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Mechanism research

Jacob H Rand, Douglas J Taatjes
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune thrombophilic disorder that was described as a diagnostic entity over 30 years ago. And yet the pathogenic mechanisms that are responsible for its clinical manifestations remain to be definitively established. The syndrome is defined by (1) the concurrence of vascular thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications together with (2) positivity for immunoassays and coagulation tests that were derived from clinical observations of two anomalous laboratory test results-specifically, false positivity for syphilis infection in uninfected individuals and the finding of inhibitors of blood coagulation in patients who lacked any bleeding tendencies...
August 18, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Qian Peter Su, Lining Arnold Ju
The focus of the cell biology field is now shifting from characterizing cellular activities to organelle and molecular behaviors. This process accompanies the development of new biophysical visualization techniques that offer high spatial and temporal resolutions with ultra-sensitivity and low cell toxicity. They allow the biology research community to observe dynamic behaviors from scales of single molecules, organelles, cells to organoids, and even live animal tissues. In this review, we summarize these biophysical techniques into two major classes: the mechanical nanotools like dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) and the optical nanotools like single-molecule and super-resolution microscopy...
August 18, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Meytal Radzinski, Dana Reichmann
Cellular heterogeneity is a widespread phenomenon, existing across organisms and serving a crucial role in evolution and cell survival. Genetically identical cells may as a result present in a variety of forms with different gene and protein expressions, as well as oxidation level. As a result, a wide range of methodologies and techniques for dissecting different types of genetic, proteomic, and phenotypic heterogeneous traits have emerged in recent years in an effort to better understand how diversity exists within a single population and its effects therein...
August 18, 2018: Current Genetics
Xiaobin Li, Dengying Wu, Zhichao Hu, Jiangwei Xuan, Xiaoxia Ding, Gang Zheng, Zhenhua Feng, Wenfei Ni, Aimin Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degeneration and a chondrocyte inflammatory response that induces an inflammatory environment closely linked to extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ligustilide (LIG) is a major component of the herb Radix Angelicae Sinensis, with demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects. To confirm whether LIG has an equally inhibitory effect on inflammation in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to validate the above conjectures and determine the relevant mechanisms...
August 17, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Laura Kranaster, Carolin Hoyer, Suna S Aksay, J Malte Bumb, Norbert Müller, Peter Zill, Markus J Schwarz, Natalie Moll, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila, Inga Zerr, Matthias Schmitz, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Dieter Haffner, Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Cagakan Ozbalci, Christoph Janke, Manfred Thiel, Alexander Sartorius
BACKGROUND: No candidate biomarkers based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been identified as prognostic factors in patients with major depression treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), yet. METHOD: Following different underlying hypotheses, we analysed baseline CSF levels of markers of neurodegeneration (tau proteins, β-amyloids and neurogranin), elements of the innate immune system (interleukin [IL]-6, neopterin, soluble CD14, soluble CD163, migration inhibitory factor and monocyte chemotactic protein 1), endocannabinoids, sphingolipids and Klotho before ECT in patients with depression (n = 12) to identify possible correlations with the clinical antidepressant response to ECT...
August 17, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Paula Müller, Heiko Lemcke, Robert David
A large number of clinical trials have shown stem cell therapy to be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Since the first transplantation into human patients, several stem cell types have been applied in this field, including bone marrow derived stem cells, cardiac progenitors as well as embryonic stem cells and their derivatives. However, results obtained from clinical studies are inconsistent and stem cell-based improvement of heart performance and cardiac remodeling was found to be quite limited...
