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Attilio Marino, Enrico Almici, Simone Migliorin, Christos Tapeinos, Matteo Battaglini, Valentina Cappello, Marco Marchetti, Giuseppe de Vito, Riccardo Cicchi, Francesco Saverio Pavone, Gianni Ciofani
Major obstacles to the successful treatment of gliolastoma multiforme are mostly related to the acquired resistance to chemotherapy drugs and, after surgery, to the cancer recurrence in correspondence of residual microscopic foci. As innovative anticancer approach, low-intensity electric stimulation represents a physical treatment able to reduce multidrug resistance of cancer and to induce remarkable anti-proliferative effects by interfering with Ca2+ and K+ homeostasis and by affecting the organization of the mitotic spindles...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mingyue Liu, Qingdong Zeng, Yongnan Li, Gang Liu, Bingyang Ji
Brain injury associated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been recognized in patients with congenital heart diseases and those undergoing aortic arch surgeries. However, the preclinical investigation of long-term cerebral injury and recovery mechanisms related to DHCA has been restricted to a satisfactory recovery animal model with a determined recovery time. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term surviving DHCA model without blood priming in rats, in order to investigate the pathophysiology of long-term complications in further studies...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Nitesh V Patel, Julia Schneider, Amrit Chiluwal, John A Boockvar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Stephanie V Koebele, Justin M Palmer, Bryanna Hadder, Ryan Melikian, Carly Fox, Isabel M Strouse, Dale DeNardo, Christina George, Emily Daunis, Adrianna Nimer, Loretta P Mayer, Cheryl A Dyer, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Approximately one-third of women experience hysterectomy, or the surgical removal of the uterus, by age 60, with most surgeries occurring prior to the onset of natural menopause. The ovaries are retained in about half of these surgeries while, for the other half, hysterectomy occurs concurrently with oophorectomy. The dogma is that the non-pregnant uterus is dormant. There have been no preclinical assessments of surgical variations in menopause including hysterectomy, with and without ovarian conservation, on endocrine and cognitive changes...
December 6, 2018: Endocrinology
Edwin Chang, Chirag B Patel, Christoph Pohling, Caroline Young, Jonathan Song, Thomas Anthony Flores, Yitian Zeng, Lydia-Marie Joubert, Hamed Arami, Arutselvan Natarajan, Robert Sinclair, Sanjiv S Gambhir
Glioblastoma is the most common yet most lethal of primary brain cancers with a one-year post-diagnosis survival rate of 65% and a five-year survival rate of barely 5%. Recently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a novel fourth approach (in addition to surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) to treating glioblastoma; namely, tumor treating fields (TTFields). TTFields involves the delivery of alternating electric fields to the tumor but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Current theories involve TTFields disrupting mitosis due to interference with proper mitotic spindle assembly...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Mi-Im Kim, Jaesook Oh, Won Hyun Cho, Dong-Sik Kim, Cheol Woong Jung, Young-Dong You, Jun-Gyo Gwon, Jae-Myeong Lee
Background: This retrospective study analyzed the causes of failure in the management process from the identification of brain-dead potential organ donors to actual donation in Korea over the past 5 years. Methods: Data of 8,120 potential brain deaths reported to the Korea Organ Donation Agency were used, including information received at the time of reporting, donation suitability evaluation performed by the coordinator after the report, and data obtained from interviews of hospital medical staff and the donor's family...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Yash Jobanputra, Purva Sharma, Sean J Martinez
We present a case of a 55-year-old lady with intermittent twitching of the left side of her face, involving her left eyelid and the angle of the mouth, ongoing for two years. She failed multiple trials of botulinum toxin injections as well as oral anti-spasmodic medications. The patient was diagnosed with an ectatic left vertebral artery, causing a compression of cranial nerve VII on the same side on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. She underwent neurosurgery with a microvascular decompression of the ectatic artery with a resolution of hemifacial spasms...
October 1, 2018: Curēus
Yoshihiro Otani, Kazuhiko Kurozumi, Joji Ishida, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Masahiro Kameda, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Isao Date
Background: Surgeries for deep-seated lesions are challenging because making a corridor and observing the interface between lesions and normal brain tissue are difficult. The ViewSite Brain Access System, which is a clear plastic tubular retractor system, is used for resection of deep-seated lesions. However, the tapered shape of this system may result in limitation of the surgical field and cause brain injury to observe the interface between lesions and normal tissue. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of the combination of ViewSite and brain spatulas...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Carlos Guevara, Jose de Grazia, Pedro Vazquez, Pablo Baabor, Cristián Garrido, Melissa Martinez, Jaime Fuentes, Fabian Piedimonte, Marcos Baabor
We report a successful bilateral globus pallidus internus-deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) for a Parkinson disease (PD) patient with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and an unusually long anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC-PC) line. A 54-year-old man presented with a history of 3 months of severe shuffling gait, rigidity, slow movements of the left side limbs, and difficulty managing finances. A brain MRI revealed marked ventriculomegaly (Evans index = 0.42). The patient was diagnosed with INPH and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Natalia Komorniak, Ewa Stachowska
Obesity is a civilization disease, which occurrence in the world population is gradually increasing. The basic causes of obesity include a sedentary lifestyle and energy-rich diet contributing to a positive energy balance. Methods of curing obesity contain the lifestyle modification, the pharmacological treatment and the surgical treatment. The bariatric surgery is a therapy that can be used among patients with BMI ≥40 or BMI ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities, e.g. hypertension, for whom previous treatment has been ineffective...
