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Treatment of diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655134/multiple-mechanisms-linking-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-testosterone-as-a-modifier
#1
Prita R Asih, Michelle L Tegg, Hamid Sohrabi, Malcolm Carruthers, Samuel E Gandy, Farid Saad, Giuseppe Verdile, Lars M Ittner, Ralph N Martins
Evidence in support of links between type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased considerably in recent years. AD pathological hallmarks include the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain, which are hypothesized to promote inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal loss. T2DM exhibits many AD pathological features, including reduced brain insulin uptake, lipid dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and depression; T2DM has also been shown to increase AD risk, and with increasing age, the prevalence of both conditions increases...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655017/prevalence-and-ethnic-pattern-of-diabetes-and-prediabetes-in-china-in-2013
#2
Limin Wang, Pei Gao, Mei Zhang, Zhengjing Huang, Dudan Zhang, Qian Deng, Yichong Li, Zhenping Zhao, Xueying Qin, Danyao Jin, Maigeng Zhou, Xun Tang, Yonghua Hu, Linhong Wang
Importance: Previous studies have shown increasing prevalence of diabetes in China, which now has the world's largest diabetes epidemic. Objectives: To estimate the recent prevalence and to investigate the ethnic variation of diabetes and prediabetes in the Chinese adult population. Design, Setting, and Participants: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey in 2013 in mainland China, which consisted of 170 287 participants. Exposures: Fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were measured for all participants...
June 27, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654314/cross-validation-of-a-glucose-insulin-glucagon-pharmacodynamics-model-for-simulation-using-data-from-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Sabrina Lyngbye Wendt, Ajenthen Ranjan, Jan Kloppenborg Møller, Signe Schmidt, Carsten Boye Knudsen, Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Henrik Madsen, Kirsten Nørgaard, John Bagterp Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Currently, no consensus exists on a model describing endogenous glucose production (EGP) as a function of glucagon concentrations. Reliable simulations to determine the glucagon dose preventing or treating hypoglycemia or to tune a dual-hormone artificial pancreas control algorithm need a validated glucoregulatory model including the effect of glucagon. METHODS: Eight type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients each received a subcutaneous (SC) bolus of insulin on four study days to induce mild hypoglycemia followed by a SC bolus of saline or 100, 200, or 300 µg of glucagon...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654313/oral-insulin-delivery-in-a-physiologic-context
#4
Ehud Arbit, Miriam Kidron
Insulin remains indispensable to the treatment of diabetes, but its availability in injectable form only has hampered its timely and broader use. The development of an oral insulin remains an ultimate goal to both enhance ease of use, and to provide therapeutic advantages rooted in its direct delivery to the portal vein and liver. By mimicking the physiological path taken by pancreatic insulin, oral insulin is expected to have a distinct effect on the hepatic aspect of carbohydrate metabolism, hepatic insulin resistance, and, at the same time, avoid hyperinsulinemia and minimize the risk of hypoglycemia...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654305/commentary-regarding-shapiro-nonadjunctive-use-of-continuous-glucose-monitors-for-insulin-dosing
#5
David Price
The FDA recently expanded the approved use of Dexcom's G5 Mobile continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system to allow for diabetes treatment decisions. This decision is expected to reduce the burden of SMBG testing and increase the adoption and persistent use of CGM. The safety of nonadjunctive CGM use was questioned because of sporadic large discrepancies between CGM and SMBG values. These data were viewed in the context of complaints found in the FDA MAUDE database and social media postings. This commentary provides additional perspective on the inferences that can be drawn from these reports and the risk of nonadjunctive use of CGM data...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654304/a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-multicenter-study-comparing-continuous-diffusion-of-oxygen-therapy-to-sham-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#6
Mark Q Niederauer, Joel E Michalek, David G Armstrong
BACKGROUND: Over the past generation, preclinical data have suggested that there is a potential physiologic benefit to applying oxygen topically to wounds. However, we are unaware of any studies in the literature that have robustly assessed whether this would lead to a higher proportion of healing in similarly treated people without oxygen. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess this in people being treated for chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). METHODS: We enrolled and randomized 100 subjects with DFUs (79% male, aged 58...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654184/recycling-of-glucagon-receptor-to-plasma-membrane-increases-in-adipocytes-of-obese-rats-by-soy-protein-implications-for-glucagon-resistance
#7
Laura A Velázquez-Villegas, Claudia Tovar-Palacio, Berenice Palacios-González, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar, Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor
SCOPE: Hyperglucagonemia contributes to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, we have found that soy protein normalized fasting hyperglucagonemia in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats, sensitizing the HSL-lipolytic signaling pathway in white adipose tissue (WAT), however the mechanism remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed casein or soy protein diet in combination with soybean or coconut oil. Glucagon receptor (GR) was increased at the plasma membrane of adipocytes of rats fed soy protein compared to those fed casein, without changes in total GR abundance...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654165/using-personalized-medicine-in-the-management-of-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Nina Elk, Otito F Iwuchukwu
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide problem of immense pharmacoeconomic burden. The multifactorial and complex nature of the disease lends itself to personalized pharmacotherapeutic approaches to treatment. Variability in individual risk and subsequent development of diabetes have been reported, in addition to differences in response to the many oral glucose lowering therapies currently available for diabetes pharmacotherapy. Pharmacogenomic studies have attempted to uncover the heritable components of individual variability in risk susceptibility and response to pharmacotherapy...
