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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783632/effects-of-dietary-arginine-ornithine-and-zeolite-supplementation-on-uremic-toxins-in-cats
#1
Nadine Paßlack, Jürgen Zentek
To test if arginine and ornithine, both components of the Krebs-Henseleit cycle, or zeolite, a potential ammonium absorber, can modulate the excretion of harmful bacterial metabolites, intestinal microbial protein fermentation was stimulated by feeding a high-protein (60.3%) diet as a single daily meal to 10 adult cats. The diet was supplemented without or with arginine (+50, 75, 100% compared to arginine in the basal diet), ornithine (+100, 150, 200% compared to arginine in the basal diet), or zeolite (0.125, 0...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783205/individual-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obese-copd-patients-can-reduce-anthropometric-indicators-the-level-of-systemic-inflammation-and-improve-the-quality-of-life
#2
Lesia V Savchenko, Igor P Kaidashev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and according to current estimates, the global burden of these conditions will be even greater. The basis for COPD treatment is bronchodilator therapy and non-pharmacotherapy approaches, such as respiratory rehabilitation and dietary counseling. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of lifestyle modification on anthropometric indices, markers of systemic inflammation, quality of life in patients with COPD and obesity...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782227/cdk5-mediated-acn-acinus-phosphorylation-regulates-basal-autophagy-independently-of-metabolic-stress
#3
Nilay Nandi, Helmut Krämer
In neurons, autophagy counteracts consequences of aging. It is therefore of interest how basal rates of macroautophagy/autophagy can be controlled independently of metabolic stress. We recently investigated the regulation of basal, starvation-independent autophagy by Acn/Acinus, a multifunctional nuclear protein with proposed roles in apoptosis, alternative RNA splicing, and basal autophagy. We found that Acn is stabilized by phosphorylation of the conserved serine 437. The phosphomimetic AcnS437D mutation causes no overt developmental phenotypes, but significantly elevates levels of basal autophagy and extends life spans...
May 21, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778948/bioisosteres-of-ethyl-8-ethynyl-6-pyridin-2-yl-4h-benzo-f-imidazo-1-5-a-1-4-diazepine-3-carboxylate-hz-166-as-novel-alpha-2-3-selective-potentiators-of-gaba-a-receptors-improved-bioavailability-enhances-anticonvulsant-efficacy
#4
J M Witkin, J L Smith, X Ping, S D Gleason, M M Poe, G Li, X Jin, J Hobbs, J M Schkeryantz, J S McDermott, A I Alatorre, J N Siemian, J W Cramer, D C Airey, K R Methuku, V V N P B Tiruveedhula, T M Jones, J Crawford, M J Krambis, J L Fisher, J M Cook, R Cerne
HZ-166 has previously been characterized as an α2,3-selective GABAA receptor modulator with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and anti-nociceptive properties but reduced motor effects. We discovered a series of ester bioisosteres with reduced metabolic liabilities, leading to improved efficacy as anxiolytic-like compounds in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the anticonvulsant effects KRM-II-81 across several rodent models. In some models we also evaluated key structural analogs. KRM-II-81 suppressed hyper-excitation in a network of cultured cortical neurons without affecting the basal neuronal activity...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764809/temperature-induced-physiological-stress-and-reproductive-characteristics-of-the-migratory-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus-during-a-thermal-stress-simulation
#6
Geng Qin, Cara Johnson, Yuan Zhang, Huixian Zhang, Jianping Yin, Glen Miller, Ralph G Turingan, Eric Guisbert, Qiang Lin
Inshore-offshore migration occurs frequently in seahorse species either because of prey opportunities or because it is driven by reproduction, and variations in water temperature may dramatically change migratory seahorse behavior and physiology. The present study investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus under thermal stress and evaluated the potential effects of different temperatures on its reproduction. The results showed that the thermal tolerance of the seahorses was time dependent...
