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Soilborne disease

Kamel Elhalag, Mohamed Nasr-Eldin, Ahmed Hussien, Abdelmonim Ahmad
A new podovirus RsPod1EGY Ralstonia phage (GenBank accession no MG711516) with a specific action against R. solanacearum phylotype IIa, sequevar I (race 3, biovar 2) was isolated from Egyptian soil. The potential efficacy of the isolated phage to be used as biocontrol agent was evaluated in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The podovirus phage produced a plaque size of 3.0-4.0 mm in diameter and completed its infection cycle in 180 min after infection with a burst size of ∼27 virions per infected cell...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Bangxian Zheng, Leiyan Yan, Wenxing Liang, Qianqian Yang
BACKGROUND: As a soilborne fungus, Fusarium oxysporum can cause vascular wilt in numerous economically important crops. Application of antifungal drugs is the primary method for the control of F. oxysporum. Cyp51, a key enzyme of sterol biosynthesis is the main target of sterol demethylation inhibitors. RESULTS: The F. oxysporum genome contains three paralogous CYP51 genes (named FoCYP51A, -B and -C) that putatively encode sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes. Each of the three genes was able to partially complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG11 mutant...
June 21, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gregory A DeIulio, Li Guo, Yong Zhang, Jonathan M Goldberg, H Corby Kistler, Li-Jun Ma
The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a group of soilborne pathogens causing severe disease in more than 100 plant hosts, while individual strains exhibit strong host specificity. Both chromosome transfer and comparative genomics experiments have demonstrated that lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes contribute to the host-specific pathogenicity. However, little is known about the functional importance of genes encoded in these LS chromosomes. Focusing on signaling transduction, this study compared the kinomes of 12 F...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Bin Huang, Jun Li, Qian Wang, Meixia Guo, Dongdong Yan, Wensheng Fang, Zongjie Ren, Qiuxia Wang, Canbin Ouyang, Yuan Li, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) causes a disease that significantly reduces the yield of greenhouse cucumber crops year after year. Chemical control based on a single pesticide is now unreliable mainly due to pest resistance. Fumigant and non-fumigant pesticide combinations can potentially result in effective and economic RKN control. RESULTS: Combining the insecticide abamectin (ABM) with fumigants dazomet (DZ) or chloropicrin (CP) significantly extended the half-life of ABM by an average of about 1...
2018: PloS One
Sung Won Hong, Da-Ran Kim, Ji Su Kim, Gyeongjun Cho, Chang Wook Jeon, Youn-Sig Kwak
Strawberry Fusarium wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae , is the most devastating disease in strawberry production. The pathogen produces chlamydospores which tolerate against harsh environment, fungicide and survive for decades in soil. Development of detection and quantification techniques are regarded significantly in many soilborne pathogens to prevent damage from diseases. In this study, we improved specific-quantitative primers for F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae to reveal correlation between the pathogen density and the disease severity...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Carmen Berlanas, Marcos Andrés-Sodupe, Beatriz López-Manzanares, María Mercedes Maldonado-González, David Gramaje
BACKGROUND: Black-foot disease is one of the main soilborne fungal diseases affecting grapevine production worldwide. Two field experiments were established to evaluate the effect of white mustard cover crop residue amendment and chemical fumigation with propamocarb + fosetyl-Al combined with Trichoderma spp. root treatment on the viability of black-foot inoculum in soil and fungal infection in grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants. RESULTS: A total of 876 black-foot pathogen isolates were collected from grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants in both fields...
May 20, 2018: Pest Management Science
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L Woo
Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance of the plant-associated microbiome for crop productivity, which can be modified or modulated by introducing OAs and/or BMs, are providing novel opportunities to achieve the goal of long-term disease control...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Simon Gross, Liesa Kunz, Denise C Müller, Amanda Santos Kron, Florian M Freimoser
Antagonistic yeasts suppress plant pathogenic fungi by various mechanisms, but their biocontrol efficacy also depends on the ability to compete and persist in the environment. The goal of the work presented here was to quantify the composition of synthetic yeast communities in order to determine the competitiveness of different species and identify promising candidates for plant protection. For this purpose, colony counting of distinct species and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; MALDI biotyping) were used to distinguish different yeast species and to quantify the composition of a synthetic community of six yeasts (Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Hanseniaspora sp...
May 12, 2018: Yeast
Elida Yazmín Gómez-Rodríguez, Edith Elena Uresti-Rivera, Olga Araceli Patrón-Soberano, María Auxiliadora Islas-Osuna, Alberto Flores-Martínez, Lina Riego-Ruiz, María Teresa Rosales-Saavedra, Sergio Casas-Flores
Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1), a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani...
