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Diabetes insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244961/time-dependent-therapeutic-roles-of-nitazoxanide-on-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats-effects-on-hepatic-ppar-%C3%AE-receptors
#1
Samah Mohamed Elaidy, Mona A Hussain, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy
Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is an approved strategy in facing insulin resistance (IR) for the diabetes mellitus (DM)-type 2. The PPAR-γ modulators display improvements in the insulin sensitizing and adverse effects of the traditional thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is proposed as a PPAR-γ receptor ligand, with agonistic post-transcriptional effects. Currently, NTZ-antidiabetic activities versus pioglitazone (PIO) in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) rat model of type-2 diabetes was explored...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244860/lithium-reduces-blood-glucose-levels-but-aggravates-albuminuria-in-btbr-ob-ob-mice
#2
Theun de Groot, Lars Damen, Leanne Kosse, Mohammad Alsady, Rosalinda Doty, Ruben Baumgarten, Susan Sheehan, Johan van der Vlag, Ron Korstanje, Peter M T Deen
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) plays an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus and renal injury. GSK3 inhibition increases glucose uptake in insulin-insensitive muscle and adipose tissue, while it reduces albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis in acute kidney injury. The effect of chronic GSK3 inhibition in diabetic nephropathy is not known. We tested the effect of lithium, the only clinical GSK3 inhibitor, on the development of diabetes mellitus and kidney injury in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244751/spirulina-extract-enhanced-a-protective-effect-in-type-1-diabetes-by-anti-apoptosis-and-anti-ros-production
#3
Jiyeong Lee, Arum Park, Mi Jeong Kim, Hee-Joung Lim, Young-Ah Rha, Hee-Gyoo Kang
Interest in the nutritional value and pharmacological activities of blue-green algae has gradually increased. Spirulina extracts show protective effects against apoptosis and inflammatory damage in various cell types. Here, we investigated the protective effects of extracts from Spirulina maxima in a cytokine-mediated type 1 diabetes model in vitro and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats in vivo. Interleukin-1β and interferon-gamma induced substantial cytotoxicity to RINm5F rat insulinoma cells, increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and key genes related apoptosis...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244241/vitamin-d-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-based-on-data-free-of-hawthorne-effect
#4
Yanbo Zhang, Yunhui Gong, Hongmei Xue, Jingyuan Xiong, Guo Cheng
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent disorder, associated with low blood vitamin D (VD) level. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between VD and GDM. SEARCH STRATEGY: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane library and China Biology Medicine disc were searched till May 2017. The references of previous studies were screened. SELECTION CRITERIA: Observational studies on the relationship between VD and GDM free from Hawthorne effect and randomized controlled trials of VD supplementation during pregnancy for preventing or treating GDM were included...
December 15, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243959/application-of-glycemic-variability-percentage-implications-for-continuous-glucose-monitor-utilization-and-analysis-of-artificial-pancreas-data
#5
Arturo Garcia, Andrew K Balo, Bruce A Buckingham, Irl B Hirsch, Thomas A Peyser
BACKGROUND: The problem of glycemic variability has been widely acknowledged in patients with diabetes with severe insulin deficiency. In a companion article, we proposed a novel metric, the glycemic variability percentage (GVP), for assessing glycemic variability that accounts for both the amplitude and frequency of glycemic fluctuations. METHOD: We applied the new metric, the GVP, to a previously reported case of a subject using an earlier generation continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device, in which successive periods of use were associated with an apparent decrease in glycemic variability...