November 28, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Torsten Rahne, Thomas Hocke, Christian Strauß, Sabrina Kösling, Laura Fröhlich, Stefan K Plontke
OBJECTIVE: To predict and optimize hearing outcomes with a cochlear implant (CI) in patients with intracochlear schwannoma and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). PATIENT: A patient with NF2 and bilateral deafness. INTERVENTIONS: The intracochlear portion of a vestibular schwannoma was removed with a partial cochleoectomy. During the procedure, a CI was implanted. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perioperatively, electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (eABRs) were recorded with a novel intracochlear, CI-evoked, broad band stimulus to support the decision to implant a CI...
January 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Qiong Yu, Li Li, Wei-Min Liang
Astrocytes, the major component of blood-brain barriers, have presented paradoxical profiles after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study showed that sevoflurane preconditioning improved the integrity of blood-brain barriers after ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. This led us to investigate the effects of sevoflurane preconditioning on the astrocytic dynamics in ischemia and reperfusion rats, in order to explore astrocytic cell-based mechanisms of sevoflurane preconditioning...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Raven Cooksey, Susan Y Wu, Laura Klesse, Jon D Oden, Ross E Bland, Joseph C Hodges, Lynn Gargan, Gloria Lena Vega, Daniel C Bowers
Survivors of childhood brain tumors may be at risk for early onset of metabolic syndrome, possibly secondary to surgery and/or radiation exposure. This study examines effects of radiation exposure to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) on metabolic risk among survivors of childhood brain tumors. One hundred forty-two met inclusion criteria; 60 had tumor surgery plus radiation exposure (<u>></u>1 Gray (Gy)) to HPA. The second subgroup of 82 subjects had surgery only and were not exposed to radiation...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Serra Sandor, Şakir Delil, Selin Yağcı, Bektaş Korkmaz, S Naz Yeni
The somatic marker hypothesis is an influential model of human decision-making postulating that somatic feedback to the brain enhances decision-making in ambiguous circumstances, i.e. when the probabilities of various outcomes are unknown. The somatic feedback can be measured as autonomic responses, which are regulated by the amygdala. The failure to evoke this somatic feedback, which occurs in patients with amygdala lesions, impairs decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the decision-making behaviour of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with pre- and post-epilepsy surgery to ascertain whether the decision-making abilities of groups can be explained by means of the generation of somatic feedback responses...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Roberto H Caraballo, Gabriela Reyes Valenzuela, Juan Pociecha, Juan P Princich, Robinson Gutierrez, Lucas Beltran, Fabiana Lubieniecki, Marcelo Bartuluchi
The aim of this study was to analyse the electroclinical and imaging findings and outcome of patients with Rasmussen syndrome (RS) with atypical manifestations. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of 10 of 44 consecutive patients with RS with atypical features, followed between 1999 and 2017. Six patients were boys and four were girls. The mean and median ages at onset of the seizures were 8.8 and 6.5 years, respectively (range: 4.6-13 years). All of the patients except one had seizures. Eight patients (80%) had epilepsia partialis continua that started at a mean age of 7...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Tobechi Mbadugha, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Alhusain Nagm, Takatoshi Hasegawa, Keisuke Kamiya, Samuel Ohaegbulam, Kazuhiro Hongo
Superficial siderosis (SS) associated with craniopharyngioma is an extremely rare occurrence. To our knowledge, only three cases have been reported in literature. Two of the cases occurred following resection of the tumor. Similar to the present case, one of the cases was discovered prior to surgical intervention, 'pure tumor-related' SS. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome are discussed in this article. A 50-year-old man presented with an 11-month history of left-sided tinnitus, hearing impairment and a 2-month history of visual disturbance...
December 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhaval P Shukla, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Manjul Tripathi, Amara Warren, Nagesh C Shanbhag, Subhas K Konar, Anne L Stake, Ruchika Singhal
BACKGROUND: With increasing population, motorization and road traffic accidents, neurotrauma is on rise in India. Inadequate triage and under-utilization of locally available resources at all healthcare levels has led to a non-uniform neurotrauma care delivery. We present our experience in a tertiary care hospital (NIMHANS) in Bengaluru, India, and evaluate the referral pattern of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases to enable adequate care to moderate and severely injured TBI patients...
December 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Shaotao Weng, Wanqi Wang, Quantang Wei, Huanzhen Lan, Jing Su, Yimin Xu
OBJECTIVE: Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces hemorrhage volume and consequently the need for operative intervention. However, its effectiveness and safety in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is unclear. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TXA in TBI patients. METHODS: In July 2018, a systematic search for studies including TBI patients treated with TXA was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases...
December 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sineadh M Conway, Daniel Puttick, Shayla Russell, David Potter, Mitchell F Roitman, Elena H Chartoff
The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN) activates kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the brain to produce depressive-like states and decrease motivation. KOR-mediated suppression of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is considered one underlying mechanism. We previously showed that, regardless of estrous cycle stage, female rats are less sensitive than males to KOR agonist-mediated decreases in motivation to respond for brain stimulation reward, measured with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). However, the explicit roles of KORs, circulating gonadal hormones, and their interaction with dopamine signaling in motivated behavior are not known...
December 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Kristy A Warner, Alexandra E Oklejas, Alexander T Pearson, Zhaocheng Zhang, Weishing Wu, Vasu Divi, Christie Rodriguez-Ramirez, Rogerio M Castilho, Peter J Polverini, Jacques E Nör
OBJECTIVES: Limited availability of validated human adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) cell lines has hindered the mechanistic understanding of the pathobiology of this malignancy and the development of effective therapies. The purpose of this work was to generate and characterize a human ACC cell line. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immediately after surgery, a tumor fragment from a minor salivary gland from the tongue of a female Caucasian was minced, dissociated, and a single cell suspension was plated in fibronectin-coated flasks...
December 2018: Oral Oncology
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