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Basal metabolic rate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811878/magellanic-penguin-telomeres-do-not-shorten-with-age-with-increased-reproductive-effort-investment-and-basal-corticosterone
#1
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803134/age-related-changes-of-physiological-performance-and-survivorship-of-bank-voles-selected-for-high-aerobic-capacity
#2
Agata Marta Rudolf, Maciej Jan Dańko, Edyta Teresa Sadowska, Geoffrey Dheyongera, Paweł Koteja
Variation in lifespans is an intriguing phenomenon, but how metabolic rate influence this variation remains unclear. High aerobic capacity can result in health benefits, but also in increased oxidative damage and accelerated ageing. We tested these contradictory predictions using bank voles (Myodes=Clethrionomys glareolus) from lines selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), which had about 50% higher maximum metabolic rate and a higher basal and routine metabolic rates, than those from unselected control lines (C)...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803021/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-heat-treated-canola-meal-on-ruminal-nutrient-metabolism-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#3
S J Krizsan, H Gidlund, F Fatehi, P Huhtanen
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effects of incremental levels of heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) fed to dairy cows on the relationship between ruminal nutrient digestion and milk production. Experimental diets were fed to 4 multiparous rumen-cannulated Nordic Red cows, averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 681 ± 54.8 kg of body weight, 111 ± 16 d in milk, and 29.1 ± 9.1 kg of milk/d at the start of the study, in a Latin square design with four 21-d periods. The 4 experimental dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet of grass silage and crimped barley, and 3 diets in which the crimped barley was replaced with TCM, giving 3 incremental levels of protein supplementation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778020/long-term-effect-of-dietary-overload-lithium-on-the-glucose-metabolism-in-broiler-chickens
#4
Shiping Bai, Shuqin Pan, Keying Zhang, Xuemei Ding, Jianping Wang, Qiufeng Zeng, Yue Xuan, Zuowei Su
Lithium, like insulin, activates glycogen synthase and stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes. To investigate the effect of dietary overload lithium on glucose metabolism in broiler chickens, one-day-old chicks were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg (overload lithium) for 35days. Compared to controls, glucose disappearance rates were lower (p=0.035) 15-120min after glucose gavage, and blood glucose concentrations were lower (p=0.038) 30min after insulin injection in overload lithium broilers...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774847/dietary-supplementation-of-organic-selenium-improves-growth-survival-antioxidant-and-immune-status-of-meagre-argyrosomus-regius-juveniles
#5
Abdallah Tag-Eldein Mansour, Ashraf Abdelsamee Goda, Eglal Ali Omar, Hala Saber Khalil, Maria Ángeles Esteban
Oxidative stress is considered one of the main obstacles to immune competence and high mortality rate of marine fish larvae due to the high dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and accelerated metabolic rate. This study was carried out to assess the effect of different dietary selenium (Se) yeast on growth, antioxidant status, hematological changes, and cellular and humoral immune parameters in meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Juvenile specimens (3.20 ± 0.17 g) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, a control group fed a basal diet and another three groups fed Se-supplemented diets at doses of 1, 2 and 3 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) diet for 63 days and the final analyzed selenium concentrations were 0...
July 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774778/frontiers-in-endocrine-disruption-impacts-of-organotin-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#6
REVIEW
Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Paula Pereira-Rodrigues, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock Dias, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774754/altitudinal-variation-in-metabolic-parameters-of-a-small-afrotropical-bird
#7
Lindy J Thompson, Colleen T Downs
Of the numerous factors affecting avian metabolic rate, altitude is one of the least studied. We used mass-flow respirometry to measure resting metabolic rate (RMR), evaporative water loss (EWL) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in two populations of a small (10-12g) Afrotropical bird, the Cape White-eye (Zosterops virens), in summer and in winter. In total, 51 freshly wild-caught adult Cape White-eyes were measured overnight. Altitude was included as a source of variation in the best approximating models for body mass, whole-animal RMR, RER, whole-animal standard EWL and whole-animal basal EWL...
