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Soilborne disease

Aymeric Leveau, James Reed, Xue Qiao, Michael J Stephenson, Sam T Mugford, Rachel E Melton, Jenni C Rant, Robert Vickerstaff, Tim Langdon, Anne Osbourn
Oats produce avenacins, antifungal triterpenes that are synthesized in the roots and provide protection against take-all and other soilborne diseases. Avenacins are acylated at the carbon-21 position of the triterpene scaffold, a modification critical for antifungal activity. We have previously characterized several steps in the avenacin pathway, including those required for acylation. However, transfer of the acyl group to the scaffold requires the C-21β position to be oxidized first, by an as yet uncharacterized enzyme...
October 8, 2018: New Phytologist
Paola Durán, Gonzalo Tortella, Sharon Viscardi, Patricio Javier Barra, Victor J Carrión, María de la Luz Mora, María José Pozo
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) is the main soilborne factor that affects wheat production around the world. Recently we reported the occurrence of six suppressive soils in monoculture areas from indigenous "Mapuche" communities, and evidenced that the suppression relied on the biotic component of those soils. Here, we compare the rhizosphere and endosphere microbial community structure (total bacteria, actinomycetes, total fungi, and ascomycetes) of wheat plants grown in suppressive and conducive soils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adrien Blum, Mélanie Bressan, Abderrakib Zahid, Isabelle Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Azeddine Driouich, Karine Laval
Fiber flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), an important crop in Normandy (France), is increasingly affected by Verticillium wilt caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae. This disease leads to nonnegligible yield losses and depreciated fibers that are consequently difficult to upgrade. Verticillium wilt is a major threat to a broad range of agriculture. In this study, susceptible fiber flax cultivar Adélie was infected by VdLu01 (isolated from fiber flax, this study) or green fluorescent protein-tagged VdLs17 (transformed and provided by the department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis)...
October 3, 2018: Plant Disease
Ningxiao Li, Seogchan Kang
Volatile compounds (VCs) produced by diverse microbes seem to affect plant growth, development and/or stress tolerance. We investigated how VCs released by soilborne fungi  Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae affect  Arabidopsis thalian a responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Under salt stress, VCs from both fungi helped its growth and increased chlorophyll content. However, in contrast to wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0), V. dahliae VCs failed to increase leaf surface area in auxin signalling mutants aux1-7, tir1-1 and axr1-3 ...
2018: Mycology
Liang Yang, Lintong Wu, Xiaoyuan Yao, Shiyuan Zhao, Jiao Wang, Shili Li, Wei Ding
Plant wilt disease caused by the soilborne bacterial pathogen Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum is one of the most devastating plant diseases; however, no effective protection against this disease has been developed. Coumarins are important natural plant-derived compounds with a wide range of bioactivities and extensive applications in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, three hydroxycoumarins (Hycs), umbelliferone (UM), esculetin (ES) and daphnetin (DA) significantly inhibited the growth of R. pseudosolanacearum on solid medium in a concentration-dependent manner, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of these compounds was 325  mg L-1 , 125 mg L-1 and 75 mg L-1 , respectively...
October 2018: Microbiological Research
Y Zhang, J Zhang, J Gao, G Zhang, Y Yu, H Zhou, W Chen, J Zhao
Sunflower Verticillium wilt is a widespread and destructive disease caused by the soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae. To better understand the process of infection and seed transmission of the fungus, sunflower roots were inoculated with a V. dahliae strain (VdBM9-6) labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and monitored microscopically. After 24 to 96 h postinoculation (hpi), conidia germinated and developed into mycelium on root hairs, elongation zones, and caps of lateral roots. Mycelium colonized vascular bundles of lateral roots and taproots at 7 days postinoculation (dpi)...
September 2018: Plant Disease
Kamel Elhalag, Mohamed Nasr-Eldin, Ahmed Hussien, Abdelmonim Ahmad
A new podovirus RsPod1EGY Ralstonia phage (GenBank accession no MG711516) with a specific action against R. solanacearum phylotype IIa, sequevar I (race 3, biovar 2) was isolated from Egyptian soil. The potential efficacy of the isolated phage to be used as biocontrol agent was evaluated in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The podovirus phage produced a plaque size of 3.0-4.0 mm in diameter and completed its infection cycle in 180 min after infection with a burst size of ∼27 virions per infected cell...
August 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Bangxian Zheng, Leiyan Yan, Wenxing Liang, Qianqian Yang
BACKGROUND: As a soilborne fungus, Fusarium oxysporum can cause vascular wilt in numerous economically important crops. Application of antifungal drugs is the primary method for the control of F. oxysporum. Cyp51, a key enzyme of sterol biosynthesis is the main target of sterol demethylation inhibitors. RESULTS: The F. oxysporum genome contains three paralogous CYP51 genes (named FoCYP51A, FoCYP51B and FoCYP51C) that putatively encode sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gregory A DeIulio, Li Guo, Yong Zhang, Jonathan M Goldberg, H Corby Kistler, Li-Jun Ma
The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a group of soilborne pathogens causing severe disease in more than 100 plant hosts, while individual strains exhibit strong host specificity. Both chromosome transfer and comparative genomics experiments have demonstrated that lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes contribute to the host-specific pathogenicity. However, little is known about the functional importance of genes encoded in these LS chromosomes. Focusing on signaling transduction, this study compared the kinomes of 12 F...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Bin Huang, Jun Li, Qian Wang, Meixia Guo, Dongdong Yan, Wensheng Fang, Zongjie Ren, Qiuxia Wang, Canbin Ouyang, Yuan Li, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) causes a disease that significantly reduces the yield of greenhouse cucumber crops year after year. Chemical control based on a single pesticide is now unreliable mainly due to pest resistance. Fumigant and non-fumigant pesticide combinations can potentially result in effective and economic RKN control. RESULTS: Combining the insecticide abamectin (ABM) with fumigants dazomet (DZ) or chloropicrin (CP) significantly extended the half-life of ABM by an average of about 1...
