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Mounia Rahmani, Maria Benabdeljlil, Fouad Bellakhdar, Mustapha El Alaoui Faris, Mohamed Jiddane, Khalil El Bayad, Fatima Boutbib, Rachid Razine, Rachid Gana, Moulay R El Hassani, Nizar El Fatemi, Meryem Fikri, Siham Sanhaji, Hennou Tassine, Imane El Alaoui Balrhiti, Souad El Hadri, Najwa Ech-Cherif Kettani, Najia El Abbadi, Mourad Amor, Abdelmjid Moussaoui, Afifa Semlali, Saadia Aidi, El Hachmia Ait Benhaddou, Ali Benomar, Ahmed Bouhouche, Mohamed Yahyaoui, Abdeslam El Khamlichi, Abdessamad El Ouahabi, Rachid El Maaqili, Houyam Tibar, Yasser Arkha, Adyl Melhaoui, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Wafa Regragui
Introduction: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is known as a therapy of choice of advanced Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to assess the beneficial and side effects of STN DBS in Moroccan Parkinsonian patients. Material and Methods: Thirty five patients underwent bilateral STN DBS from 2008 to 2016 in the Rabat University Hospital. Patients were assessed preoperatively and followed up for 6 to 12 months using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale in four conditions (stimulation OFF and ON and medication OFF and ON), the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD), dyskinesia and fluctuation scores and PDQ39 scale for quality of life (QOL)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Andrew W Francis, Ivy Zhu, Sidhiporn Borirakchanyavat, Daniel M Schwartz, David G Hwang
PURPOSE: To report a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in a 48-year-old woman after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery. METHODS: Case history and clinical examination including best-corrected visual acuity, serum markers, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: A 48-year-old woman underwent routine laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery in both eyes...
August 10, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Jiang Wu, Bingren Hu
INTRODUCTION: Neuroprotective therapeutics achieved from animal studies have not been able to translate into clinical stroke therapies. A major reason may be that the functional tests and outcomes between animal stroke studies and clinical trials are significantly different. Ultimately, functional recovery is most important for stroke patients, but it remains challenging to identify animal functional tests that reflect human stroke deficits. This study aimed to explore whether the nest-building activity can be used as a functional test of mouse stroke deficit...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Zhenhong Wang, Wei Zhou, Haiping Dong, Xiaoxiao Ma, Zhenzhou He
Focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced cerebral inflammation, aggravates brain damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on I/R brain injury in rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided to seven experimental groups (18 rats/group): Sham surgery; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery (90 min); DEX10 [10 µg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 30 min prior to MCAO]; DEX50 (50 µg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to MCAO); DEX100 (100 µg/kg i...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jing-Bo Sun, Yan Li, Ye-Feng Cai, Yan Huang, Shu Liu, Patrick Kk Yeung, Min-Zhen Deng, Guang-Shun Sun, Prince Lm Zilundu, Qian-Sheng Hu, Rui-Xin An, Li-Hua Zhou, Li-Xin Wang, Xiao Cheng
Scutellarin, a bioactive flavone isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, has anti-inflammatory, anti-neurotoxic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects and has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. However, the mechanisms by which scutellarin mediates neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia remain unclear. The interaction between scutellarin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) was assessed by molecular docking study, which showed that scutellarin selectively binds to NOX2 with high affinity...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Alessio Martucci, Massimo Cesareo, Carlo Nucci, Raffaele Mancino
Purpose: To report the case of a 57 years old woman who showed a macular ganglion cell complex (GCC), that is a combination of ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer, and peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (pRNFL) thickness reduction in association with left homonymous hemianopia subsequent to surgical excision of an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebral right occipital lobe 37 years before. Observations: One patient with left homonymous hemianopia due to surgical excision of an arteriovenous malformation in the right cerebral occipital lobe came to our attention for transient blurred vision...
