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Basal metabolic rate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159047/voxel-based-comparison-of-brain-glucose-metabolism-between-patients-with-cushing-s-disease-and-healthy-subjects
#1
Shuai Liu, Yinyan Wang, Kaibin Xu, Fan Ping, Fang Li, Renzhi Wang, Xin Cheng
Cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms are common in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) owing to elevated levels of glucocorticoids. Molecular neuroimaging methods may help to detect changes in the brain of patients with CD. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of brain metabolism and its association with serum cortisol level in CD. We compared brain metabolism, as measured using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), between 92 patients with CD and 118 normal subjects on a voxel-wise basis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155610/seasonal-and-sexual-variation-in-metabolism-thermoregulation-and-hormones-in-the-big-brown-bat-eptesicus-fuscus
#2
Christopher S Richardson, Tim Heeren, Thomas H Kunz
In response to seasonal variation in energy availability and thermal environment, physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved in temperate zone animals. Seasonal changes in hormone activity affect metabolism, body temperature, and reproductive activity. We examined the seasonal regulatory role of hormones on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and regulatory nonshivering thermogenesis (RNST) in 98 female and 17 male adult Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). We measured BMR, RNST, and plasma levels of thyroid hormone (T3), leptin, and cortisol in bats captured in maternity colonies in eastern Massachusetts from May to August (from arousal from the hibernation phase to the prehibernation phase)...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#3
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137417/inhibition-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling-confers-glycolytic-dependence-and-sensitization-to-dichloroacetate-in-melanoma-cells
#4
Cecilie Abildgaard, Christina Dahl, Ahmad Abdul-Al, Annette Christensen, Per Guldberg
Dysregulation of metabolism during melanoma progression is tightly associated with the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulators of metabolic pathways. Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) is epigenetically silenced in a large proportion of melanomas, but a link between RARβ and metabolic rewiring of melanoma has not been established. Here, we show that in primary human melanocytes, all-trans retinoic acid (a RARβ agonist) induced growth inhibition accompanied by a decrease in both glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, whereas selective inhibition of RARβ led to an increase in the basal glycolytic rate and increased sensitivity to inhibition of glycolysis...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122558/optimal-housing-temperatures-for-mice-to-mimic-the-thermal-environment-of-humans-an%C3%A2-experimental-study
#5
Alexander W Fischer, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
OBJECTIVES: The laboratory mouse is presently the most common model for examining mechanisms of human physiology and disease. Housing temperatures can have a large impact on the outcome of such experiments and on their translatability to the human situation. Humans usually create for themselves a thermoneutral environment without cold stress, while laboratory mice under standard conditions (≈20° C) are under constant cold stress. In a well-cited, theoretical paper by Speakman and Keijer in Molecular Metabolism, it was argued that housing mice under close to standard conditions is the optimal way of modeling the human metabolic situation...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119278/development-of-endothermy-in-birds-patterns-and-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Edwin R Price, Edward M Dzialowski
Endothermy is a conspicuous and important adaptation in birds. Even though juvenile and adult birds are endothermic and maintain a constant, high body temperature by means of internal heat production, they begin life expressing an ectothermic phenotype. Depending on where a species falls along a continuum of maturity at hatching, from precocial to altricial, they begin to express endothermic traits either close to the time of hatching or as nestlings over a period of 1-3 weeks. Developing endothermy requires attaining a high basal metabolic rate and associated aerobic scope to produce sufficient internal heat, insulation to retain the internally produced heat, and a thermostat that "turns on" heat production in response to cooling ambient temperatures...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117636/chlamydia-trachomatis-regulates-growth-and-development-in-response-to-host-cell-fatty-acid-availability-in-the-absence-of-lipid-droplets
#7
Manu Sharma, Maria A Recuero-Checa, Francis Yue Fan, Deborah Dean
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen of humans that causes significant morbidity from sexually transmitted and ocular diseases globally. Ct acquires host fatty acids (FA) to meet the metabolic and growth requirements of the organism. Lipid droplets (LDs) are storehouses of FAs in host cells and have been proposed to be a source of FAs for the parasitophorous vacuole, termed inclusion, in which Ct replicates. Previously, cells devoid of LDs were shown to produce reduced infectious progeny at 24 hours post-infection (hpi)...
