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Basal metabolic rate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216063/the-nad-precursor-nicotinic-acid-improves-genomic-integrity-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-after-x-irradiation
#1
Kathrin Weidele, Sascha Beneke, Alexander Bürkle
NAD(+) is an essential cofactor for enzymes catalyzing redox-reactions as well as an electron carrier in energy metabolism. Aside from this, NAD(+) consuming enzymes like poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and sirtuins are important regulators involved in chromatin-restructuring processes during repair and epigenetics/transcriptional adaption. In order to replenish cellular NAD(+) levels after cleavage, synthesis starts from precursors such as nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside or nicotinic acid to match the need for this essential molecule...
February 13, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213827/resistance-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-toxicity-and-associated-bioenergetic-consequences-in-a-population-of-fundulus-heteroclitus
#2
C D Lindberg, N Jayasundara, J S Kozal, T C Leuthner, R T Di Giulio
Several locations in the Elizabeth River, VA, USA are highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to the release of creosote mixtures from wood treatment facilities. Interestingly, some populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Elizabeth River (ER) are resistant to PAH-induced teratogenesis. However, evolutionary resistance to PAHs due to chronic PAH exposure is associated with reduced fitness and increased susceptibility to other environmental stressors in at least one PAH-resistant ER killifish population...
February 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207812/of-the-milk-sugars-galactose-but-not-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharide-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197128/drivers-of-bacterial-maintenance-and-minimal-energy-requirements
#4
Christopher P Kempes, Peter M van Bodegom, David Wolpert, Eric Libby, Jan Amend, Tori Hoehler
Microbes maintain themselves through a variety of processes. Several of these processes can be reduced or shut down entirely when resource availability declines. In pure culture conditions with ample substrate supply, a relationship between the maximum growth rate and the energy invested in maintenance has been reported widely. However, at the other end of the resources spectrum, bacteria are so extremely limited by energy that no growth occurs and metabolism is constrained to the most essential functions only...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194805/fetal-adaptations-in-insulin-secretion-result-from-high-catecholamines-during-placental-insufficiency
#5
Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193912/the-effects-of-graded-levels-of-calorie-restriction-viii-impact-of-short-term-calorie-and-protein-restriction-on-basal-metabolic-rate-in-the-c57bl-6-mouse
#6
Sharon E Mitchell, ZhanHui Tang, Celine Kerbois, Camille Delville, Davina Derous, Cara L Green, Yingchun Wang, Jackie J D Han, Luonan Chen, Alex Douglas, David Lusseau, Daniel E L Promislow, John R Speakman
Under calorie restriction (CR) animals need to lower energy demands. Whether this involves a reduction in cellular metabolism is an issue of contention. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to graded CR for 3 months, measured BMR and dissected out 20 body compartments. From a separate age-matched group (n=57), we built 7 predictive models for BMR. Unadjusted BMR declined with severity of restriction. Comparison of measured and predicted BMR from the simple models suggested suppression occurred. The extent of 'suppression' was greater with increased CR severity...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179229/exogenous-amino-acids-suppress-glucose-oxidation-and-potentiate-hepatic-glucose-production-in-late-gestation-fetal-sheep
#7
Laura D Brown, Jaden R Kohn, Paul J Rozance, William W Hay, Stephanie R Wesolowski
Acute amino acid (AA) infusion increases AA oxidation rates in normal late gestation fetal sheep. Because fetal oxygen consumption rate does not change with increased AA oxidation, we hypothesized that AA infusion would suppress glucose oxidation pathways and that the additional carbon supply from AA would activate hepatic glucose production. To test this, late gestation fetal sheep were infused intravenously for 3h with saline or exogenous AA (AA). Glucose tracer metabolic studies were performed and skeletal muscle and liver tissues samples were collected...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179141/understanding-evolutionary-variation-in-basal-metabolic-rate-an-analysis-in-subterranean-rodents
#8
Facundo Luna, Hugo Naya, Daniel E Naya
Understanding how evolutionary variation in energetic metabolism arises is central to several theories in animal biology. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) -i.e., the minimum rate of energy necessary to maintain thermal homeostasis in endotherms- is a highly informative measure to increase our understanding, because it is determined under highly standardized conditions. In this study we evaluate the relationship between taxa- and mass-independent (residual) BMR and ten environmental factors for 34 subterranean rodent species...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174290/priming-effect-of-a-morning-meal-on-hepatic-glucose-disposition-later-in-the-day
#9
Mary Courtney Moore, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Guillaume Kraft, Masakazu Shiota, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We used hepatic balance and tracer ((3)H-glucose) techniques to examine the impact of "breakfast" on hepatic glucose metabolism later in the same day. From 0-240 min, 2 groups (n=9 each) of conscious dogs received a duodenal infusion of glucose (GLC) or saline (SAL), then fasted from 240-360 min. Three dogs from each group were euthanized for tissue collection at 360 min. From 360-600 min, the remaining dogs underwent a hyperinsulinemic (4x basal) hyperglycemic clamp (arterial blood glucose 146±2 mg/dL) with portal glucose infusion...
