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Jalil Mehrzad, Saman Hosseinkhani, Amir Mohammad Malvandi
OBJECTIVE: Knowledge regarding interactions of AFB1 with the human nervous system and how a naturally occurring level of AFB1 could potentially induce neuroimmune dysregulation is very limited. To assess the cellular effects of AFB1 on the human brain, we used the human microglia cell line CHME5 as a model to pinpoint its potential in vivo translation. METHODS: We used the CHME5 cell line culture system, multiplex qPCR, (chemi)bioluminescence, Luminex ELISA, and flow cytometry assays to evaluate the toxic effects of a naturally occurring level of AFB1 on human microglia...
October 18, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Setsuko Tsuboi, Takashi Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Timothy R Fallon, Sarah E Lower, Ching-Ho Chang, Manabu Bessho-Uehara, Gavin J Martin, Adam J Bewick, Megan Behringer, Humberto J Debat, Isaac Wong, John C Day, Anton Suvorov, Christian J Silva, Kathrin F Stanger-Hall, David W Hall, Robert J Schmitz, David R Nelson, Sara M Lewis, Shuji Shigenobu, Seth M Bybee, Amanda M Larracuente, Yuichi Oba, Jing-Ke Weng
Fireflies and their luminous courtships have inspired centuries of scientific study. Today firefly luciferase is widely used in biotechnology, but the evolutionary origin of bioluminescence within beetles remains unclear. To shed light on this long-standing question, we sequenced the genomes of two firefly species that diverged over 100 million-years-ago: the North American Photinus pyralis and Japanese Aquatica lateralis. To compare bioluminescent origins, we also sequenced the genome of a related click beetle, the Caribbean Ignelater luminosus , with bioluminescent biochemistry near-identical to fireflies, but anatomically unique light organs, suggesting the intriguing hypothesis of parallel gains of bioluminescence...
October 16, 2018: ELife
Chongqing Huang, Jingyong Huang, Guanfeng Yu
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) plays a critical role in the development and progression of Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common vascular tumor occurring during infancy. However, a role of VEGF-C in IH remains unclear. Here, we addressed this question. The expression of VEGF family members in hemangiomas at involuting-phase and at proliferating-phase was compared, by RT-qPCR and by ELISA. VEGF-A and VEGF-C were suppressed by specific short-hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA), respectively. Cell growth was determined in an MTT assay...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Alexander D Klose, Neal Paragas
We developed a computer-aided analysis tool for quantitatively determining bioluminescent reporter distributions inside small animals. The core innovations are a body-fitting animal shuttle and a statistical mouse atlas, both of which are spatially aligned and scaled according to the animal's weight, and hence provide data congruency across animals of varying size and pose. In conjunction with a multispectral bioluminescence tomography technique capitalizing on the spatial framework of the shuttle, the in vivo biodistribution of luminescent reporters can rapidly be calculated and, thus, enables operator-independent and computer-driven data analysis...
October 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Jérôme Mallefet, Laurent Duchatelet, Claire Hermans, Fernand Baguet
Nervous control of light emission from deep-sea mesopelagic fishes has been documented for several species. Studies on the nervous control of photophores from deep-sea luminescent fish, are mainly restricted to a pharmacological approach. For example, the light organs, called photophores, isolated from Argyropelecus hemygimnus and Maurolicus muelleri show a much higher sensitivity to adrenaline than to noradrenaline. According to these results and other information in different species, catecholamines are considered as main neurotransmitters triggering bioluminescence in deep-sea fishes...
October 12, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Peng Liu, Xueen Fang, Hongmei Cao, Mingli Gu, Jilie Kong, Anmei Deng
Protein biomarkers play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Herein, we report an ultrasensitive magnetic-bioluminescent-nanoliposome based technique using a portable ATP luminometer for the point-of-care testing (POCT) of protein biomarkers in blood. In this study, we use alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, a protein biomarker associated with hepatocellular carcinoma) as a model protein. The bioluminescent nanoliposomes conjugated to magnetic particles (LBM) enabled target protein capture, isolation and detection...
