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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454299/congenital-forms-of-diabetes-the-beta-cell-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Lisa R Letourneau, Siri Atma W Greeley
The majority of patients diagnosed with diabetes less than 6 months of age, and many cases diagnosed between 6 and 12 months of age, have a gene mutation that causes permanent or transient hyperglycemia. Recent research advances have allowed for the discovery of new causes of congenital diabetes, including genes involved in pancreatic development (GATA4, NKX2-2, MNX1) and monogenic causes of autoimmune dysregulation (STAT3, LRBA). Ongoing follow-up of patients with KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutations has supported the safety and efficacy of sulfonylureas, as well as the use of insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors in infants with insulin-requiring forms of monogenic diabetes...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#2
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453923/magnesium-upregulates-insulin-receptor-and-glucose-transporter-4-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#3
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Daniel Abiodun Adekunbi
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of magnesium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress as well as the concentration of insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups designated as: 1) control (CTR); 2) diabetic untreated (DU); 3) diabetic treated with 1 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg1-D); and 4) diabetic treated with 2 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg2-D)...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453918/high-dose-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-affects-insulin-secretory-mechanism-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#4
Eiji Yamato
OBJECTIVE: Histone deacytylase inhibitors (HDACis) inhibit the deacetylation of the lysine residue of proteins, including histones, and regulate the transcription of a variety of genes. Recently, HDACis have been used clinically as anti-cancer drugs and possible anti-diabetic drugs. Even though HDACis have been proven to protect the cytokine-induced damage of pancreatic beta cells, evidence also shows that high doses of HDACis are cytotoxic. In the present study, we, therefore, investigated the eff ect of HDACis on insulin secretion in a pancreatic beta cell line...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453905/sleep-apnea-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
Isao Muraki, Hiroo Wada, Takeshi Tanigawa
The aim of this review is to clarify the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes, and discuss the therapeutic role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in type 2 diabetes. OSA patients are more likely than non-OSA populations to develop type 2 diabetes while more than half of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from OSA. Similarly to the Western countries, in the East Asian population, the association between these two disorders has also been reported. CPAP is the primary treatment for OSA, but the effect of CPAP on comorbid diabetes has not been established...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453879/defining-outcomes-for-%C3%AE-cell-replacement-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-a-consensus-report-on-the-igls-criteria-from-the-ipita-epita-opinion-leaders-workshop
#6
REVIEW
Michael R Rickels, Peter G Stock, Eelco J P de Koning, Lorenzo Piemonti, Johann Pratschke, Rodolfo Alejandro, Melena D Bellin, Thierry Berney, Pratik Choudhary, Paul R Johnson, Raja Kandaswamy, Thomas W H Kay, Bart Keymeulen, Yogish C Kudva, Esther Latres, Robert M Langer, Roger Lehmann, Barbara Ludwig, James F Markmann, Marjana Marinac, Jon S Odorico, François Pattou, Peter A Senior, James A M Shaw, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Steven White
β-cell replacement therapy, available currently as pancreas or islet transplantation, has developed without a clear definition of graft functional and clinical outcomes. The International Pancreas & Islet Transplant Association (IPITA) and European Pancreas & Islet Transplantation Association (EPITA) held a workshop to develop consensus for an IPITA/EPITA Statement on the definition of function and failure of current and future forms of β-cell replacement therapy. There was consensus that β-cell replacement therapy could be considered as a treatment for β-cell failure, regardless of etiology and without requiring undetectable C-peptide, accompanied by glycemic instability with either problematic hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia...
