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Mechanism research

Xiang Hu, Wen Chen, Jing Li, Shulan Huang, Xuling Xu, Xuan Zhang, Shuanglin Xiang, Changning Liu
There is emerging evidence showing that lncRNAs can be involved in various critical biological processes. Zebrafish is a fully developed model system being used in a variety of basic research and biomedical studies. Hence, it is an ideal model organism to study the functions and mechanisms of lncRNAs. Here, we constructed ZFLNC-a comprehensive database of zebrafish lncRNA that is dedicated to providing a zebrafish-based platform for deep exploration of zebrafish lncRNAs and their mammalian counterparts to the relevant academic communities...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
R N Mustafin, R F Enikeeva, S B Malykh, R G Valinurov, E K Khusnutdinova
Molecular genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have demonstrated the involvement of multiple genes in the etiology of ADHD. A polygenic hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis was formulated without clear knowledge of common mechanisms of ADHD development. Twin, family and adoption studies have established the heritability of 70-80% for ADHD. Association studies have shown the relationship between ADHD and genes of dopaminergic (DRD4, DRD5, SLC6A3), serotoninergic (HTR1B, 5-HTTLPR), glutamatergic (mGluR, NDRG2) systems, metabolic pathways (SLC2A3, SLC6A4, CDH13, CFOD1, GFOD1), membrane proteins (KChIP1, ITGA1, SNAP-25) as well as tumour-suppressor (NDRG2, NF1) and cytokine genes...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Amanda M Pollitt, Allen B Mallory, Jessica N Fish
PURPOSE: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are more likely to use alcohol than their heterosexual peers, yet a lack of research on within-group differences and modifiable mechanisms has hindered efforts to address alcohol use disparities. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences in the mediating role of homophobic bullying on the association between sexual orientation identity and drinking frequency and heavy episodic drinking frequency by sex and race/ethnicity. METHODS: We used data from a subsample of 20,744 youth in seven states from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a population-based data set of 9-12th grade high school students in the United States...
October 2018: LGBT Health
Krisztina Mikulás, Mercedes Linninger, Emőke Takács, Barbara Kispélyi, Katalin Nagy, Pál Fejérdy, Péter Hermann
Dental amalgam has been used for more than 150 years due to its beneficial mechanical properties and durability in dentistry. In the past and to date, many questions about amalgam restorations have arisen, especially regarding the mercury content, which has been the subject of global disputes. By presenting the past and present of the 'amalgam issue', the aim of our paper is to display the current position of international literature. This summary is based on the publications in the PubMed database, the guidelines of the Council of European Dentists...
October 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Rachel G Curtis, Tim D Windsor
OBJECTIVES: Activity participation is associated with a range of positive outcomes in older adults but tends to decline with age. Understanding protective factors is important to facilitate activity in later life. Social cognitive theory suggests that having high self-efficacy may promote activity because individuals with higher self-efficacy perceived their activities to be easier and use adaptive strategies to overcome barriers to activity. Despite considerable research linking self-efficacy and activity, limited research has examined the proposed mechanisms behind this association...
October 18, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
H Y Yang, C P Huang, M M Cao, Y F Wang, Y Liu
As a new kind of factors in regulating biological processes human cancers, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are attracting more and more attention from researchers. The lncRNA Colorectal Neoplasia Differentially Expressed (CRNDE) is transcribed from chromosome 16 on the opposite strand to the neighboring IRX5 gene. It was originally discovered to be abnormally expressed in CRC and was certified to be critical biomarker in many cancers. However, its biological function and mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of cervical cancer are still waiting for further exploration...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
L Zadka, M Jerzy Kulus, K Piatek
ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases) is a family of transmembrane proteins described for the first time in the 1990s. Their earliest known role was involvement in gametes fusion. Their adhesion properties in intercellular interactions suggested also the possibility of involvement in the tumor biology. The research conducted further at that time emphasized the importance of ADAM proteins in the regulation of neoplastic processes due to their influence on adhesion, cell migration, proteolysis and cell signaling...
September 4, 2018: Neoplasma
A Bryja, M Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Y Huang, P Celichowski, M J Nawrocki, M Jankowski, K Błochowiak, K Mehr, P Ramlau, A Nowicki, D Bukowska, P Antosik, K Osmola, M Bruska, M Zabel, M Nowicki, B Kempisty
Extraordinary abilities for continuous proliferation and differentiation, associated with constant renewal triggered by stimulation from the mastication process, together with the relative lack of aesthetic complications associated with post-surgery healing, have highlighted buccal pouch mucosa as a potential source of explants that could be used in transplantation and tissue engineering. Additionally, this tissue plays a major role in the oral drug delivery process, which brings special interest to its molecular properties in the context of new drug development...
September 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Yosef Kiat, Ido Izhaki, Nir Sapir
Although feathers are the unifying characteristic of all birds, our understanding of the causes, mechanisms, patterns and consequences of the feather moult process lags behind that of other major avian life-history phenomena such as reproduction and long-distance migration. Migration, which evolved in many species of the temperate and arctic zones, requires high energy expenditure to endure long-distance journeys. About a third of Western-Palearctic passerines perform long-distance migrations of thousands of kilometres each year using various morphological, physiological, biomechanical, behavioural and life-history adaptations...
October 18, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Margaret Bearman, Jennene Greenhill, Debra Nestel
CONTEXT: Simulation-based education (SBE) includes a broad spectrum of simulation activities, which are individually well researched. An extensive literature reports on SBE methods, topics and modalities, but there are limited studies investigating how simulation as a holistic phenomenon promotes learning. This study seeks to identify the ways in which health professionals narrate powerful SBE experiences and through this to understand in what ways SBE may influence learning. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-seven narratives about powerful learning through SBE were gathered from participants' online reflections from a national faculty development programme in SBE...