May 15, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762376/microbial-fermentation-of-starch-its-impact-on-the-range-of-acceptable-carbohydrate-intake
#7
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760480/low-energy-cost-for-cultured-pearl-formation-in-grafted-chimeric-pinctada-margaritifera
#8
Gilles Le Moullac, Claude Soyez, Chin-Long Ky
The pearl oyster is one of the rare animal models that support two distinct genomes, through the surgical graft process operated for culture pearl production. This grafted organism is assimilated to a chimera whose physiological functioning remains poorly known. The question of the energy expenditure comparison between chimera and non-chimera animals arises. To answer this question, grafted and non-grafted pearl oysters were evaluated for their energetic needs by the indirect calorimetry method. This method made it possible to measure the energy expenditure based on the respiration rate (RR) measurement, reflecting the basal metabolism...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757366/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-reveals-pervasive-effects-of-germline-mitochondrial-replacement-on-components-of-health
#9
Ralph Dobler, Damian K Dowling, Edward H Morrow, Klaus Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement, a form of nuclear transfer, has been proposed as a germline therapy to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has been licensed for clinical application in the UK, and already carried out in other countries, but little is known about negative or unintended effects on the health of offspring born using this technique. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Studies in invertebrate models have used techniques that achieve mitochondrial replacement to create offspring with novel combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear genotype...
May 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755224/no-differences-in-energy-cost-of-a-predetermined-exercise-among-young-overweight-obese-and-undernourished-individuals
#10
D V Muralidhara, Mohd Nasir Mat Nor, Ahmad L Zubaidi
Background: Physical activity is an integral part of one's daily life. Obese (Ob) and undernourished (UN) persons are known to underperform physically as compared to normal weight (N) individuals. In this study, we have measured the energy spent to perform a prefixed exercise on treadmill walking and basal heart rate and blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat of participating individuals were assessed. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three young individuals (male: 41; female: 42) of medical faculty, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, who volunteered for the study, were recruited...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744956/imaging-resilience-and-recovery-in-alcohol-dependence
#11
REVIEW
Katrin Charlet, Annika Rosenthal, Falk W Lohoff, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. METHODS: Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744323/insulin-sensitivity-inflammation-and-basal-metabolic-rate-in-adults-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#12
Kehinde Sola Akinlade, Ayodeji Samuel Kumuyi, Sheu Kadiri Rahamon, John Ayodele Olaniyi
Background: Chronic inflammation and elevated basal metabolic rate (BMR) are established features of sickle-cell anemia (SCA). However, there is little information on the possible impacts of these afore-mentioned features on glycemia and insulin sensitivity status of this group of people. Aim: This study aims to determine the insulin sensitivity status as well the effect of BMR on glycemia in adults with SCA in steady state. Materials and Methods: Fifty participants comprising 30 adults with SCA in steady state and 20 age- and gender-matched apparently healthy adults with hemoglobin genotype AA (HbAA) genotype that served as controls...
April 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741098/monophosphoryl-lipid-a-prevents-impairment-of-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-hco-3-absorption-and-improves-plasma-hco-3-concentration-in-septic-mice
#13
Bruns A Watts, Thampi George, Edward R Sherwood, David W Good
Metabolic acidosis is the most common acid-base disorder in septic patients and is associated with increased mortality. Previously we demonstrated that sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) impairs HCO3 - absorption in the MTAL by: 1) decreasing the intrinsic HCO3 - absorptive capacity, and 2) enhancing inhibition of HCO3 - absorption by LPS through upregulation of TLR4 signaling. Both effects depend on ERK activation. Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is a detoxified TLR4 agonist that enhances innate antimicrobial immunity and improves survival following sepsis...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735116/inherited-and-acquired-choreas
#14
Claudio M de Gusmao, Jeff L Waugh
Chorea is a symptom of a broad array of genetic, structural, and metabolic disorders. While chorea can result from systemic illness and damage to diverse brain structures, injury to the basal ganglia, especially the putamen or globus pallidus, appears to be a uniting features of these diverse neuropathologies. The timing of onset, rate of progression, and the associated neurological or systemic symptoms can often narrow the differential diagnosis to a few disorders. Recognizing the correct etiology for childhood chorea is critical, as numerous disorders in this category are potentially curable, or are remediable, with early treatment...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722904/renal-complications-of-lipodystrophy-a-closer-look-at-the-natural-history-of-kidney-disease