November 8, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117215/effects-of-root-pruning-on-the-physicochemical-properties-and-microbial-activities-of-poplar-rhizosphere-soil
#8
Da-Wei Jing, Fang-Chun Liu, Ming-You Wang, Hai-Lin Ma, Zhen-Yu Du, Bing-Yao Ma, Yu-Feng Dong
This study aimed to determine the effects of root pruning on the physicochemical characteristics and microbial activities of poplar rhizosphere soil. The root systems of 5-year-old poplar (Populus×euramericana cv. 'Neva') trees were manually pruned at 6, 8, or 10 times diameter at breast height (DBH) from the trunk (severe, moderate, and light, respectively) along both inter-row sides. Moderate root pruning significantly increased the concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and total sugars in the root exudates and decreased the pH of rhizosphere soil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115384/atorvastatin-protects-the-proliferative-ability-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-inhibited-by-angiotensin-ii-by-changing-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism
#9
Ye Chang, Yuan Li, Ning Ye, Xiaofan Guo, Zhao Li, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
This study aimed to explore whether angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibits the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by changing mitochondrial energy metabolism, and whether atorvastatin has a protective role via restoration of endothelial function. HUVECs were treated with 1 µM Ang II alone or with 10 µM atorvastatin for 24 h. Proliferation was detected by MTT assay, cell counting, 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine assay and real‑time cell analyzer. Mitochondrial energy metabolism including oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were measured using a Seahorse metabolic flux analyzer...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108910/effects-of-nrf2-deficiency-on-arsenic-metabolism-in-mice
#10
Huihui Wang, Jiayu Zhu, Lu Li, Yongfang Li, Hang Lv, Yuanyuan Xu, Guifan Sun, Jingbo Pi
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a known toxicant and carcinogen. Worldwide arsenic exposure has become a threat to human health. The severity of arsenic toxicity is strongly correlated with the speed of arsenic metabolism (methylation) and clearance. Furthermore, oxidative stress is recognized as a major mechanism for arsenic-induced toxicity. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator in cellular adaptive antioxidant response, is clearly involved in alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative damage...
December 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107283/acute-activation-of-glp-1-expressing-neurons-promotes-glucose-homeostasis-and-insulin-sensitivity
#11
Xuemei Shi, Shaji Chacko, Feng Li, Depei Li, Douglas Burrin, Lawrence Chan, Xinfu Guan
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides are co-released from enteroendocrine L cells in the gut and preproglucagon (PPG) neurons in the brainstem. PPG-derived GLP-1/2 are probably key neuroendocrine signals for the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether activation of PPG neurons per se modulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in vivo. METHODS: We generated glucagon (Gcg) promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice and injected excitatory hM3Dq-mCherry AAV into their brainstem NTS...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106751/fast-na-k-pump-driven-steady-state-transcytolemmal-water-exchange-in-neuronal-tissue-a-study-of-rat-brain-cortical-cultures
#12
Ruiliang Bai, Charles S Springer, Dietmar Plenz, Peter J Basser
PURPOSE: Water homeostasis and transport play important roles in brain function (e.g., ion homeostasis, neuronal excitability, cell volume regulation, etc.). However, specific mechanisms of water transport across cell membranes in neuronal tissue have not been completely elaborated. METHODS: The kinetics of transcytolemmal water exchange were measured in neuronal tissue using simultaneous, real-time fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of perfused, active brain organotypic cortical cultures...
November 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102137/evaluation-of-glucose-dose-on-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test-traits-in-holstein-friesian-heifers
#13
L Antonio González-Grajales, Laura Pieper, Sebastian Mengel, Rudolf Staufenbiel
Glucose metabolism in dairy and beef cattle has received considerable attention because balanced blood glucose is essential for numerous processes, such as milk production and general health. The glucose tolerance test measures the ability of an organism to regulate blood glucose levels. Glucose half-life time (GHLT) has high heritability and could serve as a potential parameter to breed for metabolic resistance. However, studies focusing on identification of an adequate glucose dose have not yet been conducted in cattle...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096320/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-parkinsonian-mesenchymal-stem-cells-impairs-differentiation
#14
Plamena R Angelova, Mario Barilani, Christopher Lovejoy, Marta Dossena, Mariele Viganò, Agostino Seresini, Daniela Piga, Sonia Gandhi, Gianni Pezzoli, Andrey Y Abramov, Lorenza Lazzari
Sporadic cases account for 90-95% of all patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD). Atypical Parkinsonism comprises approximately 20% of all patients with parkinsonism. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) belongs to the atypical parkinsonian diseases and is histopathologically classified as a tauopathy. Here, we report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of patients with PSP exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction in the form of decreased membrane potential and inhibited NADH-dependent respiration...
