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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108130/cholecystokinin-switches-the-plasticity-of-gaba-synapses-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-via-astrocytic-atp-release
#1
Karen M Crosby, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Sarah A Wilson, Grant R Gordon, Jaideep S Bains, Quentin J Pittman
Whether synapses in appetite-regulatory brain regions undergo long term changes in strength in response to satiety peptides is poorly understood. Here we show that following bursts of afferent activity, the neuromodulator and satiety peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) shifts the plasticity of GABA synapses in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of male Sprague Dawley rats from long-term depression (LTD) to long-term potentiation (LTP). This LTP requires activation of both type 2 CCK receptors and group 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors, resulting in a rise in astrocytic intracellular calcium and subsequent ATP release...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079574/spinal-dorsal-horn-astrocytes-release-gaba-in-response-to-synaptic-activation
#2
Rasmus Kordt Christensen, Rodolfo Delgado-Lezama, Raúl E Russo, Barbara Lykke Lind, Emanuel Loeza Alcocer, Martin Fredensborg Rath, Gabriela Fabbiani, Nicole Schmitt, Martin Lauritzen, Anders Victor Petersen, Eva Meier Carlsen, Jean-François Perrier
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: GABA is an essential molecule for sensory information processing. It is usually assumed to be released by neurons. Here we show that in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, astrocytes respond to glutamate by releasing GABA. Our findings suggest a novel role for astrocytes in somatosensory information processing. ABSTRACT: Astrocytes participate in neuronal signalling by releasing gliotransmitters in response to neurotransmitters. We investigated if astrocytes from the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of adult red-eared turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) release GABA in response to glutamatergic receptor activation...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057525/diversity-of-astroglial-effects-on-aging-and-experience-related-cortical-metaplasticity
#3
Ulyana Lalo, Alexander Bogdanov, Yuriy Pankratov
Activity-dependent regulation of synaptic plasticity, or metaplasticity, plays a key role in the adaptation of neuronal networks to physiological and biochemical changes in aging brain. There is a growing evidence that experience-related alterations in the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity can underlie beneficial effects of physical exercise and caloric restriction (CR) on brain health and cognition. Astrocytes, which form neuro-vascular interface and can modulate synaptic plasticity by release of gliotransmitters, attract an increasing attention as important element of brain metaplasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29969704/astrocyte-networks-modulate-respiration-sniffing-glue
#4
REVIEW
David Forsberg, Eric Herlenius
The role of astrocytes in the modulation of breathing has emerged. Within the two major respiratory control centers, the inspiration generating preBötzinger Complex and the chemosensitive parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus, rhythmically active astrocytes have been discovered. These are connected in glial subnetworks that intermingle with the neuronal network. Furthermore, astrocytes modify overall respiratory network behavior through gliotransmitter release, especially during hypoxic and hypercapnic stress...
June 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878094/tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-controlled-corticogenesis-through-a-mechanism-dependent-of-nmda-receptors-expressed-on-radial-glial-cells
#5
Nolwenn Pasquet, Sara Douceau, Mickael Naveau, Flavie Lesept, Morgane Louessard, Laurent Lebouvier, Yannick Hommet, Denis Vivien, Isabelle Bardou
Modifications of neuronal migration during development, including processes that control cortical lamination are associated with functional deficits at adult stage. Here, we report for the first time that the lack of the serine protease tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (tPA), previously characterized as a neuromodulator and a gliotransmitter, leads to an altered cortical lamination in adult. This results in a neuronal migration defect of tPA deficient neurons which are stopped in the intermediate zone at E16...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866853/stimulation-induced-increases-in-cerebral-blood-flow-and-local-capillary-vasoconstriction-depend-on-conducted-vascular-responses
#6
Changsi Cai, Jonas C Fordsmann, Sofie H Jensen, Bodil Gesslein, Micael Lønstrup, Bjørn O Hald, Stefan A Zambach, Birger Brodin, Martin J Lauritzen
Functional neuroimaging, such as fMRI, is based on coupling neuronal activity and accompanying changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. However, the relationship between CBF and events at the level of the penetrating arterioles and capillaries is not well established. Recent findings suggest an active role of capillaries in CBF control, and pericytes on capillaries may be major regulators of CBF and initiators of functional imaging signals. Here, using two-photon microscopy of brains in living mice, we demonstrate that stimulation-evoked increases in synaptic activity in the mouse somatosensory cortex evokes capillary dilation starting mostly at the first- or second-order capillary, propagating upstream and downstream at 5-20 µm/s...