December 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Yuanxuan Xia, Leila A Mashouf, Russell Maxwell, Luke C Peng, Evan J Lipson, William H Sharfman, Chetan Bettegowda, Kristin J Redmond, Lawrence R Kleinberg, Michael Lim
Background: Patients with melanoma can present with a hemorrhagic intracranial lesion. Upon resection, pathology reports may not detect any malignant cells. However, the hemorrhage may obscure their presence and so physicians may still decide whether adjuvant radiotherapy should be applied. Here, we report on the outcomes of a series of patients with melanoma with hemorrhagic brain lesions that returned with no tumor cells. Methods: All melanoma patients who had craniotomies from 2008 to 2017 at a single institution for hemorrhagic brain lesions were identified through retrospective chart review...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Musa AlHarbi, Nahla Ali Mobark, Latifa AlMubarak, Rasha Aljelaify, Mariam AlSaeed, Amal Almutairi, Fatmah Alqubaishi, M Emarat Hussain, Ali Abdullah O Balbaid, Amal Said Marie, Lamia AlSubaie, Saeed AlShieban, Nada alTassan, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Malak Abedalthagafi
Primary brain tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade astrocytoma that occurs in both children and adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite extensive study in recent years, the clinical management of these tumors has remained largely unchanged, consisting of surgical resection, conventional chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although the etiology and genomic drivers in GBM are diverse, constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disease with a predisposition to gliomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Oncologist
Meriç Kaymak-Cihan, Eda Erdiş, Süheyla Bozkurt, Elif Ünver-Korğalı
Kaymak-Cihan M, Erdiş E, Bozkurt S, Ünver-Korğalı E. Pediatric primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant neuronal component. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 102-106. Gangliogliomas (GGs) represent approximately 0.4%-1.0% of all brain tumors. Anaplastic gangliogliomas (AGGs) form 5-10% of all GGs. They are a mixed neuronal-glial tumor of central nervous system and composed by two cell lines; neuronal (ganglionic) and glial cells. Anaplastic component of AGGs is usually glial cells. Malignant neuronal component is a rare condition...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Nobumasa Ohara, Mayuko Hirokawa, Michi Kobayashi, Yohei Ikeda, Yuichiro Yoneoka, Yasuhiro Seki, Katsuhiko Akiyama, Takashi Tani, Kenshi Terajima, Tetsutaro Ozawa
A 69-year-old Japanese man with a history of suprasellar surgery and irradiation developed bradykinesia and mild fatigue without muscle weakness, myalgia, pyramidal or extrapyramidal signs, parkinsonian symptoms, or ataxia. An endocrinological work-up revealed anterior hypopituitarism associated with secondary adrenal insufficiency. Higher brain function tests indicated an impaired frontal lobe function. The patient's bradykinesia, fatigue, and frontal lobe dysfunction improved within 2 weeks after the initiation of corticosteroid replacement therapy...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Sorin Aldea, Stephan Gaillard
The eyebrow approach is a versatile technique that may apply to various vascular and tumoral pathologies of the anterior skull base. We present a case of multiple aneurysms clipping through the eyebrow approach and we discuss the nuances of this technique. A 44-yr-old patient presented with incidentally found aneurysms. Angiography showed 2 4.5-mm aneurysms on the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcations. At surgery, the patient is positioned supine with the head elevated, slightly rotated, and extended in order to obtain good access and gravity retraction of the brain...
August 8, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Matthew E Eagles, Farshad Nassiri, Jetan H Badhiwala, Suganth Suppiah, Saleh A Almenawer, Gelareh Zadeh, Kenneth D Aldape
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal primary adult brain tumor. To date, various promising chemotherapeutic regimens have been trialed for use in GBM; however, temozolomide (TMZ) therapy remains the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved first-line chemotherapeutic option for newly diagnosed GBM. Despite maximal therapy with surgery and combined concurrent chemoradiation and adjuvant TMZ therapy, the median overall survival remains approximately 14 months. Given the failure of conventional chemotherapeutic strategies in GBM, there has been renewed interest in the role of immunotherapy in GBM...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Pasquale Varriale, Antoine Collomb-Clerc, Angele Van Hamme, Anaik Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Nathalie George, Brian Lau, Carine Karachi, Marie-Laure Welter
OBJECTIVE: Freezing of gait (FOG) represents a major burden for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. High-frequency (130-Hz) subthalamic deep-brain-stimulation (STN-DBS) has been reported to aggravate FOG whereas lowering the frequency to 60-80 Hz improves FOG. To further understand the effects of STN-DBS on FOG, we assessed the effects of 80-Hz and 130-Hz STN-DBS on gait initiation performance, in relation to motor and executive function processing. METHODS: Gait initiation was recorded in 19 PD patients and 20 controls, combined or not with a cognitive interference task with a modified Stroop paradigm...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Choy Lewis, Suraj D Parulkar, John Bebawy, Saadia Sherwani, Charles W Hogue
Neurological complications of cardiac surgery have a large effect on patient outcomes. In this review, the value of several modes of central nervous system monitoring for improving perioperative care is critiqued. The electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used as a means for detecting brain ischemia. Even though EEG changes are specific for ischemia, the reliability is tempered by many confounding factors. The effectiveness of the processed EEG for ensuring amnesia during surgery is controversial, but it may have value for optimizing anesthetic dose and thus reducing the risk for delirium...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
David L Penn, Kyle C Wu, Kayla R Presswood, Coleman P Riordan, R Michael Scott, Edward R Smith
Children with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are at cumulative, life-long risk of debilitating and fatal intracranial hemorrhage, especially with syndromes such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Cerebral angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and allows simultaneous adjunctive embolization limiting radiation and contrast exposure and intraoperative blood loss, important in pediatric patients with low blood volume. Microsurgical resection of low-grade AVMs offers cure with minimal morbidity...
