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Soilborne disease

T Jung, A Pérez-Sierra, A Durán, M Horta Jung, Y Balci, B Scanu
Most members of the oomycete genus Phytophthora are primary plant pathogens. Both soil- and airborne Phytophthora species are able to survive adverse environmental conditions with enduring resting structures, mainly sexual oospores, vegetative chlamydospores and hyphal aggregations. Soilborne Phytophthora species infect fine roots and the bark of suberized roots and the collar region with motile biflagellate zoospores released from sporangia during wet soil conditions. Airborne Phytophthora species infect leaves, shoots, fruits and bark of branches and stems with caducous sporangia produced during humid conditions on infected plant tissues and dispersed by rain and wind splash...
December 2018: Persoonia
Clara Pliego, José Ignacio Crespo-Gómez, Adrián Pintado, Isabel Pérez-Martínez, Antonio de Vicente, Francisco M Cazorla, Cayo Ramos
The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes AVO110, isolated by enrichment of competitive avocado root tip colonizers, controls avocado white root rot disease caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Here, we applied signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) during the growth and survival of AVO110 in fungal exudate-containing medium with the goal of identifying molecular mechanisms linked to the interaction of this bacterium with R. necatrix A total of 26 STM mutants out-competed by the parental strain in fungal exudate, but not in rich medium, were selected and named <u>g</u>rowth-<u>a</u>ttenuated <u>m</u>utants (GAM)...
November 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Deborah A Neher, Thomas R Weicht
The goal was to develop and optimize a simple, affordable, and effective bioassay to detect disease suppressive ability of a specific compost against soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani. R. solani is a pathogen of a wide range of plant hosts worldwide. The fungus survives in soils as a saprophyte and grows rapidly on simple water agar media. The plate assay is a rapid method to compare composts for their ability to slow the growth of R. solani. The assay also correlates well with suppression of other soilborne fungal pathogens that survive as saprophytes in soils such as Alternaria early blights, Fusarium wilt, Phytophthora root rot, and Pythium root rot...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jialin Yu, Caroline J Land, Gary E Vallad, Nathan S Boyd
BACKGROUND: The phaseout of methyl bromide (MeBr) continues to stimulate research into the use of other soil fumigants for controlling soilborne diseases and weeds. This research evaluated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) tolerance, weed emergence and the recovery of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) inoculum following fumigation with various combination ratios of dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin (DMDS + Pic). RESULTS: DMDS on its own did not effectively control purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L...
November 11, 2018: Pest Management Science
Helen L Hayden, Simone J Rochfort, Vilnis Ezernieks, Keith W Savin, Pauline M Mele
The suppression of soilborne crop pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani AG8 may offer a sustainable and enduring method for disease control, though soils with these properties are difficult to identify. In this study, we analysed the soil metabolic profiles of suppressive and non-suppressive soils over 2 years of cereal production. We collected bulk and rhizosphere soil at different cropping stages and subjected soil extracts to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H NMR) analyses...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Aymeric Leveau, James Reed, Xue Qiao, Michael J Stephenson, Sam T Mugford, Rachel E Melton, Jenni C Rant, Robert Vickerstaff, Tim Langdon, Anne Osbourn
Oats produce avenacins, antifungal triterpenes that are synthesized in the roots and provide protection against take-all and other soilborne diseases. Avenacins are acylated at the carbon-21 position of the triterpene scaffold, a modification critical for antifungal activity. We have previously characterized several steps in the avenacin pathway, including those required for acylation. However, transfer of the acyl group to the scaffold requires the C-21β position to be oxidized first, by an as yet uncharacterized enzyme...
October 8, 2018: New Phytologist
Paola Durán, Gonzalo Tortella, Sharon Viscardi, Patricio Javier Barra, Victor J Carrión, María de la Luz Mora, María José Pozo
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) is the main soilborne factor that affects wheat production around the world. Recently we reported the occurrence of six suppressive soils in monoculture areas from indigenous "Mapuche" communities, and evidenced that the suppression relied on the biotic component of those soils. Here, we compare the rhizosphere and endosphere microbial community structure (total bacteria, actinomycetes, total fungi, and ascomycetes) of wheat plants grown in suppressive and conducive soils...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adrien Blum, Mélanie Bressan, Abderrakib Zahid, Isabelle Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Azeddine Driouich, Karine Laval
Fiber flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), an important crop in Normandy (France), is increasingly affected by Verticillium wilt caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae. This disease leads to nonnegligible yield losses and depreciated fibers that are consequently difficult to upgrade. Verticillium wilt is a major threat to a broad range of agriculture. In this study, susceptible fiber flax cultivar Adélie was infected by VdLu01 (isolated from fiber flax, this study) or green fluorescent protein-tagged VdLs17 (transformed and provided by the department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis)...
December 2018: Plant Disease
Ningxiao Li, Seogchan Kang
Volatile compounds (VCs) produced by diverse microbes seem to affect plant growth, development and/or stress tolerance. We investigated how VCs released by soilborne fungi  Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae affect  Arabidopsis thalian a responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Under salt stress, VCs from both fungi helped its growth and increased chlorophyll content. However, in contrast to wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0), V. dahliae VCs failed to increase leaf surface area in auxin signalling mutants aux1-7, tir1-1 and axr1-3 ...