February 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168760/models-projecting-the-fate-of-fish-populations-under-climate-change-need-to-be-based-on-valid-physiological-mechanisms
#10
Sjannie Lefevre, David J McKenzie, Göran E Nilsson
Some recent modelling papers projecting fish sizes and catches in a warmer future are based on erroneous assumptions regarding 1) the scaling of gills with body mass and 2) the energetic cost of 'maintenance'. Assumption 1) posits that insurmountable geometric constraints prevent respiratory surface areas from growing as fast as body volume. It is argued that these constraints explain allometric scaling of energy metabolism, whereby larger fish have relatively lower mass specific metabolic rates. Assumption 2) concludes that when fish reach a certain size, basal oxygen demands will not be met, because of assumption 1)...
February 6, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168178/aging-related-correlation-between-serum-sirtuin-1-activities-and-basal-metabolic-rate-in-women-but-not-in-men
#11
Hee Jae Lee, Soo Jin Yang
Sirtuin (SIRT) is a main regulator of metabolism and lifespan, and its importance has been implicated in the prevention against aging-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of serum SIRT1 activity according to age and sex, and to investigate how serum SIRT1 activity is correlated with other metabolic parameters in Korean adults. The Biobank of Jeju National University Hospital, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, provided serum samples from 250 healthy adults. Aging- and metabolism-related factors were analyzed in serum, and the data were compared by the stratification of age and sex...
January 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159807/resveratrol-improves-exercise-performance-and-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-capacity-in-heart-failure
#12
Miranda M Sung, Nikole J Byrne, Ian M Robertson, Ty T Kim, Victor Samokhvalov, Jody Levasseur, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, David Fung, Neil Tyreman, Emmanuel Denou, Kelvin Jones, John M Seubert, Jonathan D Schertzer, Jason R B Dyck
We investigated whether treatment of mice with established pressure overload-induced heart failure (HF) with the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol could improve functional symptoms of clinical HF such as fatigue and exercise intolerance. C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to either sham or transverse aortic constriction surgery to induce HF. Three weeks post-surgery, a cohort of mice with established HF (% ejection fraction; %EF<45) was administered resveratrol (~450 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 2 weeks. Although %EF was similar between both groups of HF mice, those mice treated with resveratrol had increased total physical activity levels and exercise capacity...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145418/chronic-dietary-exposure-to-branched-chain-amino-acids-impairs-glucose-disposal-in-vegans-but-not-in-omnivores
#13
J Gojda, L Rossmeislová, R Straková, J Tůmová, M Elkalaf, M Jaček, P Tůma, J Potočková, E Krauzová, P Waldauf, J Trnka, V Štich, M Anděl
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are among nutrients strongly linked with insulin sensitivity (IS) measures. We investigated the effects of a chronic increase of BCAA intake on IS in two groups of healthy subjects differing in their basal consumption of BCAA, that is, vegans and omnivores. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eight vegans and eight matched omnivores (five men and three women in each group) received 15 g (women) or 20 g (men) of BCAA daily for 3 months...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132886/tp53-modulates-oxidative-stress-in-gata1-erythroid-cells
#14
Ashley C Kramer, Jenna Weber, Ying Zhang, Jakub Tolar, Ying Y Gibbens, Margaret Shevik, Troy C Lund
Metabolism of oxidative stress is necessary for cellular survival. We have previously utilized the zebrafish as a model of the oxidative stress response. In this study, we found that gata1-expressing erythroid cells contributed to a significant proportion of total-body oxidative stress when animals were exposed to a strong pro-oxidant. RNA-seq of zebrafish under oxidative stress revealed the induction of tp53. Zebrafish carrying tp53 with a mutation in its DNA-binding domain were acutely sensitive to pro-oxidant exposure and displayed significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tp53-independent erythroid cell death resulting in an edematous phenotype...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127055/lipidome-determinants-of-maximal-lifespan-in-mammals
#15
Katarzyna Bozek, Ekaterina E Khrameeva, Jane Reznick, Damir Omerbašić, Nigel C Bennett, Gary R Lewin, Jorge Azpurua, Vera Gorbunova, Andrei Seluanov, Pierrick Regnard, Fanelie Wanert, Julia Marchal, Fabien Pifferi, Fabienne Aujard, Zhen Liu, Peng Shi, Svante Pääbo, Florian Schroeder, Lothar Willmitzer, Patrick Giavalisco, Philipp Khaitovich