December 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Farman Ali, Zujie Yao, Wanxin Li, Lina Sun, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
luxS is conserved in several bacterial species, including A. hydrophila, which causes infections in prawn, fish, and shrimp, and is consequently a great risk to the aquaculture industry and public health. luxS plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of the autoinducer-2 (AI-2), which performs wide-ranging functions in bacterial communication, and especially in quorum sensing (QS). The prediction of a 3D structure of the QS-associated LuxS protein is thus essential to better understand and control A. hydrophila pathogenecity...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ilya Pavlovski, Jennifer A Evans, Ralph E Mistlberger
Circadian rhythms in many brain regions and peripheral organs can be entrained by daily feeding schedules. The set of feeding related signals that entrain peripheral clocks are tissue specific and include nutrients, metabolic hormones and temperature. Signals that entrain neural circadian clocks to mealtime have yet to be established for any brain region. The olfactory bulb (OB) contains a robust circadian clock that can cycle independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) master pacemaker. We used PER2::LUC mice to evaluate the suitability of the OB for analysis of inputs that mediate entrainment of neural clocks by feeding schedules...
October 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Jung-Suk Lee, Seongjin Hong, Junghyun Lee, Tae Seob Choi, Kitae Rhie, Jong Seong Khim
Total residual oxidants (TRO) in treated ballast water can produce various disinfection by-products (DBPs) depending on local conditions, such as salinity and organic matter content in water. Because TRO and DBPs are known to be harmful to aquatic organisms and humans, ecotoxicity tests have been proposed for screening the residual toxicity before discharging treated ballast water. In the present study, we aimed to address the decay rates and toxicity changes of TRO under various conditions in salinity, initial TRO concentrations, and residence time of TRO...
October 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Huajian Lin, Jincan Chen, Yaxin Zhang, Azeem Ulla, Jianyong Liu, Fan Lin, Longguang Jiang, Mingdong Huang
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an effective way to combat infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance. Photosensitizer is a key factor of aPDT and has triggered extensive research interest. In this study, a new asymmetric Zn(II) phthalocyanine mono-substituted with a triazatricyclodecane moiety (compound 3) and its cationic N-methylated derivative (compound 4) were synthesized. Their photodynamic antimicrobial activities were evaluated using bioluminescent bacterial strains. Compound 3 showed phototoxicity only toward the Gram-positive bacteria, whereas the cationic derivative compound 4 exhibited strong anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Maki Kurata, Miyabi Hiyama, Takuma Narimatsu, Yuji Hazama, Takashi Ito, Yuhei Hayamizu, Xingping Qiu, Francoise M Winnik, Hidehumi Akiyama
Caged luciferin compounds of firefly luciferins have recently drawn much attention since firefly bioluminescence, in which D-luciferin acts as a substrate, is widely used in noninvasive gene-expression imaging, studies of in vivo cell trafficking, and the detection of enzyme activity. The objectives of this study are the development of new caged luciferins and the quantitative determination of the photophysical parameters of their photo-decomposition. We synthesized 7-(diethylaminocoumarin)-4-(yl)methyl caged D-luciferin (DEACM-caged D-luciferin) and quantitatively characterized its absorption spectrum, bioluminescence, and photoproducts using chiral HPLC chromatography, as a function of light-irradiation time...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Emilia Rota, Svante Martinsson, Christer ErsÉus, Valentin N Petushkov, Natalja S Rodionova, Pietro Omodeo
The small synanthropic and peregrine earthworm Microscolex phosphoreus (Dugès, 1837) is reported for the first time from Siberia. Morphological and DNA barcode (COI) analyses of this and widely separate samples worldwide demonstrate that, as currently identified, M. phosphoreus is a heterogeneous taxon, with divergent lineages occurring often in the same locality and hardly providing geographically structured genetic signals. The combined morphological and genetic evidence suggests that at least four of the found clades should be reclassified as separate species, both morphologically and genetically distinct from each other...