July 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768655/the-use-of-metabolic-balance-studies-in-the-objective-discrimination-between-intestinal-insufficiency-and-intestinal-failure
#8
August P Prahm, Christopher F Brandt, Carsten Askov-Hansen, Per B Mortensen, Palle B Jeppesen
Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption <84% of calculated basal metabolic rate (BMR), wet weight (WW) absorption <23 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1), or both. Objective: This study aimed to explore and validate these borderlines in the clinical setting.Design: Intestinal absorption was measured from April 2003 to March 2015 in 175 consecutive patients with intestinal insufficiency (INS) in 96-h MBSs...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762754/flow-responsive-vegfr-pkc%C3%A9-signaling-mediates-glycolytic-metabolites-for-vascular-repair
#9
Kyung In Baek, Rongsong Li, Nelson Jen, Howard Choi, Amir Kaboodrangi, Peipei Ping, David Liem, Tyler Beebe, Tzung K Hsiai
Aims - Hemodynamic shear stress participates in maintaining vascular redox status. Elucidating flow-mediated endothelial metabolites enables us to discover metabolic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. We posited that flow-responsive VEGF receptor-PKCɛ-PFKFB3 signaling modulates glycolytic metabolites for vascular repair. Results - Bidirectional oscillatory flow (OSS: 0.1 ± 3 dyne·cm<sup>-2</sup> at 1 Hz) up-regulated VEGFR-dependent PKCɛ expression to a greater degree than did unidirectional pulsatile flow (PSS: 23 ± 8 dyne·cm<sup>-2</sup> at 1 Hz) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) (<i>p < 0...
August 1, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760427/anthropometric-and-lipid-profile-of-individuals-with-severe-obesity-carrying-the-fatty-acid-binding-protein-2-thr54-allele
#10
Natalia Luiza Kops, Jaqueline D Correia Horvath, Mariana L Dias de Castro, Rogério Friedman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and lipid profiles of individuals being considered for bariatric surgery, taking into account the presence of the Thr54 allele of the fatty acid-binding protein-2 (FABP-2) gene (rs1799883), and dietary intake. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 120 participants being evaluated for bariatric surgery were asked to keep 24-h dietary records (R24 h) for 3 d, and to collect a 24-h urine sample for measurement of urea (as an assessment of the adequacy of food records) during day 3 of the diet record; a fasting blood sample for laboratory and genetic evaluations was collected...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760336/dietary-magnesium-supplementation-prevents-and-reverses-vascular-and-soft-tissue-calcifications-in-uremic-rats
#11
Juan M Diaz-Tocados, Alan Peralta-Ramirez, María E Rodríguez-Ortiz, Ana I Raya, Ignacio Lopez, Carmen Pineda, Carmen Herencia, Addy Montes de Oca, Noemi Vergara, Sonja Steppan, M Victoria Pendon-Ruiz de Mier, Paula Buendía, Andrés Carmona, Julia Carracedo, Juan F Alcalá-Díaz, Joao Frazao, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Antonio Canalejo, Arnold Felsenfeld, Mariano Rodriguez, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Yolanda Almadén, Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda
Although magnesium has been shown to prevent vascular calcification in vitro, controlled in vivo studies in uremic animal models are limited. To determine whether dietary magnesium supplementation protects against the development of vascular calcification, 5/6 nephrectomized Wistar rats were fed diets with different magnesium content increasing from 0.1 to 1.1%. In one study we analyzed bone specimens from rats fed 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.6% magnesium diets, and in another study we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal magnesium on vascular calcification in 5/6 nephrectomized rats...
July 28, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752629/comparative-analyses-of-basal-rate-of-metabolism-in-mammals-data-selection-does-matter
#12
Michel Genoud, Karin Isler, Robert D Martin
Basal rate of metabolism (BMR) is a physiological parameter that should be measured under strictly defined experimental conditions. In comparative analyses among mammals BMR is widely used as an index of the intensity of the metabolic machinery or as a proxy for energy expenditure. Many databases with BMR values for mammals are available, but the criteria used to select metabolic data as BMR estimates have often varied and the potential effect of this variability has rarely been questioned. We provide a new, expanded BMR database reflecting compliance with standard criteria (resting, postabsorptive state; thermal neutrality; adult, non-reproductive status for females) and examine potential effects of differential selectivity on the results of comparative analyses...
