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Basal metabolic rate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#1
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405305/metabolic-costs-of-capital-energy-storage-in-a-small-bodied-ectotherm
#2
Blaine D Griffen
Reproduction is energetically financed using strategies that fall along a continuum from animals that rely on stored energy acquired prior to reproduction (i.e., capital breeders) to those that rely on energy acquired during reproduction (i.e., income breeders). Energy storage incurs a metabolic cost. However, previous studies suggest that this cost may be minimal for small-bodied ectotherms. Here I test this assumption. I use a laboratory feeding experiment with the European green crab Carcinus maenas to establish individuals with different amounts of energy storage...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401293/how-low-can-you-go-an-adaptive-energetic-framework-for-interpreting-basal-metabolic-rate-variation-in-endotherms
#3
REVIEW
David L Swanson, Andrew E McKechnie, François Vézina
Adaptive explanations for both high and low body mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR) in endotherms are pervasive in evolutionary physiology, but arguments implying a direct adaptive benefit of high BMR are troublesome from an energetic standpoint. Here, we argue that conclusions about the adaptive benefit of BMR need to be interpreted, first and foremost, in terms of energetics, with particular attention to physiological traits on which natural selection is directly acting. We further argue from an energetic perspective that selection should always act to reduce BMR (i...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397408/effect-of-oxygen-affinity-of-liposome-encapsulated-hemoglobin-on-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-as-detected-by-positron-emission-tomography-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Akira T Kawaguchi, Mariko Yamano, Munetaka Haida, Hiroyuki Ohba, Takeharu Kakiuchi, Hideo Tsukada
We tested a hypothesis that liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) with high oxygen (O2 ) affinity (h-LEH, P50 O2  = 10 mm Hg) may work better than LEH with low O2 affinity (l-LEH, P50 O2  = 40 mm Hg) in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury using positron emission tomography (PET) in primates undergoing middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and reperfusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), O2 extract fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) were successively determined by PET before ischemia, at 2 h of ischemia, immediately after reperfusion, and 3 h after reperfusion...
April 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390265/acute-exposure-of-primary-rat-soleus-muscle-to-zilpaterol-hcl-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonist-tnf%C3%AE-or-il-6-in-culture-increases-glucose-oxidation-rates-independent-of-the-impact-on-insulin-signaling-or-glucose-uptake
#5
Caitlin N Cadaret, Kristin A Beede, Hannah E Riley, Dustin T Yates
Recent studies show that adrenergic agonists and inflammatory cytokines can stimulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but it is unclear if glucose oxidation is similarly increased. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of ractopamine HCl (β1 agonist), zilpaterol HCl (β2 agonist), TNFα, and IL-6 on glucose uptake and oxidation rates in unstimulated and insulin-stimulated soleus muscle strips from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Effects on phosphorylation of Akt (phospho-Akt), p38 MAPK (phospho-p38), and p44/42 MAPK (phospho-p44/42) was also determined...
April 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387898/relationship-of-serum-novel-adipokine-chemerin-levels-with-body-composition-insulin-resistance-dyslipidemia-and-diabesity-in-saudi-women
#6
S S Habib, A Eshki, B AlTassan, D Fatani, H Helmi, S AlSaif
OBJECTIVE: Chemerin is believed to be a mediator for the adipose tissue inflammation that occurs in obesity. The present study compared chemerin levels between healthy and type 2 diabetic women matched for age and body composition. We also aimed to assess the relationship of serum chemerin levels with body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and diabesity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational case-control study was conducted at the Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2013 to April 2014...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384424/energy-intake-basal-metabolic-rate-and-within-individual-trade-offs-in-men-and-women-training-for-a-half-marathon-a-reanalysis
#7
Vincent Careau
Understanding the mechanisms governing energy budgets during periods of high energy expenditure is important from both an evolutionary physiology and behavioral ecology perspective. In particular, we still know too little about the linkages between key components such as daily energy expenditure (DEE), daily energy intake (DEI), and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Westerterp et al. repeatedly measured DEI (self-reported), BMR (respirometry), and body composition (fat mass) in 23 adult subjects as they transitioned from an inactive lifestyle and trained during 44 wk in preparation of running a half marathon...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384282/a-flexible-method-for-aggregation-of-prior-statistical-findings