June 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858014/histamine-elicits-glutamate-release-from-cultured-astrocytes
#7
Anikó Kárpáti, Takeo Yoshikawa, Tadaho Nakamura, Tomomitsu Iida, Takuro Matsuzawa, Haruna Kitano, Ryuichi Harada, Kazuhiko Yanai
Astrocytes play key roles in regulating brain homeostasis and neuronal activity. This is, in part, accomplished by the ability of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft to bind astrocyte membrane receptors, activating signalling cascades that regulate concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) and gliotransmitter release, including ATP and glutamate. Gliotransmitters contribute to dendrite formation and synaptic plasticity, and in some cases, exacerbate neurodegeneration. The neurotransmitter histamine participates in several physiological processes, such as the sleep-wake cycle and learning and memory...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852209/the-plastic-d-serine-signaling-pathway-sliding-from-neurons-to-glia-and-vice-versa
#8
REVIEW
Andrei D Ivanov, Jean-Pierre Mothet
d-Serine is now recognized as the main co-agonist for NMDA receptors. For years it was thought to be exclusively produced by astrocytes and was thus viewed as the archetype of gliotransmitters. Recent research have challenged this long cherished and appealing view by showing that in physiological conditions d-erine would rather originate from neurons but not from glia. In the present review and in the light of the emerging serine shuttle model, we ambition to offer a new reading direction of the glia-neuron cross-talk in shaping the metabolism and the functions of d-serine in cerebral communication in normal and pathological conditions by re-interpretating some seminal findings...
May 28, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777700/transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channels-are-involved-in-spontaneous-peptide-hormone-release-from-astrocytes
#9
Mai Takizawa, Kazuki Harada, Kazuaki Nakamura, Takashi Tsuboi
Astrocytes, a large population of glial cells, detect neurotransmitters and respond by increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) and releasing chemical molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently discovered Ca2+ influx through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels is reported to cause spontaneous [Ca2+ ]i increase in astrocytes. While several physiological functions of TRPA1-mediated spontaneous Ca2+ signal have been revealed, relation with gliotransmitter release, especially peptide hormone exocytosis is largely unknown...
July 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759891/the-putative-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-sleep-dysfunction-across-neuropsychiatric-disorders-focus-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-bipolar-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, Ken Walder, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
Sleep and circadian abnormalities are prevalent and burdensome manifestations of diverse neuro-immune diseases, and may aggravate the course of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The underlying pathophysiology of sleep abnormalities across neuropsychiatric disorders remains unclear, and may involve the inter-play of several clinical variables and mechanistic pathways. In this review, we propose a heuristic framework in which reciprocal interactions of immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and mitochondrial pathways may drive sleep abnormalities across potentially neuroprogressive disorders...
April 4, 2018: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662438/cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-expression-in-the-developing-avian-retina-morphological-and-functional-correlation-with-the-dopaminergic-system
#11
Luzia da Silva Sampaio, Regina C C Kubrusly, Yolanda P Colli, Priscila P Trindade, Victor T Ribeiro-Resende, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho, Patricia F Gardino, Fernando G de Mello, Ricardo A De Melo Reis
The avian retina has been used as a model to study signaling by different neuro- and gliotransmitters. It is unclear how dopaminergic and cannabinoid systems are related in the retina. Here we studied the expression of type 1 and 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 ), as well as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzyme that degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), during retina development. Our data show that CB1 receptor is highly expressed from embryonic day 5 (E5) until post hatched day 7 (PE7), decreasing its levels throughout development...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615922/sensory-processing-and-integration-at-the-carotid-body-tripartite-synapse-neurotransmitter-functions-and-effects-of-chronic-hypoxia
#12
REVIEW
Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman, Colin A Nurse
Maintenance of homeostasis in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems depends on reflexes that are initiated at specialized peripheral chemoreceptors that sense changes in the chemical composition of arterial blood. In mammals, the bilaterally-paired carotid bodies (CBs) are the main peripheral chemoreceptor organs that are richly vascularized and are strategically located at the carotid bifurcation. The CBs contribute to the maintenance of O2 , CO2 /H+ , and glucose homeostasis and have attracted much clinical interest because hyperactivity in these organs is associated with several pathophysiological conditions including sleep apnea, obstructive lung disease, heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563872/the-metabotropic-purinergic-p2y-receptor-family-as-novel-drug-target-in-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Mariana Alves, Edward Beamer, Tobias Engel
Epilepsy encompasses a heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes which are characterized by recurrent seizures affecting over 60 million people worldwide. Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainly designed to target ion channels and/or GABA or glutamate receptors. Despite recent advances in drug development, however, pharmacoresistance in epilepsy remains as high as 30%, suggesting the need for the development of new AEDs with a non-classical mechanism of action. Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as one of the key players in seizure generation and in the maintenance of the epileptic phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542276/the-schwann-cell-as-an-active-synaptic-partner
#14
REVIEW
Sujin Hyung, Kyuhwan Jung, Sung-Rae Cho, Noo Li Jeon
The schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system are indispensable for the formation, maintenance, and modulation of synapses over the life cycle. They not only recognize neuron-glia signaling molecules, but also secrete gliotransmitters. Through these processes, they regulate neuronal excitability and thus the release of neurotransmitters from the nerve terminal at the neuromuscular junction. Gliotransmitters strongly affect nerve communication, and their secretion is mainly triggered by synchronized Ca2+ signaling, implicating Ca2+ waves in synapse function...
