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Diabetes insulin

Clarice L S Lopes, Paula Pitta Pinheiro, Luzia S Barberena, Guilherme U Eckert
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and compare the following outcomes between children with prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and children without prior diagnosis of DM1: length of hospital stay, severity on admission, insulin dosage, time of continuous insulin use, volume of fluids infused during treatment, and complications. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study with review of medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of a referral hospital from June 2013 to July 2015...
October 19, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
K S Weber, K Strassburger, G Pacini, B Nowotny, K Müssig, J Szendroedi, C Herder, M Roden
AIMS: To examine the hypothesis that changes in serum adiponectin concentration inversely relate to changes in glucose tolerance and β-cell function already during the early stage of disease progression in recently diagnosed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants in the prospective observational German Diabetes Study (Type 2 diabetes, n = 94; Type 1 diabetes, n =42) underwent i.v. glucose tolerance and glucagon stimulation testing to assess pre-hepatic β-cell function, glucose tolerance index and C-peptide secretion within the first year of diabetes diagnosis and 2 years later...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
I Schütz-Fuhrmann, J Castañeda, Y Reznik, R Aronson, I Conget, S Liabat, S Runzis, S de Portu, O Cohen
The recent OpT2mise randomized trial compared the efficacy of insulin pump therapy and multiple daily injections (MDI) in people with Type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels that remained ≥64 mmol/mol (8.0%) despite insulin dose optimization [1,2]. During the initial 6-month randomized phase of the study, pump therapy was shown to produce a significant improvement in glycaemic control and a 20% reduction in total daily insulin dose, compared with MDI therapy [1], and these benefits were sustained during the subsequent 6-month extension phase during which all participants received pump therapy [2]...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Rory J McCrimmon
Despite the introduction of newer technologies and improved insulin formulations, recurrent hypoglycaemia continues to affect the lives of many people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Developing strategies or therapies designed to prevent or minimize hypoglycaemia risk is of utmost importance to help individuals safely achieve glycaemic targets. Novel, educational or behavioural approaches need to be based on a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning both the detection of hypoglycaemia and why repeated exposure to hypoglycaemia leads to the development of a clinical syndrome referred to as impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Christel Häggström, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Björn Zethelius, David Robinson, Birgitta Grundmark, Lars Holmberg, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Hans Garmo, Pär Stattin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has consistently been associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer, however, if this decrease is related to the use of anti-diabetic drugs is unknown. We prospectively studied men in the comparison cohort in the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) 3.0, with data on T2DM, use of metformin, sulphonylurea, and insulin retrieved from national health care registers and demographic databases. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prostate cancer, adjusted for confounders...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
M Mafauzy, H Zanariah, A Nazeri, S P Chan
AIMS: The aim of the study was to re-evaluate the relationship between hospital based diabetes care delivery and prevention of complications. METHODS: DiabCare is an observational, non-interventional, cross-sectional study of hospital-based outpatient diabetes care. RESULTS: A total of 1668 patients participated in the study: mean age 57.8 ± 11.0 years, duration of diabetes 13.0 ± 8.6 years, and duration of insulin treatment 5.6 ± 5.5 years...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Yufeng Li, Zheng Li, Dan Wang, Xiang Zhang, Jia Li, Sher Ali, Jingze Lu, Hao Zong, Xiaolan Xu
Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation from GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) to the plasma membrane (PM) constitutes a key process for blood glucose control. Therefore, compounds that could promote GLUT4 translocation into the PM represent potential drugs for the treatment of diabetes. In this research, we screened for agonists that induce GLUT4 translocation by using a novel pH-sensitive fluorescent probe, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP)-mOrange2. We identified as well as validated one agonist, staurosporine, from a 64,000 compound library...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects and mechanism of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in diabetic mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). The diabetic mice model was induced by injection of streptozotocin, after which they were fed HFD diet with or without esculetin for 11 weeks. Non-diabetic mice were provided a normal diet. Diabetes induced hepatic hypertrophy, lipid accumulation and droplets; however, esculetin reversed these changes. Esculetin treatment in diabetic mice fed HFD significantly down-regulated expression of lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Dgat2 and Pap) and inflammation genes (Tlr4, Myd88, Nfkb, Tnfα and Il6)...
October 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Melis Kant, Merve Akış, Mehmet Çalan, Tuğba Arkan, Fırat Bayraktar, Miral Dizdaroglu, Hüray İşlekel
Prediabetes is the preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with intermediate state of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia results in a state of oxidative stress, which may contribute to the production of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and long-term complications of diabetes. Novel approaches are required for prevention and treatment of diabetes. New biomarkers that can be used in risk stratification and therapy control as supplementary to current parameters are needed. These biomarkers may facilitate a more individualized and sufficient treatment of diabetes...