#8
Hazhir Rahmandad, Mohammad S Jalali, Kamran Paynabar
Rapid growth in scientific output requires methods for quantitative synthesis of prior research, yet current meta-analysis methods limit aggregation to studies with similar designs. Here we describe and validate Generalized Model Aggregation (GMA), which allows researchers to combine prior estimated models of a phenomenon into a quantitative meta-model, while imposing few restrictions on the structure of prior models or on the meta-model. In an empirical validation, building on 27 published equations from 16 studies, GMA provides a predictive equation for Basal Metabolic Rate that outperforms existing models, identifies novel nonlinearities, and estimates biases in various measurement methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384243/neuropeptide-s-reduces-duodenal-bicarbonate-secretion-and-ethanol-induced-increases-in-duodenal-motility-in-rats
#9
Wan Salman Wan Saudi, Markus Sjöblom
Alcohol disrupts the intestinal mucosal barrier by inducing metabolic and functional changes in epithelial cells. Recently, we showed that neuropeptide S (NPS) decreases duodenal motility and increases mucosal paracellular permeability, suggesting a role of NPS in the pathogenesis of disorders and dysfunctions in the small intestine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of NPS on ethanol- and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal barrier function and motility. Rats were anaesthetized with thiobarbiturate, and a 30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379214/impact-of-recurrent-hypoglycemic-stress-on-hindbrain-a2-nerve-cell-energy-metabolism-and-catecholamine-biosynthesis-modulation-by-estradiol
#10
Pratistha Tamrakar, Karen P Briski
It is unclear if habituation of hindbrain A2 metabolo‑sensory neurons to recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (RIIH) correlates with estradiol-dependent adjustments in energy metabolism that favor positive energy balance. Laser-microdissected A2 cells from estradiolor oil-implanted ovariectomized female rats were analyzed by Western blot to assess effects of three prior daily insulin injections on basal and hypoglycemic patterns of catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DβH) and rate-limiting energy pathway enzyme protein expression...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369883/individual-specific-variation-in-the-respiratory-activities-of-hmecs-and-their-bioenergetic-response-to-igf1-and-tnf%C3%AE
#11
Sallie S Schneider, Elizabeth M Henchey, Nazneen Sultana, Stephanie M Morin, D Joseph Jerry, Grace Makari-Judson, Giovanna M Crisi, Richard B Arenas, Melissa Johnson, Holly S Mason, Nagendra Yadava
Metabolic reprograming is a hallmark of cancer cells. However, the roles of pre-existing differences in normal cells metabolism toward cancer risk is not known. In order to assess pre- existing variations in normal cell metabolism, we have quantified the inter-individual variation in oxidative metabolism of normal primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). We then assessed their response to selected cytokines such as insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), which are associated with breast cancer risk...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367303/follicle-stimulating-hormone-and-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-among-fertile-and-infertile-women-in-ile-ife-nigeria-is-there-a-difference
#12
Temitope Okunola, Kayode Olusegun Ajenifuja, Olabisi Morebise Loto, Afolabi Salawu, Stephen Oluseyi Omitinde
BACKGROUND: Reduced ovarian reserve predicts poor ovarian response and poor suc- cess rates in infertile women who undergo assisted reproductive technology (ART). Ovarian reserve also decreases with age but the rate of decline varies from one woman to another. This study aims to detect differences in ovarian reserve as measured by basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) between a matched cohort of fertile and infertile regularly menstruating women, 18-45 years of age...
April 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360538/antidiabetic-and-gastric-emptying-inhibitory-effect-of-herbal-melia-azedarach-leaf-extract-in-rodent-models-of-diabetes-type-2-mellitus
#13
Daniel Seifu, Lars E Gustafsson, Rajinder Chawla, Solomon Genet, Asfaw Debella, Mikael Holst, Per M Hellström
Diabetes type 2 is associated with impaired insulin production and increased insulin resistance. Treatment with antidiabetic drugs and insulin strives for normalizing glucose homeostasis. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, plant extracts of Melia azedarach are used to control diabetes mellitus and various gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to clarify the antidiabetic effects of M. azedarach leaf extracts in diabetic type 2 experimental animals. In this study, mice were injected with Melia extract intraperitoneally...