February 17, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453696/interrelationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure-the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-left-ventricle-performance
#7
REVIEW
Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Mourouzis, Petros Fountoulakis, Georgios Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Alexis Antonopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453570/molecular-mechanisms-and-signaling-pathways-involved-in-the-nutritional-support-of-spermatogenesis-by-sertoli-cells
#8
Luís Crisóstomo, Marco G Alves, Agostina Gorga, Mário Sousa, María F Riera, María N Galardo, Silvina B Meroni, Pedro F Oliveira
Sertoli cells play a central role in spermatogenesis. They maintain the blood-testis barrier, an essential feature of seminiferous tubules which creates the proper environment for the occurrence of the spermatogenesis. However, this confinement renders germ cells almost exclusively dependent on Sertoli cells' nursing function and support. Throughout spermatogenesis, differentiating sperm cells become more specialized, and their biochemical machinery is insufficient to meet their metabolic demands. Although the needs are not the same at all differentiation stages, Sertoli cells are able to satisfy their needs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453465/screening-of-potential-adipokines-identifies-s100a4-as-a-marker-of-pernicious-adipose-tissue-and-insulin-resistance
#9
Peter Arner, Paul Petrus, David Esteve, Anne Boulomié, Erik Näslund, Anders Thorell, Hui Gao, Ingrid Dahlman, Mikael Rydén
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are peptides secreted from white adipose tissue (WAT), which have been linked to WAT dysfunction and metabolic complications of obesity. We set out to identify novel adipokines in subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) linked to insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: Gene expression was determined by microarray and qPCR in obese and non-obese subjects with varying degree of IR. WAT-secreted and circulating protein levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: In sWAT of 80 obese women discordant for IR, 44 genes encoding potential adipose-secreted proteins were differentially expressed...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453462/gq-11-a-new-ppar-agonist-improves-obesity-induced-metabolic-alterations-in-ldlr-mice
#10
Jacqueline C Silva, Edson M de Oliveira, Walter M Turato, Gustavo H G Trossini, Vinícius G Maltarollo, Marina G R Pitta, Ivan R Pitta, Beatriz de Las Heras, Lisardo Boscá, Martina Rudnicki, Dulcineia S P Abdalla
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance/diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and demand safe and efficacious therapeutics. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a new thiazolidine compound-GQ-11-on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diabetogenic diet in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. METHODS: Molecular docking simulations of GQ-11, PPARα and PPARγ structures were performed. Male C57BL/6J LDLr -/- mice fed a diabetogenic diet for 24 weeks were treated with vehicle, GQ-11 or pioglitazone or (20 mg/kg/day) for 28 days by oral gavage...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453154/unique-pharmacology-of-a-novel-allosteric-agonist-sensitizer-insulin-receptor-monoclonal-antibody
#11
Simon A Hinke, Anne M Cieniewicz, Thomas Kirchner, Katharine D'Aquino, Rupesh Nanjunda, Jason Aligo, Robert Perkinson, Philip Cooper, Ken Boayke, Mark L Chiu, Steve Jarantow, Eilyn R Lacy, Yin Liang, Dana L Johnson, Jean M Whaley, Russell B Lingham, Anthony J Kihm
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a key feature of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), and improving insulin sensitivity is important for disease management. Allosteric modulation of the insulin receptor (IR) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can enhance insulin sensitivity and restore glycemic control in animal models of T2D. METHODS: A novel human mAb, IRAB-A, was identified by phage screening using competition binding and surface plasmon resonance assays with the IR extracellular domain...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452785/the-risks-of-sarcopenia-falls-and-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
C Sarodnik, S P G Bours, N C Schaper, J P van den Bergh, T A C M van Geel
Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased, and the mechanism is multifactorial. Recent research on T2DM-induced bone fragility shows that bone mineral density (BMD) is often normal or even slightly elevated. However, bone turnover may be decreased and bone material and microstructural properties are altered, especially when microvascular complications are present. Besides bone fragility, extra-skeletal factors leading to an increased propensity to experience falls may also contribute to the increased fracture risk in T2DM, such as peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy and diabetes medication (e...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452573/the-effect-of-metformin-treatment-in-obese-insulin-resistant-patients-with-euthyroid-goiter
#13
Nicoleta Răcătăianu, Sorana Daniela Bolboacă, Adela-Viviana Sitar-Tăut, Smaranda Mârza, Daniela Moga, Ana Valea, Cristina Ghervan
Objective The study's objective was to evaluate the thyroid parameters in obese insulin-resistant patients with euthyroid diffuse or nodular goiter, following Metformin treatment. Patients and methods The study was experimental, open, and prospective. Fifty-three patients aged 18-68 were enrolled for two years. Obese insulin-resistant patients (cut-off Homeostasis-Model-Assessment of Insulin Resistance-HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) with euthyroid nodular/diffuse goiter were included. Subjects with diabetes, hypo-/hyper-thyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, psychiatric disorders, liver or heart failure were excluded...