2018: PloS One
Francesca Dennert, Nicola Imperiali, Cornelia Staub, Jana Schneider, Titouan Laessle, Tao Zhang, Raphaël Wittwer, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Theo H M Smits, Klaus Schlaeppi, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Conservation tillage and organic farming are strategies used worldwide to preserve the stability and fertility of soils. While positive effects on soil structure have been extensively reported, the effects on specific root- and soil-associated microorganisms are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate how conservation tillage and organic farming influence the frequency and activity of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. Amplicon sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Pseudomonas is among the most abundant bacterial taxa in the root microbiome of field-grown wheat, independent of agronomical practices...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Michael D Holtz, Sheau-Fang Hwang, Stephen E Strelkov
BACKGROUND: Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soilborne pathogen of the family Brassicaceae and the causal agent of clubroot disease. In Canada, P. brassicae is now one of the most important constraints to canola (Brassica napus) production, and is managed mainly by the deployment of resistant cultivars. In recent years, however, new strains of the pathogen have emerged that are capable of overcoming host resistance, posing new challenges for disease management. Despite its economic significance, molecular studies of P...
April 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
Dmitri V Mavrodi, Olga V Mavrodi, Liam D H Elbourne, Sasha Tetu, Robert F Bonsall, James Parejko, Mingming Yang, Ian T Paulsen, David M Weller, Linda S Thomashow
The Inland Pacific Northwest (IPNW) encompasses 1. 6 million cropland hectares and is a major wheat-producing area in the western United States. The climate throughout the region is semi-arid, making the availability of water a significant challenge for IPNW agriculture. Much attention has been given to uncovering the effects of water stress on the physiology of wheat and the dynamics of its soilborne diseases. In contrast, the impact of soil moisture on the establishment and activity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of dryland wheat remains poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad Vurukonda, Davide Giovanardi, Emilio Stefani
There has been many recent studies on the use of microbial antagonists to control diseases incited by soilborne and airborne plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi, in an attempt to replace existing methods of chemical control and avoid extensive use of fungicides, which often lead to resistance in plant pathogens. In agriculture, plant growth-promoting and biocontrol microorganisms have emerged as safe alternatives to chemical pesticides. Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites may have great potential as excellent agents for controlling various fungal and bacterial phytopathogens...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yonglin Wang, Xiaoping Hu, Yulin Fang, Amy Anchieta, Polly H Goldman, Gustavo Hernandez, Steven J Klosterman
Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes vascular wilt diseases on numerous plant species worldwide. The production of darkly melanized microsclerotia is crucial in the disease cycle of V. dahliae, as these structures allow for long-term survival in soil. Previously, transcriptomic and genomic analysis identified a cluster of genes in V. dahliae that encodes some dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthetic pathway homologues found in related fungi. In this study, we explored the roles of cluster-specific transcription factor VdCmr1, as well as two other genes within the cluster encoding a polyketide synthase (VdPKS1) and a laccase (VdLac1), enzymes at initial and endpoint steps in DHN melanin production...
April 2018: Microbiology
Javad Karimi, Surendra K Dara, Steven Arthurs
Biological control programs with arthropods have been in practice in Iran since the 1930s. However, development and registration of microbial biopesticides is much more recent. Currently, about 15 biopesticide products are registered or pending registration for commercial use on various crops. Products based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki are most widely sold for lepidopteran pest control, followed by B. thuringiensis subsp. isralensis against dipteran pests in vector control programs. Additionally, mycoinsecticides based on Lecanicillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana, against various arthropod pests, and a mycofungicide based on Trichoderma harzianum for controlling soilborne diseases are also registered...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Amit K Jaiswal, Yigal Elad, Eddie Cytryn, Ellen R Graber, Omer Frenkel
Biochar can enhance plant growth and reduce diseases, but frequently the optimal doses for these two benefits do not coincide. An approach is needed that will extend the range of biochar doses resulting in a concurrence of maximum benefits for both plant productivity and disease suppression. A biochar-amended growth medium was pre-conditioned by pre-planting fertigation in order to enhance the indigenous microbial community structure and activity. Cucumber plant performance and resistance against damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum were monitored...
July 2018: New Phytologist
Jernej Jakše, Vid Jelen, Sebastjan Radišek, Ronnie de Jonge, Stanislav Mandelc, Aljaž Majer, Tomaž Curk, Blaž Zupan, Bart P H J Thomma, Branka Javornik
Verticillium nonalfalfae , a soilborne vascular phytopathogenic fungus, causes wilt disease in several crop species. Of great concern are outbreaks of highly aggressive V. nonalfalfae strains, which cause a devastating wilt disease in European hops. We report here the genome sequence and annotation of V. nonalfalfae strain T2, providing genomic information that will allow better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of highly aggressive strains.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
Anastasis Antoniou, Maria-Dimitra Tsolakidou, Ioannis A Stringlis, Iakovos S Pantelides
Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost's microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
E J Coopersmith, J E Bell, K Benedict, J Shriber, O McCotter, M H Cosh
Coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley fever) is caused by a soilborne fungus, Coccidioides spp. , in arid regions of the southwestern United States. Though some who develop infections from this fungus remain asymptomatic, others develop respiratory disease as a consequence. Less commonly, severe illness and death can occur when the infection spreads to other regions of the body. Previous analyses have attempted to connect the incidence of coccidioidomycosis to broadly available climatic measurements, such as precipitation or temperature...
April 17, 2017: GeoHealth
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