2017: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356368/avian-torpor-or-alternative-thermoregulatory-strategies-for-overwintering
#14
Tegan K Douglas, Christine E Cooper, Philip C Withers
It is unclear whether torpor really is uncommon amongst passerine birds. We therefore examined body temperature and thermoregulatory strategies of an Austral passerine, the white-browed babbler (Pomatostomus superciliosus), which has characteristics related to a high probability of torpor use; it is a sedentary, insectivorous, cooperative breeding species, which we studied during winter in a temperate habitat. Wild, free-living babblers maintained normothermy overnight, even at sub-zero ambient temperatures, with a mean minimum body temperature of 38...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351620/oxygenated-thawing-and-rewarming-alleviate-rewarming-injury-of-cryopreserved-pancreatic-islets
#15
Hirotake Komatsu, Alyssa Barriga, Leonard Medrano, Keiko Omori, Fouad Kandeel, Yoko Mullen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic islet transplantation is an effective treatment for Type 1 diabetic patients to eliminate insulin injections; however, a shortage of donor organs hinders the widespread use. Although long-term islet storage, such as cryopreservation, is considered one of the key solutions, transplantation of cryopreserved islets is still not practical due to the extensive loss during the cryopreservation-rewarming process. We have previously reported that culturing islets in a hyperoxic environment is an effective treatment to prevent islet death from the hypoxic injury during culture...
March 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347999/lipin-1-regulation-of-phospholipid-synthesis-maintains-endoplasmic-reticulum-homeostasis-and-is-critical-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-survival
#16
Jingquan He, Feng Zhang, Li Wei Rachel Tay, Salome Boroda, Weiqi Nian, Kandice R Levental, Ilya Levental, Thurl E Harris, Jeffrey T Chang, Guangwei Du
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to increase the synthesis of macromolecules for rapid proliferation. Compared to fatty acids, much less is known about the synthesis of phospholipids, which is essential for membrane biogenesis in cancer cells. We found that LPIN1, which encodes lipin-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) controlling the rate-limiting step in the phospholipid synthesis pathway, is highly up-regulated in basal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Moreover, high LPIN1 expression correlates with the poor prognosis of these patients...
March 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#17
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342898/temperature-induces-significant-changes-in-both-glycolytic-reserve-and-mitochondrial-spare-respiratory-capacity-in-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#18
Mihail I Mitov, Jennifer W Harris, Michael C Alstott, Yekaterina Y Zaytseva, B Mark Evers, D Allan Butterfield
Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, microplate based, label-free detection approach. This study investigates how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318687/protein-intake-distribution-pattern-does-not-affect-anabolic-response-lean-body-mass-muscle-strength-or-function-over-8-weeks-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Il-Young Kim, Scott Schutzler, Amy M Schrader, Horace J Spencer, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In our recent acute metabolic study, we found no differences in the anabolic response to differing patterns of dietary protein intake. To confirm this in a chronic study, we investigated the effects of protein distribution pattern on functional outcomes and protein kinetics in older adults over 8 weeks. METHODS: To determine chronic effects of protein intake pattern at 1.1 g protein/kg/day in mixed meals on lean body mass (LBM), functional outcomes, whole body protein kinetics and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) over 8-week respective dietary intervention, fourteen older subjects were randomly divided into either EVEN or UNVEN group...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318590/supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-or-choline-during-the-transition-period-influences-whole-blood-immune-response-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#20
M Vailati-Riboni, Z Zhou, C B Jacometo, A Minuti, E Trevisi, D N Luchini, J J Loor
Methionine, together with Lys, is the most limiting AA for milk production in dairy cows. Besides its crucial role in milk production, Met and its derivate metabolites (e.g., glutathione, taurine, polyamines) are well-known immunonutrients in nonruminants, helping support and boost immune function and activity. In the present study, the effects of Met or choline, as its precursor, were investigated using an ex vivo whole blood challenge. The study involved 33 multiparous Holstein cows (from a larger cohort with a factorial arrangement of treatments) assigned from d -21 to +30 relative to parturition to a basal control (CON) diet, CON plus rumen-protected Met (MET, Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) at a rate of 0...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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