October 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095868/effect-of-plasma-free-fatty-acid-supply-on-the-rate-of-ceramide-synthesis-in-different-muscle-types-in-the-rat
#15
Piotr Zabielski, Agnieszka Urszula Błachnio-Zabielska, Beata Wójcik, Adrian Chabowski, Jan Górski
Ceramide is a key compound in sphingolipid metabolism. Dynamics of ceramide synthesis is important in the several biological processes, such as induction of apoptosis or insulin resistance. So far, its de novo synthesis rate was evaluated indirectly, based on the content of the compound, its intermediates and the activity of respective enzymes. The aim of the present study was to directly measure ceramide synthesis rate (FSR) in different muscle types under varied plasma FFA supply in rat with the use of [U-13C] palmitate tracer and LC/MS/MS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093638/inhibition-of-hif1%C3%AE-and-pdk-induces-cell-death-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#16
Jiwon Esther Han, Pyung Won Lim, Chul Min Na, You Sik Choi, Joo Young Lee, Yona Kim, Hyung Woo Park, Hyo Eun Moon, Man Seung Heo, Hye Ran Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. GBMs, like other tumors, rely relatively less on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and utilize more aerobic glycolysis, and this metabolic shift becomes augmented under hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the physiological significance of altered glucose metabolism and hypoxic adaptation in the GBM cell line U251 and two newly established primary GBMs (GBM28 and GBM37). We found that these three GBMs exhibited differential growth rates under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091795/toxic-responses-of-microorganisms-to-nickel-exposure-in-farmland-soil-in-the-presence-of-earthworm-eisenia-fetida
#17
Xiaoqian Xia, Siyuan Lin, Jun Zhao, Wei Zhang, Kuangfei Lin, Qiang Lu, Bingsheng Zhou
Nickel (Ni)-contamination impairs soil ecosystem, threatening human health. A laboratory simulation of Ni-polluted farmland soil study, in the presence or absence of earthworm, was carried out to investigate the toxic responses of soil microorganisms, including microbial biomass C (MBC), soil basal respiration (SBR), metabolic quotient (qCO2), urease (UA) and dehydrogenase activities (DHA). Additionally, the variations of Ni bioavailability were also explored. Results manifested that MBC and SBR were stimulated at 50 and 100 mg·kg(-1) of Ni but inhibited by further increasing Ni level, showing a Hormesis effect...
October 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083297/in-male-rats-the-ability-of-central-insulin-to-suppress-glucose-production-is-impaired-by-olanzapine-whereas-glucose-uptake-is-left-intact
#18
Chantel Kowalchuk, Celine Teo, Virginia Wilson, Araba Chintoh, Loretta Lam, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Adria Giacca, Gary J Remington, Margaret K Hahn
BACKGROUND: Insulin receptors are widely expressed in the brain and may represent a crossroad between metabolic and cognitive disorders. Although antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, are the cornerstone treatment for schizophrenia, they are associated with high rates of type 2 diabetes and lack efficacy for illness-related cognitive deficits. Historically, this risk of diabetes was attributed to the weight gain propensity of antipsychotics, but recent work suggests antipsychotics can have weight-independent diabetogenic effects involving unknown brain-mediated mechanisms...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081683/physical-activity-may-be-associated-with-conditioned-pain-modulation-in-women-but-not-men-among-healthy-individuals
#19
Yukiko Shiro, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Yuta Terasawa, Young-Chang P Arai, Kazuhiro Hayashi, Takahiro Ushida, Takako Matsubara
BACKGROUND: Conditioned pain modulation (CPM), a phenomenon also known as diffuse noxious inhibitory control, is thought to be affected by various factors, including sex and level of physical activity. However, the involvement of these factors in CPM remains unclear. METHODS: Eighty-six healthy young subjects (M/F, 43/43) participated in this study. Participants were assessed on the basis of their mechanical pressure pain threshold (PPT), CPM response, body mass index (BMI), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over a week, using a motion counter...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072169/amnestic-dementia-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-the%C3%A2-role-of-body-composition-ageing-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Arthur Oscar Schelp, Cristiane Lara Mendes-Chiloff, Vanessa Cristina Paduan, José Eduardo Corrente, Aline Vieira, Juliana Cristine Nunes Marchette, Juli Thomaz de Souza, Gustavo José Luvizuto, Célia Regina Nogueira, Rodrigo Bazan
BACKGROUND: The risk of cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to ageing. The role of body compartmentalization and associated metabolic dysfunctions, as a risk factor for dementia in PD is still not clear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate body mass distribution, insulin resistance, and other parameters in patients without dementia, and those with dementia classified as compromised delayed memory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recorded body composition, basal levels of insulin resistance, and other data from 135 patients, who were followed for at least two years...
August 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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