Maximal lifespan of mammalian species, even if closely related, may differ more than 10-fold, however the nature of the mechanisms that determine this variability is unresolved. Here, we assess the relationship between maximal lifespan duration and concentrations of more than 20,000 lipid compounds, measured in 669 tissue samples from 6 tissues of 35 species representing three mammalian clades: primates, rodents and bats. We identify lipids associated with species' longevity across the three clades, uncoupled from other parameters, such as basal metabolic rate, body size, or body temperature...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126002/novel-vs-clinical-organ-preservation-solutions-improved-cardiac-mitochondrial-protection
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alice S Ferng, David Schipper, Alana M Connell, Katherine M Marsh, Shannon Knapp, Zain Khalpey
BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation remains the gold standard for end-stage heart failure, with current ex vivo organ storage times limited to 4 to 6 h before critical tissue damage occurs. Many preservation solutions exist in an attempt to limit both ischemic and reperfusion damage. In order to compare the effects of various storage solutions, mitochondrial function can be used to provide a sensitive analysis of cellular metabolic function. METHODS: Experimental plates were seeded with cardiac myoblasts and kept in suspended animation for either 4 or 8 h at either 4(o) or 21 °C, in Celsior®, Perfadex®, or Somah storage solutions...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120890/systems-biology-analysis-of-drivers-underlying-hallmarks-of-cancer-cell-metabolism
#17
Daniel C Zielinski, Neema Jamshidi, Austin J Corbett, Aarash Bordbar, Alex Thomas, Bernhard O Palsson
Malignant transformation is often accompanied by significant metabolic changes. To identify drivers underlying these changes, we calculated metabolic flux states for the NCI60 cell line collection and correlated the variance between metabolic states of these lines with their other properties. The analysis revealed a remarkably consistent structure underlying high flux metabolism. The three primary uptake pathways, glucose, glutamine and serine, are each characterized by three features: (1) metabolite uptake sufficient for the stoichiometric requirement to sustain observed growth, (2) overflow metabolism, which scales with excess nutrient uptake over the basal growth requirement, and (3) redox production, which also scales with nutrient uptake but greatly exceeds the requirement for growth...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114396/sun-basking-in-red-wood-ants-formica-polyctena-hymenoptera-formicidae-individual-behaviour-and-temperature-dependent-respiration-rates
#18
Štěpánka Kadochová, Jan Frouz, Flavio Roces
In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers' lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111134/aldose-reductase-akr1b-deficiency-promotes-phagocytosis-in-bone-marrow-derived-mouse-macrophages
#19
Mahavir Singh, Aniruddh Kapoor, James McCracken, Bradford Hill, Aruni Bhatnagar
Macrophages are critical drivers of the immune response during infection and inflammation. The pathogenesis of several inflammatory conditions, such as diabetes, cancer and sepsis has been linked with aldose reductase (AR), a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, the role of AR in the early stages of innate immunity such as phagocytosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of AR in regulating the growth and the phagocytic activity of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages (BMMs) from AR-null and wild-type (WT) mice...
January 19, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110213/cannabidiol-attenuates-ogd-r-induced-damage-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-modulating-glucose-metabolism-via-pentose-phosphate-pathway-in-hippocampal-neurons
#20
Shanshan Sun, Fangyuan Hu, Jihong Wu, Shenghai Zhang
Deficient bioenergetics and diminished redox conservation have been implicated in the development of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic compound derived from Cannabis sativa with FDA-approved antiepilepsy properties, were studied in vitro using an oxygen-glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model in a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line. CBD supplementation during reperfusion rescued OGD/R-induced cell death, attenuated intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation, and simultaneously reversed the abnormal changes in antioxidant biomarkers...
April 2017: Redox Biology
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