October 18, 2018: Medical Education
Anna Sadnicka, Joseph M Galea, Jui-Cheng Chen, Thomas T Warner, Kailash P Bhatia, John C Rothwell, Mark J Edwards
BACKGROUND: Recent research has highlighted the role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of myoclonus-dystonia syndrome as a result of mutations in the ɛ-sarcoglycan gene (DYT11). Specifically, a cerebellar-dependent saccadic adaptation task is dramatically impaired in this patient group. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate whether saccadic deficits coexist with impairments of limb adaptation to provide a potential mechanism linking cerebellar dysfunction to the movement disorder within symptomatic body regions...
October 17, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Emily J Koubek, Jillian S Weissenrieder, Jeffrey D Neighbors, Raymond J Hohl
The schweinfurthin family of compounds displays exciting potent and differential cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. Currently, the effect of schweinfurthins on tumor development and progression is being explored in animal models of cancer with promising results. The first schweinfurthin family member, vedelianin, was isolated in 1992, followed by other schweinfurthins in 1998. This opened up the door for the synthesis of additional analogs. At present, the focus of research lies on delineating the mechanism of schweinfurthin action and identifying the nature of sensitivity...
October 17, 2018: Lipids
Peng Li, Huaqing Liu, Yanmeng Li, Yan Wang, Lin Zhao, Hui Wang
Lung adenocarcinoma (LA) is a common non-small cell lung cancer, but effective biomarkers to diagnose early LA are still lacking. Increasing evidence has indicated that the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in LA progression. miR-339-5p has been recently confirmed to exert crucial functions in various cancers. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms and effects of miR-339-5p on LA development still remain vague. In the present research, miR-339-5p expression was downregulated in human LA tissues...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Brittany G Travers, Andrea Mason, Kreg G Gruben, Douglas C Dean, Kristine McLaughlin
Background: Postural stability difficulties are commonly reported in people on the autism spectrum. However, it is unclear whether unsteady surfaces may exacerbate postural stability difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Understanding balance on unsteady surfaces is important because uneven surfaces are commonly encountered in daily life. Methods: Twenty-one youth on the autism spectrum and 16 youth with typical development (ages 6-16 years, IQ ≥ 79) stood on both a fixed and unsteady (tiltable) platform, and center of pressure was measured...
July 2018: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Meritxell Pérez-Hedo, Ángela M Arias-Sanguino, Alberto Urbaneja
The zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is capable of inducing plant defenses in tomato due to its phytophagous behavior. These induced defenses, which include the release of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), have been proven to affect the oviposition behavior and reduce the subsequent performance of some tomato pests. However, the effect of induction of plant defenses by N. tenuis on the preference, development, and reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alastair Copland, David Bending
Since the identification of the regulatory T-cell (Treg)-associated transcription factor Foxp3, there have been intensive research efforts to understand its biology and roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. It is well established that thymic selection of a repertoire of self-reactive Foxp3+ T-cells provides an essential mechanism to minimize reactions to self-antigens in the periphery, and thus aid in the prevention of autoimmunity. It is clear from both genetic and immunological analyses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients that T-cells have a strong role to play in both the initiation and propagation of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Neng Wang, Bowen Yang, Xiaotong Zhang, Shengqi Wang, Yifeng Zheng, Xiong Li, Shan Liu, Hao Pan, Yingwei Li, Zhujuan Huang, Fengxue Zhang, Zhiyu Wang
Chinese formulas have been paid increasing attention in cancer multidisciplinary therapy due to their multi-targets and multi-substances property. Here, we aim to investigate the anti-breast cancer and chemosensitizing function of Ai Du Qing (ADQ) formula made up of Hedyotis diffusa , Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Rosc. , Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge , and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch . Our findings revealed that ADQ significantly inhibited cell proliferation in both parental and chemo-resistant breast cancer cells, but with little cytotoxcity effects on the normal cells...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nathalie Nasr, Adèle Faucherre, Marc Borsotto, Catherine Heurteaux, Jean Mazella, Chris Jopling, Hamid Moha Ou Maati
KCNK2 is a 2 pore domain potassium channel involved in maintaining cellular membrane resting potentials. Although KCNK2 is regarded as a mechanosensitive ion channel, it can also be gated chemically. Previous research indicates that KCNK2 expression is particularly enriched in neuronal and cardiac tissues. In this respect, KCNK2 plays an important role in neuroprotection and has also been linked to cardiac arrhythmias. KCNK2 has subsequently become an attractive pharmacologic target for developing preventative/curative strategies for neuro/cardio pathophysiological conditions...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jose Luis Slon Campos, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R Screaton
Arthropod-borne flaviviruses are important human pathogens that cause a diverse range of clinical conditions, including severe hemorrhagic syndromes, neurological complications and congenital malformations. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop safe and effective vaccines, a process requiring better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved during infection. Decades of research suggest a paradoxical role of the immune response against flaviviruses: although the immune response is crucial for the control, clearance and prevention of infection, poor clinical outcomes are commonly associated with virus-specific immunity and immunopathogenesis...
October 17, 2018: Nature Immunology
Dai Lu, Sri Sujana Immadi, Zhixing Wu, Debra A Kendall
The cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 ) receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is an attractive target for drug discovery due to its involvement in many physiological processes. Historically, drug discovery efforts targeting the CB1 receptor have focused on the development of orthosteric ligands that interact with the active site to which endogenous cannabinoids bind. Research performed over the last several decades has revealed substantial difficulties in translating CB1 orthosteric ligands into druggable candidates...
October 17, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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