August 7, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Marcelo Magaldi Oliveira, Leonardo Welhinger, Jose Augusto Malheiros, Arthur Nicolato, Andre Prosdocimi, Luiza Guerra, Pollyana Hv Costa, Carlos Eduardo Ferrarez, Mauro Tostes Ferreira, Eric Sauvageau, Ricardo Hanel
BACKGROUND: Intracranial-intracranial (IC) bypass surgery involves the use of significant technical bimanual skills. Indications for this procedure are limited, so training in a simulator with brain vessels similarity could maintain micro-surgical dexterity. Our goal is to describe the human placenta vascular anatomy to guide IC-IC bypasses apprenticeship. METHODS: Human placenta vascular anatomy was reported and validated with comparison to brain main vessels after studying the vascular tree of 100 placentas...
August 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Eleni Rebelos, Heidi Immonen, Marco Bucci, Jarna C Hannukainen, Lauri Nummenmaa, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Ele Ferrannini, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
AIMS: We have previously shown that insulin enhances brain glucose uptake (BGU) in obese but not in lean subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate further this finding by combining BGU with measures of endogenous glucose production (EGP). Associations between insulin-stimulated BGU and peripheral markers such as metabolites and inflammatory markers were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty morbidly obese and twelve lean controls were recruited from the larger randomized controlled SLEEVEPASS study...
August 10, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Zhewei Zhao, Chengran Lu, Tianjia Li, Wenda Wang, Wei Ye, Rong Zeng, Leng Ni, Zhichao Lai, Xuebin Wang, Changwei Liu
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the treatment of choice for carotid stenosis. Some patients develop ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury after CEA. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin on I/R injury in both rats and humans. To this end, 36 male rats were evaluated, and a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) including 60 patients was performed. A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to mimic cerebral I/R. After 2 hr of occlusion and 24 hr of reperfusion, blood samples and brain tissues were harvested for further assessments...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Brent Munsell, Sonal Bhatia, William A Vandergrift, Chris Rorden, Carrie McDonald, Jonathan Edwards, Ruben Kuzniecky, Leonardo Bonilha
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether deep learning applied to whole-brain presurgical structural connectomes could be used to predict postoperative seizure outcome more accurately than inference from clinical variables in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Fifty patients with unilateral TLE were classified either as having persistent disabling seizures (SZ) or becoming seizure-free (SZF) at least 1 year after epilepsy surgery. Their presurgical structural connectomes were reconstructed from whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging...
August 10, 2018: Epilepsia
Wei Wang, Caihou Lin, Jingfang Hong, Shousen Wang, Jianjun Gu
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral venous infarction (CVI) is a rare vascular disease, most commonly caused by cerebral venous thrombosis, which leads to brain tissue ischemia and anoxia, followed by necrosis, hemorrhage, and infarct formation. CVI has diverse clinical manifestations; thus, diagnosis is very difficult, and the prognosis is poor. The goal of this study is to provide a theoretical basis for treating patients suffering from CVI combined with high intracranial pressure. To this end, a rabbit model of CVI was established by placing a recoverable epidural sacculus...
August 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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