2018: PloS One
Sung Won Hong, Da-Ran Kim, Ji Su Kim, Gyeongjun Cho, Chang Wook Jeon, Youn-Sig Kwak
Strawberry Fusarium wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae , is the most devastating disease in strawberry production. The pathogen produces chlamydospores which tolerate against harsh environment, fungicide and survive for decades in soil. Development of detection and quantification techniques are regarded significantly in many soilborne pathogens to prevent damage from diseases. In this study, we improved specific-quantitative primers for F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae to reveal correlation between the pathogen density and the disease severity...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Carmen Berlanas, Marcos Andrés-Sodupe, Beatriz López-Manzanares, María Mercedes Maldonado-González, David Gramaje
BACKGROUND: Black-foot disease is one of the main soilborne fungal diseases affecting grapevine production worldwide. Two field experiments were established to evaluate the effect of white mustard cover crop residue amendment and chemical fumigation with propamocarb + fosetyl-Al combined with Trichoderma spp. root treatment on the viability of black-foot inoculum in soil and fungal infection in grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants. RESULTS: A total of 876 black-foot pathogen isolates were collected from grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants in both fields...
May 20, 2018: Pest Management Science
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Simon Gross, Liesa Kunz, Denise C Müller, Amanda Santos Kron, Florian M Freimoser
Antagonistic yeasts suppress plant pathogenic fungi by various mechanisms, but their biocontrol efficacy also depends on the ability to compete and persist in the environment. The goal of the work presented here was to quantify the composition of synthetic yeast communities in order to determine the competitiveness of different species and identify promising candidates for plant protection. For this purpose, colony counting of distinct species and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; MALDI biotyping) were used to distinguish different yeast species and to quantify the composition of a synthetic community of six yeasts (Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Hanseniaspora sp...
October 2018: Yeast
Elida Yazmín Gómez-Rodríguez, Edith Elena Uresti-Rivera, Olga Araceli Patrón-Soberano, María Auxiliadora Islas-Osuna, Alberto Flores-Martínez, Lina Riego-Ruiz, María Teresa Rosales-Saavedra, Sergio Casas-Flores
Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1), a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani...
2018: PloS One
Francesca Dennert, Nicola Imperiali, Cornelia Staub, Jana Schneider, Titouan Laessle, Tao Zhang, Raphaël Wittwer, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Theo H M Smits, Klaus Schlaeppi, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Conservation tillage and organic farming are strategies used worldwide to preserve the stability and fertility of soils. While positive effects on soil structure have been extensively reported, the effects on specific root- and soil-associated microorganisms are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate how conservation tillage and organic farming influence the frequency and activity of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. Amplicon sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Pseudomonas is among the most abundant bacterial taxa in the root microbiome of field-grown wheat, independent of agronomical practices...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Michael D Holtz, Sheau-Fang Hwang, Stephen E Strelkov
BACKGROUND: Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soilborne pathogen of the family Brassicaceae and the causal agent of clubroot disease. In Canada, P. brassicae is now one of the most important constraints to canola (Brassica napus) production, and is managed mainly by the deployment of resistant cultivars. In recent years, however, new strains of the pathogen have emerged that are capable of overcoming host resistance, posing new challenges for disease management. Despite its economic significance, molecular studies of P...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Dmitri V Mavrodi, Olga V Mavrodi, Liam D H Elbourne, Sasha Tetu, Robert F Bonsall, James Parejko, Mingming Yang, Ian T Paulsen, David M Weller, Linda S Thomashow
The Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) encompasses 1. 6 million cropland hectares and is a major wheat-producing area in the western United States. The climate throughout the region is semi-arid, making the availability of water a significant challenge for IPNW agriculture. Much attention has been given to uncovering the effects of water stress on the physiology of wheat and the dynamics of its soilborne diseases. In contrast, the impact of soil moisture on the establishment and activity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of dryland wheat remains poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad Vurukonda, Davide Giovanardi, Emilio Stefani
There has been many recent studies on the use of microbial antagonists to control diseases incited by soilborne and airborne plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, in an attempt to replace existing methods of chemical control and avoid extensive use of fungicides, which often lead to resistance in plant pathogens. In agriculture, plant growth-promoting and biocontrol microorganisms have emerged as safe alternatives to chemical pesticides. Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites may have great potential as excellent agents for controlling various fungal and bacterial phytopathogens...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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