December 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243785/induction-of-proliferation-and-activation-of-rat-hepatic-stellate-cells-via-high-glucose-and-high-insulin
#6
Q Li, X Li, C-L Deng
OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the occurrence mechanism of diabetic hepatic fibrosis through observing the effects of insulin and glucose in different concentrations on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation, and mRNA expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in rats, so as to provide a theoretical and experimental basis for the occurrence, prevention and treatment of diabetic hepatic fibrosis (HF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HSCs in rats were cultured in vitro with high glucose alone and high glucose + high insulin as the stimulating factors and mannitol as the high osmotic pressure control...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243419/-advances-of-mechanism-research-on-procyanidin-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
REVIEW
Xue-Ping Wang, Yi-Ming Li, Zhao Wang, Qi Jia, Kai-Xian Chen
Diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease, is characterized by high blood glucose that could induce various complications. Procyanidin, a kind of polyphenol compounds existing in many plants, have shown to be effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus as they may lower blood glucose, moderate insulin resistance and protect islet β cells. This review focused on the research advances on the preventive and therapeutic application of procyanidin in promoting glucose absorption, protecting islet β cells, modulating intestinal microbiota and regulating diabetic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which should provide useful reference for subsequent studies...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243310/coriolus-versicolor-aqueous-extract-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-with-pi3k-akt-and-p38-mapk-signaling-pathways-involved-in-diabetic-skeletal-muscle
#8
Hui-Min Xian, Hui Che, Ying Qin, Fan Yang, Song-Yan Meng, Xiao-Guang Li, Yun-Long Bai, Li-Hong Wang
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are usually with poor immunity and easier to suffer from cancer and microbial infections. Herein, we report an efficient anti-diabetic medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor (CV). This study aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-insulin-resistance effects of CV aqueous extract in myoblasts (L6 cells) and skeletal muscle of T2DM rat. Our results showed that CV extract treatment significantly reduced blood glucose levels of T2DM rats, whereas CV extract increased glucose consumption in insulin resistant L6 cells...
December 15, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242971/effects-of-hydration-on-plasma-copeptin-glycemia-and-gluco-regulatory-hormones-a-water-intervention-in-humans
#9
Sofia Enhörning, Irina Tasevska, Ronan Roussel, Nadine Bouby, Margaretha Persson, Philippe Burri, Lise Bankir, Olle Melander
PURPOSE: High plasma copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, predicts diabetes mellitus. We tested if copeptin could be suppressed by increased water intake in healthy individuals, and if a water-induced change in copeptin was accompanied by altered concentrations of glucose, insulin or glucagon. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy individuals underwent, in random order, 1 week of high water intake (3 L/day on top of habitual intake) and 1 week of normal (habitual) fluid intake (control)...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242624/plant-derived-compounds-strigolactone-gr24-and-pinosylvin-activate-sirt1-and-enhance-glucose-uptake-in-rat-skeletal-muscle-cells
#10
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola, Markku Laakso
Insulin resistance is a characteristic finding in hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes. SIRT1 is a NAD+ dependent deacetylase that plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. SIRT1 activators, including plant polyphenols such as resveratrol, improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle tissue. We hypothesised that the novel plant-derived compounds, strigolactone and pinosylvin, beneficially enhance SIRT1 function, insulin signalling, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242622/assessment-of-disturbed-glucose-metabolism-and-surrogate-measures-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#11
Christian L Roth, Clinton Elfers, Christiane S Hampe
BACKGROUND: With the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese children, it is becoming imperative to detect disturbed glucose metabolism as early as possible in order to prevent T2D development. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 92 obese children (median age 11.7 years, 51% female) and 7 lean children (median age 11.4 years, 57% female) who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a tertiary pediatric care center. Glucose tolerance was assessed and different indices for β-cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated...
December 14, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242563/ck2-modulates-adipocyte-insulin-signaling-and-is-up-regulated-in-human-obesity
#12
Christian Borgo, Gabriella Milan, Francesca Favaretto, Fabio Stasi, Roberto Fabris, Valentina Salizzato, Luca Cesaro, Anna Belligoli, Marta Sanna, Mirto Foletto, Luca Prevedello, Vincenzo Vindigni, Romeo Bardini, Arianna Donella-Deana, Roberto Vettor
Insulin plays a major role in glucose metabolism and insulin-signaling defects are present in obesity and diabetes. CK2 is a pleiotropic protein kinase implicated in fundamental cellular pathways and abnormally elevated in tumors. Here we report that in human and murine adipocytes CK2-inhibition decreases the insulin-induced glucose-uptake by counteracting Akt-signaling and GLUT4-translocation to the plasma membrane. In mice CK2 acts on insulin-signaling in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle and its acute inhibition impairs glucose tolerance...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242016/hba1c-variability-and-hypoglycemia-hospitalization-in-adults-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-a-nested-case-control-study
#13
Victor W Zhong, Juhaeri Juhaeri, Stephen R Cole, Christina M Shay, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis
AIMS: To determine association between HbA1C variability and hypoglycemia requiring hospitalization (HH) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Using nested case-control design in electronic health record data in England, one case with first or recurrent HH was matched to one control who had not experienced HH in incident T1D and T2D adults. HbA1C variability was determined by standard deviation of ≥3 HbA1C results. Conditional logistic models were applied to determine association of HbA1C variability with first and recurrent HH...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241990/influence-of-metformin-and-insulin-on-myocardial-substrate-oxidation-under-conditions-encountered-during-cardiac-surgery
#14
Cyonna Holmes, LaShondra Powell, Nicholas S Clarke, Michael E Jessen, Matthias Peltz
BACKGROUND: The influence of diabetic therapies on myocardial substrate selection during cardiac surgery is unknown but may be important to ensure optimal surgical outcomes. We hypothesized that metformin and insulin alter myocardial substrate selection during cardiac surgery and may affect reperfusion cardiac function. METHODS: Rat hearts (n = 8 per group) were evaluated under 3 metabolic conditions: normokalemia, cardioplegia, or bypass. Groups were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer in the presence of no additives, metformin, insulin, or both insulin and metformin...