February 16, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452240/the-effect-of-non-anti-tnf-targeting-biologics-and-small-molecules-on-insulin-resistance-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#14
REVIEW
Francesco Ursini, Emilio Russo, Piero Ruscitti, Roberto Giacomelli, Giovambattista De Sarro
Inflammatory arthritides are chronic diseases characterised by an increase in cardiovascular risk, largely attributable to the synergy between high-grade systemic inflammation and an elevated prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Amongst the latter, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) play a key position. Previous studies demonstrated a potential insulin-sensiting effect of anti-TNF biologic medications. For converse, less is known about the role of newer biologics or small molecules...
February 13, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452233/role-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-differentiated-into-insulin-producing-cells-in-the-treatment-of-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Mona G Amer, Azza S Embaby, Rehab A Karam, Marwa G Amer
Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas...
February 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452178/effects-of-canagliflozin-versus-glimepiride-on-adipokines-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
W Timothy Garvey, Luc Van Gaal, Lawrence A Leiter, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, James List, Robert Cuddihy, Jimmy Ren, Michael J Davies
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are pro-inflammatory states associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, demonstrated superiority in lowering HbA1c versus glimepiride with less hypoglycemia and greater weight reduction via loss of fat mass in a 52-week trial of type 2 diabetes patients. This post hoc, exploratory analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin versus glimepiride on select adipokines, inflammatory biomarkers, and chemokines...
February 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452073/the-role-of-adiponectin-and-adipolin-as-anti-inflammatory-adipokines-in-the-formation-of-macrophage-foam-cells-and-their-association-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Javad Sargolzaei, Elham Chamani, Tooba Kazemi, Soudabeh Fallah, Hosna Soori
Obesity is one of the major public health concerns that is closely associated with obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by excess cholesterol deposition in the arterial intima and the formation of foam cells. Adipocytokines or adipokines are secreted by the adipose tissue as endocrine glands; adiponectin and adipolin are among these adipokines that are associated with obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451721/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors-as-add-on-therapy-to-insulin-for-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Tomohide Yamada, Nobuhiro Shojima, Hisashi Noma, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Takashi Kadowaki
New treatments for type 1 diabetes are an unmet need. We investigated the efficacy and safety of adding SGLT-2is to insulin for type 1 diabetes by meta-analysis of prospective randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Searching electronic databases up to October 2017 identified 1361 studies, among which 14 were investigated (N=4,591). Meta-analysis revealed that SGLT-2i therapy significantly reduced HbA1c by 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35, 0.46; P<0.001; I2=0%), fasting plasma glucose by 1.14 mmol/l (0...
February 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451713/glucose-effectiveness-is-a-critical-pathogenic-factor-leading-to-the-emergence-of-glucose-intolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-an-ignored-hypothesis
#19
F P Alford, J E Henriksen, C Rantzau, H Beck-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Although the ability of glucose to mediate its own in vivo metabolism is long documented, the quantitative measurement of whole body glucose-mediated glucose disposal at basal insulin levels, [glucose effectiveness (GE)], followed the introduction of the Minimal Model IVGTT technique. METHODS: A literature review, combined with our own studies, of the role of GE in glucose metabolism in normal and "at risk" individuals, was undertaken to determine GE's contribution to glucose homeostasis...
February 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451706/insulin-degludec-insulin-aspart-lowers-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-rates-of-confirmed-and-nocturnal-hypoglycaemia-independent-of-baseline-hba-1c-levels-disease-duration-or-bmi-a-pooled-meta-analysis-of-phase-3-studies-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Martin Haluzík, Greg Fulcher, Thomas R Pieber, Lars Bardtrum, Deniz Tutkunkardas, Helena W Rodbard
AIMS: Previous studies demonstrated the co-formulation of insulin degludec (IDeg)/insulin aspart (IAsp) 'IDegAsp' offers lower rates of hypoglycaemia with smaller changes in weight compared with basal-bolus (IDeg once daily [OD] + IAsp [2-4 injections]) and premix insulin (BIAsp 30 twice daily [BID]) comparators. This study aimed to investigate whether the benefits of IDegAsp, given twice daily, extend across a wide spectrum of patients with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a post hoc pooled analysis of five phase 3 randomised, 26-week, open-label, BID, treat-to-target trials comparing IDegAsp BID (n = 1111) with one of two 'comparators' - BIAsp 30 BID (n = 561) or IDeg OD + IAsp (n = 136)...
February 16, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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