July 27, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747980/comparative-analysis-of-basal-locomotor-activity-related-metabolic-phenotypes-between-c57bl-6-mice-and-icr-mice-substrains-derived-from-three-different-sources
#13
Dong-Ju Hwang, Hyun-Keun Song, Kil-Soo Kim, Young-Suk Jung, Dae-Youn Hwang, Joon Young Cho
Animal model, as an indispensable tool for scientific purposes of biomedical researches and clinical application, is a commonly used in various researches. Regarding to this, it is necessary to establish the metabolic phenotype of animal model to minimize spurious interpretations and ensure a level of accuracy and reliability adequate for experimental research. However, the metabolic phenotype-related analysis within rodent strains derived from different source is nonexistent, especially in C57BL/6Korl mice and Korl:ICR mice (a domestic mouse strain)...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745334/evaluation-of-the-wrist-worn-actigraph-wgt3x-bt-for-estimating-activity-energy-expenditure-in-preschool-children
#14
C Delisle Nyström, J Pomeroy, P Henriksson, E Forsum, F B Ortega, R Maddison, J H Migueles, M Löf
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) in preschool children are required. The aims of this study in healthy preschool children were to (a) evaluate the ability of the wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3x-BT to predict free-living AEE and (b) assess wear compliance using a 7-day, 24-h protocol. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 40 Swedish children (5.5±0.2 years) in the Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743284/hypertension-prevalence-and-influence-of-basal-metabolic-rate-on-blood-pressure-among-adult-students-in-bangladesh
#15
Nurshad Ali, Shakil Mahmood, M Manirujjaman, Rasheda Perveen, Abdullah Al Nahid, Shamim Ahmed, Farida Adib Khanum, Mustafizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al...
July 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741080/transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-involved-in-symbiotic-seed-germination-of-gastrodia-elata
#16
Xu Zeng, Yuanyuan Li, Hong Ling, Sisi Liu, Mengmeng Liu, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata is a well-known medicinal orchid. In nature, the germination rate of G. elata is extremely poor, because there is no endosperm within the mature seed. It is crucial for G. elata to obtain nutrition from mycorrhizal fungi (Mycena) at the early-stage of germination. After germination, the seed gives rise to a protocorm. However, there are no "omic" studies on understanding the interaction between Gastrodia and Mycena. Here, we used transcriptomic approaches to explore changes in seed germination of G...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727048/nutrient-composition-digestible-and-metabolizable-energy-content-and-prediction-of-energy-for-animal-protein-byproducts-in-finishing-pig-diets
#17
B J Kerr, R Jha, P E Urriola, G C Shurson
An industry survey and animal experiment were conducted to evaluate compositional variability and DE and ME content of animal protein byproducts and to generate equations to predict DE and ME content based on chemical analysis. For the 220 samples collected, the greatest concentration of CP was observed in blood meal (BM) and the least in meat and bone meal (MBM) and the greatest concentration of ether extract was in meat meal and the least in BM, with ash content greatest in MBM and least in BM, with Ca and P levels being 36...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722271/beyond-glycemic-control-a-cross-over-double-blind-24-week-intervention-with-liraglutide-in-type-1-diabetes
#18
M-C Dubé, M D'Amours, S J Weisnagel
AIMS: To investigate the effects of 24 weeks of treatment with liraglutide added to basal/bolus insulin on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in overweight participants with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a double-blind cross-over fashion, 15 participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo (saline solution) or liraglutide for 24 weeks including a one-month titration period from 0.6 mg to 1.2 mg to 1.8 mg, in addition to their insulin. The treatment was followed by a 1 month wash-out period...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711354/the-roles-of-metabolic-thermogenesis-in-body-fat-regulation-in-striped-hamsters-fed-high-fat-diet-at-different-temperatures
#19
Lu-Lu Shi, Wei-Jia Fan, Ji-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Ya Zhao, Song Tan, Jing Wen, Jing Cao, Xue-Ying Zhang, Qing-Sheng Chi, De-Hua Wang, Zhi-Jun Zhao
The metabolic thermogenesis plays important roles in thermoregulation, and it may be also involved in body fat regulation. The thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is largely affected by ambient temperature, but it is unclear if the roles in body fat regulation are dependent on the temperature. In the present study, uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1)-based BAT thermogenesis, energy budget and body fat content were examined in the striped hamsters fed high fat diet (HF) at cold (5°C) and warm (30°C) temperatures...
July 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708118/low-energy-turnover-of-physically-inactive-participants-as-a-determinant-of-insufficient-mineral-and-vitamin-intake-in-nhanes
#20
Juliane Heydenreich, Katarina Melzer, Céline Flury, Bengt Kayser
Micronutrient requirements do not scale linearly with physical activity-related energy expenditure (AEE). Inactive persons may have insufficient micronutrient intake because of low energy intake (EI). We extracted data from NHANES 2003-2006 on 4015 adults (53 ± 18 years (mean ± SD), 29 ± 6 kg/m², 48% women) with valid physical activity (accelerometry) and food intake (2 × 24 h-dietary recall) measures. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated by summing the basal metabolic rate (BMR, Harris-Benedict), AEE, and 10% of TEE for the thermic effect of food, to calculate the physical activity levels (PAL = TEE/BMR)...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
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