September 26, 2016: DNA Repair
Přemysl Frič, Jan Škrha, Aleksi Šedo, Tomaš Zima, Petr Bušek, Klára Kmochová, Martin Laclav, Bohuš Bunganič, Svatopluk Solař, Petr Hrabal, František Bělina, Pavel Záruba, Pavel Škrha, Miroslav Zavoral
High-resolution imaging methods (HRIMs) and biomarkers present the second step of pancreatic cancer (PC) diagnostics in at-risk individuals. These include patients with positive risk factors, early symptoms, nonresponders to the initial antidiabetic therapy, patients older than 50 years of age with new-onset unstable diabetes requiring insulin as well as patients with long-term insulin-non-dependent diabetes and recent (up to 6 months) failure of antidiabetic therapy. The procedures should be started without delay and the co-operation between the primary and tertiary medical centers is highly desirable...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
K Raafat, M Wurglics, M Schubert-Zsilavecz
Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) (PV) is a herbaceous plant traditionally utilized in management of diabetes and it has immunomodulatory activity. In this study, acute and subchronic antidiabetic, in-vivo antioxidant and antinociceptive effects of PV were evaluated in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a mouse model. Bio-guided fractionation, isolation, RP-HPLC, and (1)H and (13)C NMR identification of the active components responsible for PV effects were determined. RP-HPLC analysis showed that PV contained rosmarinic acid (RA) 4...
October 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shlomo Sasson
Activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) induces the expression of genes encoding enzymes that metabolize fatty acids and carbohydrate. Attempts to identify cellular activators of PPARδ produced large lists of various fatty acids and their metabolic derivatives; however, there is no consensus on specific and selective binding interactions of natural ligands with PPARδ. Most models on binding interactions within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPARδ have been derived from analyses of PPARδ-LBD crystals formed with synthetic low molecular weight ligands...
October 18, 2016: Biochimie
Chloe Y Y Cheung, Elaine Y L Hui, Chi-Ho Lee, Kelvin H M Kwok, Rita A Gangwani, Kenneth K W Li, Jeffrey C W Chan, Yu-Cho Woo, Wing-Sun Chow, Michele M A Yuen, Rachel L C Wong, Carol H Y Fong, Aimin Xu, David S H Wong, Pak-Chung Sham, Karen S L Lam
Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) had identified novel DR-susceptibility genetic variants in various populations. We examined the associations of these DR-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with severe DR in a Chinese T2DM cohort. Methods: Cross-sectional case-control studies on sight-threatening DR (STDR) and proliferative DR (PDR) were performed...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Christoph Nowak, Samira Salihovic, Andrea Ganna, Stefan Brandmaier, Taru Tukiainen, Corey D Broeckling, Patrik K Magnusson, Jessica E Prenni, Rui Wang-Sattler, Annette Peters, Konstantin Strauch, Thomas Meitinger, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Johan Ärnlöv, Christian Berne, Christian Gieger, Samuli Ripatti, Lars Lind, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Sundström, Erik Ingelsson, Tove Fall
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or β-cell responsiveness (disposition index) during an oral glucose tolerance test...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Helena Lenasi, Markos Klonizakis
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications. Impairment of glycemic control induces noxious glycations, an increase in oxydative stress and dearangement of various metabolic pathways. DM leads to dysfunction of micro and macrovessels, connected to metabolic, endothelial and autonomic nervous system. Thus, assessing vascular reactivity might be one of the clinical tools to evaluate the impact of harmful effects of DM and potential benefit of treatment; skin and skeletal muscle microcirculation have usually been tested...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Christian Lehmann, Nicholas B Fisher, Barna Tugwell, Anna Szczesniak, Mel Kelly, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is induced by invasion of immune cells causing pancreatic inflammation. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, derived from the plant, Cannabis sativa, was shown to lower the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of spontaneous T1D development. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of experimental CBD treatment on early pancreatic inflammation in T1D by intravital microscopy (IVM) in NOD mice...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Obesity is a crescent epidemic in the world, affecting more than half a billion of adults worldwide. Obesity is associated to main cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The excessive adiposity causes a dysregulation of adipokines secretion by adipose tissue, upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and downregulating the anti-inflammatory ones. This scenario contributes for the appearance of atherosclerosis...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
L Blonde, P Chava, T Dex, J Lin, E Nikonova, R Goldenberg
AIMS: To explore the treatment outcomes in adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) enrolled in the GetGoal trials of lixisenatide (LIXI), and the predictive effects of baseline characteristics on outcomes. METHODS: This study was a pooled analysis of patient-level data from LIXI GetGoal studies comparing LIXI and placebo. Patients were divided into baseline therapy groups: oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs) at baseline (n = 2,760) or basal insulin at baseline (n = 1,198)...
October 21, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Chen Luo, Lu-Ting Yu, Meng-Qi Yang, Xiang Li, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Martin O Alfred, Jun-Li Liu, Min Wang
Regenerating genes (Reg) have been found during the search for factors involved in pancreatic islet regeneration. Our recent study discovered that pancreatic β-cell-specific overexpression of Reg3β protects against streptozotocin (Stz) -induced diabetes in mice. To investigate its potential roles in the treatment of diabetes, we produced a recombinant Reg3β protein and provided evidence that it is active in promoting islet β-cell survival against Stz- triggered cell death. Though ineffective in alleviating preexisting diabetes, pretreatment of recombinant Reg3β was capable of minimizing the Stz-induced hyperglycemia and weight loss, by preserving serum and pancreatic insulin levels, and islet β-cell mass...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peter J Meikle, Scott A Summers
Obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease form a metabolic disease continuum that has seen a dramatic increase in prevalence in developed and developing countries over the past two decades. Dyslipidaemia resulting from hypercaloric diets is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease, and lipid-lowering therapies are the main therapeutic option for this group of disorders. However, the fact that dysfunctional lipid metabolism extends far beyond cholesterol and triglycerides is becoming increasingly clear...
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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