#15
Baris Akinci, Sadiye Mehtat Unlu, Ali Celik, Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Sait Sen, Banu Nur, Fatma Ela Keskin, Basak Ozgen Saydam, Nilufer Ozdemir Kutbay, Banu Sarer Yurekli, Bekir Ugur Ergur, Melda Sonmez, Tahir Atik, Atakan Arslan, Tevfik Demir, Canan Altay, Ulku Aybuke Tunc, Tugba Arkan, Ramazan Gen, Erdal Eren, Gulcin Akinci, Aslihan Arasli Yilmaz, Habip Bilen, Samim Ozen, Aygul Celtik, Senay Savas Erdeve, Semra Cetinkaya, Huseyin Onay, Sulen Sarioglu, Elif Arioglu Oral
OBJECTIVES: Lipodystrophy syndromes are a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by adipose tissue loss. Proteinuria is a remarkable finding in previous reports. STUDY DESIGN: In this multi-center study, prospective follow-up data were collected from 103 subjects with non-HIV associated lipodystrophy registered in the Turkish Lipodystrophy Study Group database to study renal complications in treatment naïve patients with lipodystrophy. METHODS: Main outcome measures included ascertainment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by studying the level of proteinuria and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716982/hallmarks-of-t-cell-exit-from-quiescence
#16
Nicole M Chapman, Hongbo Chi
The appropriate activation of the adaptive immune system relies upon the reprogramming of naïve T cells into specialized effector T cells that can combat pathogens and tumors. Naïve T cells are actively maintained in a state of hyporesponsiveness termed quiescence, which is characterized by small cell size, low proliferative rate, and low basal metabolism. Engagement of antigen and costimulatory receptors drives T cells to exit quiescence to promote subsequent clonal expansion and functional differentiation...
May 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709888/simultaneous-validation-of-seven-physical-activity-questionnaires-used-in-japanese-cohorts-for-estimating-energy-expenditure-a-doubly-labeled-water-study
#17
Hiroyuki Sasai, Yoshio Nakata, Haruka Murakami, Ryoko Kawakami, Satoshi Nakae, Shigeho Tanaka, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Yosuke Yamada, Motohiko Miyachi
BACKGROUND: Physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) used in large-scale Japanese cohorts have rarely been simultaneously validated against the gold standard doubly labeled water (DLW) method. This study examined the validity of seven PAQs used in Japan for estimating energy expenditure against the DLW method. METHODS: Twenty healthy Japanese adults (9 men; mean age, 32.4 [standard deviation {SD}, 9.4] years, mainly researchers and students) participated in this study...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698766/effects-of-salinity-and-hypoxia-induced-hyperventilation-on-oxygen-consumption-and-cost-of-osmoregulation-in-the-estuarine-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus
#18
Rasmus Ern, Andrew J Esbaugh
Understanding the physiological responses of fishes to salinity changes and aquatic hypoxia is essential for the conservation of marine species. Salinity changes affect the osmotic gradient across the gill epithelium, while hypoxia increases gill ventilation and the flow of water over the gills. Both processes affect the diffusive movement of ions and water across the gill epithelium, and the rate of active ion transport required for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Consequently, salinity and hypoxia may affect the energetic cost of osmoregulation, and consequently the energy available for other physiological functions such as migration, growth, and reproduction...
April 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695443/movement-patterns-and-athletic-performance-of-leopards-in-the-okavango-delta
#19
Tatjana Y Hubel, Krystyna A Golabek, Kasim Rafiq, J Weldon McNutt, Alan M Wilson
Although leopards are the most widespread of all the big cats and are known for their adaptability, they are elusive and little is known in detail about their movement and hunting energetics. We used high-resolution GPS/IMU (inertial measurement unit) collars to record position, activity and the first high-speed movement data on four male leopards in the Okavango Delta, an area with high habitat diversity and habitat fragmentation. Leopards in this study were generally active and conducted more runs during the night, with peaks in activity and number of runs in the morning and evening twilight...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694441/cellular-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress-as-a-possible-determinant-for-longevity-in-small-breed-and-large-breed-dogs
#20
Ana Gabriela Jimenez, Josh Winward, Ursula Beattie, William Cipolli
Among species, larger animals tend to live longer than smaller ones, however, the opposite seems to be true for dogs-smaller dogs tend to live significantly longer than larger dogs across all breeds. We were interested in the mechanism that may allow for small breeds to age more slowly compared with large breeds in the context of cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. Primary dermal fibroblasts from small and large breed dogs were grown in culture. We measured basal oxygen consumption (OCR), proton leak, and glycolysis using a Seahorse XF96 oxygen flux analyzer...
2018: PloS One
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