August 17, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Badrul Islam, Zhahirul Islam, Shafiqur Rahman, Hubert P Endtz, Margreet C Vos, Mathieu van der Jagt, Peter A van Doorn, Bart C Jacobs, Quazi Deen Mohammad
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and feasibility of small volume plasma exchange (SVPE) for patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). DESIGN: Non-randomised, single-arm, interventional trial. SETTING: National Institute of Neurosciences and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty adult (>18 years) patients with GBS presented within 2 weeks of onset of weakness who were unable to walk unaided for more than 10 m...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Dibyendu Biswas, Kyoung Ha So, Seon Ung Hwang, Junchul David Yoon, Mirae Kim, Dae Young Kim, Sang Hwan Hyun
Current research suggests that supplementing in vitro culture (IVC) media with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may have beneficial effects on the development of porcine embryos in vitro. However, the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF on molecular signaling events during in vitro embryonic development of porcine embryos. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were fertilized, and the resultant zygotes were cultured with 5 ng/mL of VEGF supplemented with or without fetal bovine serum from day 4 till day 7...
August 16, 2018: Theriogenology
Jeffrey L Kibler, Mindy Ma, Mischa Tursich, Lydia Malcolm, Maria M Llabre, Rachel Greenbarg, Steven N Gold, Jean C Beckham
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Relatively little research, particularly among women, has documented mechanisms by which PTSD might confer CVD risk during early adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the number and relative levels of CVD risk factors are associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity among young, trauma-exposed women. METHODS: Participants were premenopausal women ages 19-49 with varying levels of posttraumatic stress and no history of chronic medical illness (n = 54), and were recruited from mental health clinics and the general community...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ali-Akbar Karkhaneh Yousefi, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Pascal Perrier, Masoud Shariat Panahi, Yohan Payan
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue are crucial in biomechanical modeling of the human body. Muscle tissue is a combination of Muscle Fibers (MFs) and connective tissue including collagen and elastin fibers. There are a lot of passive muscle models in the literature but most of them do not consider any distinction between Collagen Fibers (CFs) and MFs, or at least do not consider the mechanical effects of the CFs on the Three-Dimensional (3-D) behavior of tissue. As a consequence, unfortunately, they cannot describe the observed stress-stretch behavior in tissue in which the reinforced direction is not parallel to the MF direction...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Silvia Spriano, Seiji Yamaguchi, Francesco Baino, Sara Ferraris
Evolution of metal implants progressively shifted the focus from adequate mechanical strength to improved biocompatibility and absence of toxicity and, finally, to fast osseointegration. Recently, new frontiers and challenges of Ti implants have been addressed to improvement of bioactivity, fighting of bacterial infection and biofilm formation, as well as modulation of inflammation. This is closely related to the clinical demand of multifunctional implants able to simultaneously have a number of specific responses with respect to body fluids, cells (osteoblasts, fibroblasts, macrophages) and pathogenic agents (bacteria, viruses)...
August 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Sajad Fakhri, Fatemeh Abbaszadeh, Leila Dargahi, Masoumeh Jorjani
Astaxanthin (AST) is a potent lipid-soluble keto-carotenoid with auspicious effects on human health. It protects organisms against a wide range of diseases with excellent safety and tolerability. Various imperative biological activities in vitro and in vivo models have been suggested for AST. This review article is focused on the therapeutic potentials, biological activities and benefical health effects of AST. The pharmacological mechanisms of action of AST in the treatment and prevention of the peripheral and central nervous system diseases was also reviewed to provide new insights to researchers...
August 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Tyler A Garretson, Hui Shang, Annie K Schulz, Brian V Donohue, Xiao-Wen Cheng
The baculovirus-based bacmid expression vector system has been widely used for protein production in basic research and biotechnological laboratories. Since the first construction of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid (AcBacmid), three more bacmids have been created from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmBacmid), Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeBacmid) and Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaBacmid). Each of these bacmid-derived viruses replicates efficiently in a range of specific and permissive cell types...