2018: Mycology
Liang Yang, Lintong Wu, Xiaoyuan Yao, Shiyuan Zhao, Jiao Wang, Shili Li, Wei Ding
Plant wilt disease caused by the soilborne bacterial pathogen Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum is one of the most devastating plant diseases; however, no effective protection against this disease has been developed. Coumarins are important natural plant-derived compounds with a wide range of bioactivities and extensive applications in medicine and agriculture. In the present study, three hydroxycoumarins (Hycs), umbelliferone (UM), esculetin (ES) and daphnetin (DA) significantly inhibited the growth of R. pseudosolanacearum on solid medium in a concentration-dependent manner, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of these compounds was 325  mg L-1 , 125 mg L-1 and 75 mg L-1 , respectively...
October 2018: Microbiological Research
Y Zhang, J Zhang, J Gao, G Zhang, Y Yu, H Zhou, W Chen, J Zhao
Sunflower Verticillium wilt is a widespread and destructive disease caused by the soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae. To better understand the process of infection and seed transmission of the fungus, sunflower roots were inoculated with a V. dahliae strain (VdBM9-6) labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and monitored microscopically. After 24 to 96 h postinoculation (hpi), conidia germinated and developed into mycelium on root hairs, elongation zones, and caps of lateral roots. Mycelium colonized vascular bundles of lateral roots and taproots at 7 days postinoculation (dpi)...
September 2018: Plant Disease
Kamel Elhalag, Mohamed Nasr-Eldin, Ahmed Hussien, Abdelmonim Ahmad
A new podovirus RsPod1EGY Ralstonia phage (GenBank accession no MG711516) with a specific action against R. solanacearum phylotype IIa, sequevar I (race 3, biovar 2) was isolated from Egyptian soil. The potential efficacy of the isolated phage to be used as biocontrol agent was evaluated in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The podovirus phage produced a plaque size of 3.0-4.0 mm in diameter and completed its infection cycle in 180 min after infection with a burst size of ∼27 virions per infected cell...
August 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Bangxian Zheng, Leiyan Yan, Wenxing Liang, Qianqian Yang
BACKGROUND: As a soilborne fungus, Fusarium oxysporum can cause vascular wilt in numerous economically important crops. Application of antifungal drugs is the primary method for the control of F. oxysporum. Cyp51, a key enzyme of sterol biosynthesis is the main target of sterol demethylation inhibitors. RESULTS: The F. oxysporum genome contains three paralogous CYP51 genes (named FoCYP51A, FoCYP51B and FoCYP51C) that putatively encode sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gregory A DeIulio, Li Guo, Yong Zhang, Jonathan M Goldberg, H Corby Kistler, Li-Jun Ma
The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a group of soilborne pathogens causing severe disease in more than 100 plant hosts, while individual strains exhibit strong host specificity. Both chromosome transfer and comparative genomics experiments have demonstrated that lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes contribute to the host-specific pathogenicity. However, little is known about the functional importance of genes encoded in these LS chromosomes. Focusing on signaling transduction, this study compared the kinomes of 12 F...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Bin Huang, Jun Li, Qian Wang, Meixia Guo, Dongdong Yan, Wensheng Fang, Zongjie Ren, Qiuxia Wang, Canbin Ouyang, Yuan Li, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) causes a disease that significantly reduces the yield of greenhouse cucumber crops year after year. Chemical control based on a single pesticide is now unreliable mainly due to pest resistance. Fumigant and non-fumigant pesticide combinations can potentially result in effective and economic RKN control. RESULTS: Combining the insecticide abamectin (ABM) with fumigants dazomet (DZ) or chloropicrin (CP) significantly extended the half-life of ABM by an average of about 1...
2018: PloS One
Sung Won Hong, Da-Ran Kim, Ji Su Kim, Gyeongjun Cho, Chang Wook Jeon, Youn-Sig Kwak
Strawberry Fusarium wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae , is the most devastating disease in strawberry production. The pathogen produces chlamydospores which tolerate against harsh environment, fungicide and survive for decades in soil. Development of detection and quantification techniques are regarded significantly in many soilborne pathogens to prevent damage from diseases. In this study, we improved specific-quantitative primers for F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae to reveal correlation between the pathogen density and the disease severity...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Carmen Berlanas, Marcos Andrés-Sodupe, Beatriz López-Manzanares, María Mercedes Maldonado-González, David Gramaje
BACKGROUND: Black-foot disease is one of the main soilborne fungal diseases affecting grapevine production worldwide. Two field experiments were established to evaluate the effect of white mustard cover crop residue amendment and chemical fumigation with propamocarb + fosetyl-Al combined with Trichoderma spp. root treatment on the viability of black-foot inoculum in soil and fungal infection in grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants. RESULTS: A total of 876 black-foot pathogen isolates were collected from grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants in both fields...
December 2018: Pest Management Science
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
August 25, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Simon Gross, Liesa Kunz, Denise C Müller, Amanda Santos Kron, Florian M Freimoser
Antagonistic yeasts suppress plant pathogenic fungi by various mechanisms, but their biocontrol efficacy also depends on the ability to compete and persist in the environment. The goal of the work presented here was to quantify the composition of synthetic yeast communities in order to determine the competitiveness of different species and identify promising candidates for plant protection. For this purpose, colony counting of distinct species and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; MALDI biotyping) were used to distinguish different yeast species and to quantify the composition of a synthetic community of six yeasts (Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Hanseniaspora sp...
October 2018: Yeast
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