulin sensitivity...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Erik S Knudsen, Uthra Balaji, Elizaveta Freinkman, Peter McCue, Agnieszka K Witkiewicz
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis. The aggressiveness and therapeutic recalcitrance of this malignancy has been attributed to multiple factors including the influence of an active desmoplastic stroma. How the stromal microenvironment of PDAC contributes to the fatal nature of this disease is not well defined. In the analysis of clinical specimens, we observed diverse expression of the hypoxic marker carbonic anhydrase IX and the lactate transporter MCT4 in the stromal compartment...
September 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"