August 16, 2018: Virus Research
Jianshu Dong, Fahui Li, Feng Gao, Jia Wei, Yajing Lin, Yong Zhang, Jizhong Lou, Guangfeng Liu, Yuhui Dong, Lin Liu, Hongmin Liu, Jiangyun Wang, Weimin Gong
The accurate modification of the tRNAIle anticodon wobble cytosine 34 is critical for AUA decoding in protein synthesis. Archaeal tRNAIle2 cytosine 34 is modified with agmatine in the presence of ATP by TiaS (tRNAIle2 agmatidine synthetase). Yet, no structure of apo-form full length TiaS is available currently. Here, the crystal structures of apo TiaS and a complex of TiaS-agmatine-AMPPCP-Mg are presented, with properly folded zinc ribbon and Cys4-zinc coordination identified. Compared with tRNAIle2 bound form, the architecture of apo TiaS shows a totally different conformation of zinc ribbon...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Rhys D Brady, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Denes V Agoston, Edward H Bertram, Alaa Kamnaksh, Bridgette D Semple, Sandy R Shultz
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the most debilitating and understudied consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is challenging to study the effects, underlying pathophysiology, biomarkers, and treatment of TBI and PTE purely in human patients for a number of reasons. Rodent models can complement human PTE studies as they allow for the rigorous investigation into the causal relationship between TBI and PTE, the pathophysiological mechanisms of PTE, the validation and implementation of PTE biomarkers, and the assessment of PTE treatments, in a tightly controlled, time- and cost-efficient manner in experimental subjects known to be experiencing epileptogenic processes...
August 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Bingfeng Luo, Jing Li, Tao Yang, Wenbin Li, Juanhong Zhang, Chang Wang, Anpeng Zhao, Rong Wang
With studies indicative of altered renal excretion under high altitude (HA)-induced hypobaric hypoxia (HH), consideration of better therapeutic approaches has continuously been aimed in research for HA related illness management. Pharmacokinetics of drugs like furosemide might be altered under hypoxic condition, which makes essential to establish different dose-regimen to maintain therapeutic efficacy or avoid toxic side effects at HA. Simultaneously, the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) mediated by OAT1 was occurred at HA, to severely affect furosemide pharmacokinetics...
August 17, 2018: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Chao Fu, Dongyuan Li, Xiaonan Zhang, Naijie Liu, Guonan Chi, Xingyi Jin
The current research was aimed at probing into the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) PVT1 in the pathogenesis of glioma and the regulatory mechanism of PVT1/miR-128-3p/GREM1 network in glioma via regulation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway. Microarray analysis was used for preliminary screening for candidate lncRNAs and mRNAs in glioma tissues. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, MTT assay, flow cytometry, migration and invasion assays, and xenograft tumor model were utilized to examine the influence of the lncRNA PVT1/miR-128-3p/GREM1 network on the biological functions of glioma cells...
August 17, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Yuezhou Zhang, Henri Xhaard, Leo Ghemtio
Betulin derivatives have been proven effective in vitro against Leishmania donovani amastigotes, which cause visceral leishmaniasis. Identifying the molecular targets and molecular mechanisms underlying their action is a currently an unmet challenge. In the present study, we tackle this problem using computational methods to establish properties essential for activity as well as to screen betulin derivatives against potential targets. Recursive partitioning classification methods were explored to develop predictive models for 58 diverse betulin derivatives inhibitors of L...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
Katrine Falkenberg, Jes Olesen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that sumatriptan is not effective when second messenger levels are high as after cilostazol provocation. Therefore, we have conducted the present study, where sumatriptan is administrated as pretreatment before cAMP increases due to cilostazol intake. Our hypothesis was that pretreatment with sumatriptan would have a significant effect against cilostazol induced headache in healthy volunteers. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, 30 healthy volunteers of both sexes received cilostazol 200 mg on two separate days, each day preceded by oral sumatriptan (2 × 50 mg) or placebo...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Avinash Chandra, George Dervenoulas, Marios Politis
Research utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been crucial to the understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms behind and clinical identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI modalities show patterns of brain damage that discriminate AD from other brain illnesses and brain abnormalities that are associated with risk of conversion to AD from MCI and other behavioural outcomes. This review discusses the application of various MRI techniques to and their clinical usefulness in AD and MCI...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology
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