December 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241887/basal-insulin-regimens-for-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-cost-utility-analysis
#15
Dalia Dawoud, Elisabetta Fenu, Bernard Higgins, David Wonderling, Stephanie A Amiel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of basal insulin regimens for adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus in England. METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was conducted in accordance with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence reference case. The UK National Health Service and personal and social services perspective was used and a 3.5% discount rate was applied for both costs and outcomes. Relative effectiveness estimates were based on a systematic review of published trials and a Bayesian network meta-analysis...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241884/the-use-of-decomposition-methods-in-real-world-treatment-benefits-evaluation-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-initiating-different-injectable-therapies-findings-from-the-initiator-study
#16
Lee Brekke, Erin Buysman, Michael Grabner, Xuehua Ke, Lin Xie, Onur Baser, Wenhui Wei
BACKGROUND: Determining characteristics of patients likely to benefit from a particular treatment could help physicians set personalized targets. OBJECTIVES: To use decomposition methodology on real-world data to identify the relative contributions of treatment effects and patients' baseline characteristics. METHODS: Decomposition analyses were performed on data from the Initiation of New Injectable Treatment Introduced after Antidiabetic Therapy with Oral-only Regimens (INITIATOR) study, a real-world study of patients with type 2 diabetes started on insulin glargine (GLA) or liraglutide (LIRA)...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241756/gynecologic-and-andrologic-dermatology-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Maria Magdalena Roth, Nicholas Leader, George Kroumpouzos
The relationship of sex hormones to obesity and inflammation has been extensively studied. Research on endogenous and exogenous sex steroids, including studies on animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetS), has indicated that sex hormones are involved in metabolic pathways relevant to MetS. Lower testosterone levels in men and higher levels in women increase risks of MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin increase risks of MetS and T2DM in both sexes. Skin diseases that are sex hormone mediated, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, acanthosis nigricans, acne vulgaris, and pattern alopecia, have been associated with insulin resistance...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241750/historical-perspectives-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Eiji Oda
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) or insulin resistance syndrome is a constellation of obesity-related metabolic derangements predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In 1998, WHO defined the first criteria of MetS. Three years later, the user-friendly National Cholesterol Education Program criteria of MetS were proposed. Different criteria were issued by the International Diabetes Federation in 2005, making abdominal obesity a necessary component. Several international societies, including The International Diabetes Federation, jointly adopted the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria as harmonizing criteria of MetS in 2009...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241749/acne-vulgaris-the-metabolic-syndrome-of-the-pilosebaceous-follicle
#19
Bodo C Melnik
Acne vulgaris is an epidemic inflammatory disease of the human sebaceous follicle and represents the most common skin disease affecting about 85% of adolescents in Westernized populations. Acne vulgaris is primarily a disease of wealthy countries and exhibits higher prevalence rates in developed compared with developing countries. No acne has been found in non-Westernized populations still living under Paleolithic dietary conditions constraining hyperglycemic carbohydrates, milk, and dairy products. The high prevalence rates of adolescent acne cannot be explained by the predominance of genetic factors but by the influence of a Western diet that overstimulates the key conductor of metabolism, the nutrient- and growth factor-sensitive kinase mTORC1...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241748/psoriasis-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Paolo Gisondi, Anna Chiara Fostini, Irene Fossà, Giampiero Girolomoni, Giovanni Targher
Chronic plaque psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that is strongly associated with the clinical features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The strength of these associations has been repeatedly confirmed by several observational studies. In particular, the prevalence of MetS in patients with psoriasis ranges from 20% to 50%, with a risk of having MetS is at least double in psoriatic patients compared with nonpsoriatic control individuals...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
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