June 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653394/ranolazine-reduces-repolarization-heterogeneity-in%C3%A2-symptomatic-patients-with-diabetes-and-non-flow-limiting-coronary-artery-stenosis
#9
Ederson Evaristo, Fernando G Stocco, Nishant R Shah, Michael K Cheezum, Jon Hainer, Courtney Foster, Bruce D Nearing, Marcelo Di Carli, Richard L Verrier
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that ranolazine decreases susceptibility to ischemia-induced arrhythmias independent of effects on coronary artery blood flow. OBJECTIVE: In symptomatic diabetic patients with non-flow-limiting coronary artery stenosis with diffuse atherosclerosis and/or microvascular dysfunction, we explored whether ranolazine reduces T-wave heterogeneity (TWH), an electrocardiographic (ECG) marker of arrhythmogenic repolarization abnormalities shown to predict sudden cardiac death...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653237/the-economic-burden-of-insulin-related-hypoglycemia-in-spain
#10
Witesh Parekh, Nicki Hoskins, James Baker-Knight, Antonio Ramirez de Arellano, Pedro Mezquita Raya
INTRODUCTION: An analysis was conducted to estimate the economic burden of insulin-related hypoglycemia in adults in Spain, derived from a novel concept developed for the UK known as the Local Impact of Hypoglycemia Tool. METHODS: Costs per severe and non-severe hypoglycemic episode were calculated for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The costs per episode were applied to the population of adults with T1DM and T2DM using insulin in Spain according to the number of severe and non-severe episodes experienced per year...
June 26, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653156/revealing-the-potency-of-annona-muricata-leaves-extract-as-foxo1-inhibitor-for-diabetes-mellitus-treatment-through-computational-study
#11
Dini Sri Damayanti, Didik Huswo Utomo, Chandra Kusuma
FOXO1 protein inactivation in the nucleus is one of targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Annona muricata leaves contain flavonoid and phenolic compound alkaloids that were known to be able to increase pancreatic β cell proliferation in animal experiment. This research aimed to predict the active compound ability of the Annona muricata leaves to bind and inhibit FOXO1 protein through in silico study. Analysis of molecular docking was performed by using Autodock Vina PyRx. this research proved that anonaine, rutin, muricatocin a, isolaureline, xylopine, and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside had an equal or smaller free binding energy compared to the control compound...