October 4, 2018: Zootaxa
David Mendes Costa, Mónica Sá, Ana Rafaela Teixeira, Inês Loureiro, Catherine Thouvenot, Sylvain Golba, Rogerio Amino, Joana Tavares
Plasmodium sporozoites deposited in the skin following a mosquito bite must migrate and invade blood vessels to complete their development in the liver. Once in the bloodstream, sporozoites arrest in the liver sinusoids, but the molecular determinants that mediate this specific homing are not yet genetically defined. Here we investigate the involvement of the thrombospondin-related sporozoite protein (TRSP) in this process using knockout Plasmodium berghei parasites and in vivo bioluminescence imaging in mice...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael A van der Kooij, Tanja Jene, Giulia Treccani, Isabelle Miederer, Annika Hasch, Nadine Voelxen, Stefan Walenta, Marianne B Müller
Stringent glucose demands render the brain susceptible to disturbances in the supply of this main source of energy, and chronic stress may constitute such a disruption. However, whether stress-associated cognitive impairments may arise from disturbed glucose regulation remains unclear. Here we show that chronic social defeat (CSD) stress in adult male mice induces hyperglycemia and directly affects spatial memory performance. Stressed mice developed hyperglycemia and impaired glucose metabolism peripherally as well as in the brain (demonstrated by PET and induced metabolic bioluminescence imaging), which was accompanied by hippocampus-related spatial memory impairments...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nadia Rbia, Liselotte F Bulstra, Roman Thaler, Steven E R Hovius, Andre J van Wijnen, Alexander Y Shin
PURPOSE: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged as promising tools for peripheral nerve reconstruction. There is a paucity of information regarding the ultimate survivorship of implanted MSCs or whether these cells remain where they are placed. The aim of the present study was to track the in vivo distribution and survival of MSCs seeded on a decellularized nerve allograft reconstruction of a peripheral nerve defect using luciferase-based bioluminescence imaging (BLI)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Martin Ullrich, Josephine Liers, Mirko Peitzsch, Anja Feldmann, Ralf Bergmann, Ulrich Sommer, Susan Richter, Stefan R Bornstein, Michael Bachmann, Graeme Eisenhofer, Christian G Ziegler, Jens Pietzsch
Somatostatin receptor-targeting endoradiotherapy offers potential for treating metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, an approach likely to benefit from combination radiosensitization therapy. To provide reliable preclinical in vivo models of metastatic disease, this study characterized the metastatic spread of luciferase-expressing mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells in mouse strains with different immunologic conditions. Bioluminescence imaging showed that, in contrast to subcutaneous non-metastatic engraftment of luciferase-expressing MPC cells in NMRI-nude mice, intravenous cell injection provided only suboptimal metastatic spread in both NMRI-nude mice and hairless SCID (SHO) mice...
October 5, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Hideki Terajima, Hikari Yoshitane, Tomoko Yoshikawa, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Yoshitaka Fukada
In mammals, the central circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it orchestrates peripheral clocks in the whole body to organize physiological and behavioral rhythms. Light-induced phase-shift of the SCN clock enables synchronization of the circadian clock system with 24-h environmental light/dark cycle. We previously found that adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (Adar2), an A-to-I RNA editing enzyme catalyzing rhythmic A-to-I RNA editing, governs a wide range of mRNA rhythms in the mouse liver and regulates the circadian behavior...
October 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
François Delavat, Adeline Bidault, Vianney Pichereau, Christine Paillard
Vibrio campbellii BAA-1116 is renowned for its bioluminescence properties, and genetic tools are available to genetically track this strain. However, many other ecologically important V. harveyi strains exist, for which only few genetic tools are available. In this study, a rapid electroporation protocol was developed to transform replicative plasmids in various environmental V. harveyi and Pseudoalteromonas strains. Moreover, a mini-Tn7 delivery system was modified to site-specifically integrate mini-transposons in the genome of V...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Shinya Nishide, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
Circadian rhythms in clock genes, Bmal1 and Per2 expression were monitored simultaneously in the cultured slice of mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by dual bioluminescent reporters. In the neonatal SCN, the phase-relation between the Bmal1 and Per2 rhythms were significantly changed during culture. Medium exchange produced phase-dependent phase shifts (PRCm) in the Bmal1 rhythms, but not in the Per2 rhythms. As a result, the two circadian rhythms were temporally dissociated after medium exchange. In the adult SCN, the phase-relation between the two rhythms was kept constant during culture at least up to 20 cycles...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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