May 22, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456837/synaptic-neuron-astrocyte-communication-is-supported-by-an-order-of-magnitude-analysis-of-inositol-tris-phosphate-diffusion-at-the-nanoscale-in-a-model-of-peri-synaptic-astrocyte-projection
#15
Pavel Montes de Oca Balderas, Horacio Montes de Oca Balderas
Background: Astrocytes were conceived for decades only as supporting cells of the brain. However, the observation of Ca2+ waves in astrocyte synctitia, their neurotransmitter receptor expression and gliotransmitter secretion suggested a role in information handling, conception that has some controversies. Synaptic Neuron-Astrocyte metabotropic communication mediated by Inositol tris-phosphate (SN-AmcIP3) is supported by different reports. However, some models contradict this idea and Ca2+ stores are 1000 ± 325 nm apart from the Postsynaptic Density in the Perisynaptic Astrocyte Projections (PAP's), suggesting that SN-AmcIP3 is extrasynaptic...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380725/neuronal-activity-determines-distinct-gliotransmitter-release-from-a-single-astrocyte
#16
Ana Covelo, Alfonso Araque
Accumulating evidence indicates that astrocytes are actively involved in brain function by regulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Different gliotransmitters, such as glutamate, ATP, GABA or D-serine, released form astrocytes have been shown to induce different forms of synaptic regulation. However, whether a single astrocyte may release different gliotransmitters is unknown. Here we show that mouse hippocampal astrocytes activated by endogenous (neuron-released endocannabinoids or GABA) or exogenous (single astrocyte Ca2+ uncaging) stimuli modulate putative single CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses...
January 30, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#17
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl- ) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318454/gl261-glioma-tumor-cells-respond-to-atp-with-an-intracellular-calcium-rise-and-glutamate-release
#18
Averey D Strong, M Caitlin Indart, Nolan R Hill, Richard L Daniels
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with an average survival rate of 15 months. The composition of the GBM tumor microenvironment-its pH, the presence of growth and immune factors, neurotransmitters, and gliotransmitters-plays an important role in GBM pathophysiology and facilitates tumor survival and growth. In particular, GBM tumor cells produce glutamate, which is toxic to healthy tissue and is associated with increased tumor invasion into adjacent brain regions. The conditions that lead to this excitotoxic release of glutamate are not completely understood...
September 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306934/gliotransmitters-and-cytokines-in-the-control-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#19
REVIEW
Elena D Osipova, Oxana V Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Andrey V Morgun, Natalia V Pisareva, Natalia A Malinovskaya, Elizaveta B Boitsova, Elena A Pozhilenkova, Olga A Belova, Vladimir V Salmin, Tatiana E Taranushenko, Mami Noda, Alla B Salmina
The contribution of astrocytes and microglia to the regulation of neuroplasticity or neurovascular unit (NVU) is based on the coordinated secretion of gliotransmitters and cytokines and the release and uptake of metabolites. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and angiogenesis are influenced by perivascular cells contacting with the abluminal side of brain microvessel endothelial cells (pericytes, astrocytes) or by immune cells existing (microglia) or invading the NVU (macrophages) under pathologic conditions...
January 8, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298905/gliotransmission-beyond-black-and-white
#20
Iaroslav Savtchouk, Andrea Volterra
Astrocytes are highly complex cells with many emerging putative roles in brain function. Of these, gliotransmission (active information transfer from glia to neurons) has probably the widest implications on our understanding of how the brain works: do astrocytes really contribute to information processing within the neural circuitry? "Positive evidence" for this stems from work of multiple laboratories reporting many examples of modulatory chemical signaling from astrocytes to neurons in the timeframe of hundreds of milliseconds to several minutes...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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