December 2016: In Silico Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652832/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-to-aid-weight-loss-in-obese-patients-current-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Gianluca Castelnuovo, Giada Pietrabissa, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Roberto Cattivelli, Alessandro Rossi, Margherita Novelli, Giorgia Varallo, Enrico Molinari
Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652792/severe-atypical-herpes-zoster-as-an-initial-symptom-of-fatal-myelodysplastic-syndrome-with-refractory-anemia-and-blast-excess-raeb-ii
#13
Uwe Wollina, Gesina Hansel, Anja Baunacke, Georgi Tchernev
Herpes zoster is a common disease caused due to varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection with increasing incidence by age. If the patient has a severe, extended, or treatment-recalcitrant course of herpes zoster, this must be a red flag to search for underlying pathologies. Here, we report about a 64-year-old male patient with diabetes, who came to our emergency department because of general malaise, fever, chills, and a pronounced nuchal and facial swelling on the left side. Based on herpetiform-grouped vesicles and yellowish crusts, an impetiginized facial herpes zoster was diagnosed, and combined antiviral and antibiotic treatment was initiated...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652790/sitagliptin-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy-by-diminishing-the-mir-200a-keap-1-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#14
Esther Civantos, Enrique Bosch, Elisa Ramirez, Olha Zhenyukh, Jesús Egido, Oscar Lorenzo, Sebastián Mas
BACKGROUND: Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor used in type 2 diabetes therapy, has demonstrated protective effects in diabetic chronic kidney disease, in part due to its pleiotropic actions. However, its potential direct effects on the kidney are still not completely defined. Here, by means of proteomics and miRNA profiling, we have further unveiled the role of sitagliptin in oxidative stress, as well as the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Renal cortex samples from 9-month-old wild-type (Wistar), type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and sitagliptin-treated GK rats (GK+Sita) (10 mg kg(-1) per day) were subjected to quantitative miRNA transcriptomic array, immunohistochemistry and Western blot studies...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652696/no-improvement-in-injection-frequency-or-in-visual-outcome-over-time-in-two-cohorts-of-patients-from-the-same-swedish-county-treated-for-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#15
Marion Schroeder, Lena Rung, Monica Lövestam-Adrian
BACKGROUND: Although ranibizumab has been used for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) since 2007, real-world studies still report undertreatment resulting in a less favorable visual outcome. In this study, two different time cohorts of patients treated with ranibizumab for wet AMD in routine care were analyzed to observe whether there was a change over time regarding visual outcome, injection frequency, and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: We compared patients with treatment-naïve wet AMD in two observational follow-up cohorts 2007-2010 (n=50 patients) and 2009-2013 (n=26)...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652546/clinical-application-of-ghrelin-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#16
Hiroaki Ueno, Tomomi Shiiya, Kazuhiro Nagamine, Wakaba Tsuchimochi, Hideyuki Sakoda, Kazutaka Shiomi, Kenji Kangawa, Masamitsu Nakazato
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes, and its progression significantly worsens the patient's quality of life. Although several drugs are available for DPN, all of these provide only symptomatic relief. We investigated the therapeutic effects of ghrelin for DPN, based on its various physiological functions. Seven patients with type 2 diabetes with typical clinical signs and symptoms of DPN were hospitalized. Synthetic human ghrelin (1.0 μg/kg) was administered intravenously for 14 days...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652527/hyperglycemia-reduces-pp2a-subunit-b-expression-in-a-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-animal-model
#17
Dong-Ju Park, Phil-Ok Koh
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that worsens clinical outcome following cerebral ischemia. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a conserved, heterotrimeric, serine/threonine phosphatase with various cellular functions. PP2A subunit B is abundant in brain tissue and modulates PP2A function. The aim of this study was to investigate PP2A subunit B protein expression in the cerebral cortex of non-diabetic and diabetic animals with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651817/angiogenesis-and-cancer-stem-cells-new-perspectives-on-therapy-of-ovarian-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Anna Markowska, Stefan Sajdak, Janina Markowska, Adam Huczyński
Failure in ovarian cancer therapy, following cytoreduction and chemotherapy, is related to the presence of cancer stem cells - a small subpopulation of cells resistant to chemotherapy and irradiation - in the tumour which may cause cancer relapse and manifestation of metastases. Therapies targeted at Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), such as those employing metformin (a drug used in the treatment of diabetes type II) and salinomycin, an antibiotic isolated from Streptococcus albus bacteria, seem promising. Anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab was found to be effective in all phases of ovarian cancer treatment...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651479/evaluating-the-short-term-cost-effectiveness-of-liraglutide-versus-lixisenatide-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-united-states
#19
B Hunt, C McConnachie, C Gamble, T Dang-Tan
AIMS: Bringing patients with type 2 diabetes to recommended glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) treatment targets can reduce the risk of developing diabetes-related complications. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the short-term cost-effectiveness of once-daily liraglutide 1.8 mg versus once-daily lixisenatide 20 μg as add on to metformin for treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States (US) by assessing the cost per patient achieving HbA1c-focused and composite treatment targets...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651373/sex-dependent-differences-in-liver-and-gut-metabolomic-profiles-with-acarbose-and-calorie-restriction-in-c57bl-6-mice
#20
Victoria K Gibbs, Rachel A Brewer, Nathan D Miyasaki, Amit Patki, Daniel L Smith
Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor used in treating type 2 diabetes, impairs complex carbohydrate digestion and absorption and extends lifespan in mice (without a requisite reduction in food intake). To assess sex-differential effects coincident with calorie restriction versus a non-restricted longevity enhancing intervention, we evaluated the metabolite profiles (by LC/MS) from livers and cecal contents of C57BL/6J mice (n=4/sex/group,) which were maintained for 10 months under one of three diet treatments: ad libitum control diet (CON), ad libitum control diet containing 0...
June 23, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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