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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471473/bidirectional-gpr119-agonism-requires-peptide-yy-and-glucose-for-activity-in-mouse-and-human-colon-mucosa
#1
Iain R Tough, Sarah Forbes, Herbert Herzog, Robert M Jones, Thue W Schwartz, Helen M Cox
The lipid sensor GPR119 is highly expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells and pancreatic β-cells that release the hormones, PYY and GLP-1, and insulin, respectively. Endogenous oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and the dietary metabolite, 2-monoacylglycerol (2-OG) can each activate GPR119. Here we compared mucosal responses to selective, synthetic GPR119 agonists (AR440006, AR231453) and the lipids, OEA, 2-OG and N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA) monitoring epithelial ion transport as a read-out for L-cell activity in native mouse and human gastrointestinal (GI) mucosae...
February 19, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471132/high-intensity-body-weight-training-is-comparable-to-combined-training-in-changes-in-muscle-mass-physical-performance-inflammatory-markers-and-metabolic-health-in-postmenopausal-women-at-high-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-clinical
#2
Fernanda Maria Martins, Aletéia de Paula Souza, Paulo Ricardo Prado Nunes, Márcia Antoniazi Michelin, Eddie Fernando Candido Murta, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues Resende, Erick Prado de Oliveira, Fábio Lera Orsatti
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval body weight training (HIBWT) with combined training (COMT; aerobic and resistance exercises on body composition, a 6-minute walk test (6MWT; physical performance), insulin resistance (IR) and inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women (PW) at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2). METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical study, 16 PW at high risk of TDM2 were randomly allocated into two groups: HIBWT (n = 8) and COMT (n = 8)...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471055/brain-insulin-signalling-glucose-metabolism-and-females-reproductive-aging-a-dangerous-triad-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
A I Duarte, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes a major socioeconomic challenge due to its disabling features and the rise in prevalence (especially among (peri)menopausal women and type 2 diabetes patients). The precise etiopathogenesis of AD remains poorly understood. Importantly, its neurodegenerative perspective has been challenged towards a more "systemic" view. Amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau protein (P-Tau) (the main AD neuropathological features) affect and are affected by peripheral and brain insulin signalling dysfunction, leading to glucose dysmetabolism, synaptic loss and AD-related cognitive deficits...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470850/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-novel-g310d-variant-in-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-igf1r-gene-that-associates-with-type-2-diabetes-in-american-indians
#4
Yunhua L Muller, Graham Skelton, Paolo Piaggi, Peng Chen, Anup Nair, Sayuko Kobes, Wen-Chi Hsueh, William C Knowler, Robert L Hanson, Leslie J Baier, Clifton Bogardus
AIMS: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is involved in cell growth and glucose homeostasis. In the current study, the IGF1R locus was analyzed as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in American Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole genome sequence data from 335 American Indians identified 3 novel missense variants in IGF1R. The associations of IGF1R variants with T2D, age of T2D onset and birth weight were analyzed in a population based sample of 7701 American Indians...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470817/capsule-commentary-on-pilla-et-al-predictors-of-insulin-initiation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-of-the-look-ahead-randomized-trial
#5
Rosette J Chakkalakal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470691/even-effect-of-milk-protein-and-carbohydrate-intake-but-no-further-effect-of-heavy-resistance-exercise-on-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-in-older-men
#6
Søren Reitelseder, Kasper Dideriksen, Jakob Agergaard, Nikolaj M Malmgaard-Clausen, Rasmus L Bechshoeft, Rasmus K Petersen, Anja Serena, Ulla R Mikkelsen, Lars Holm
PURPOSE: The responsiveness of older individuals' skeletal muscle to anabolic strategies may be impaired. However, direct comparisons within the same experimental setting are sparse. The aim of this study was to assess the resting and post-resistance exercise muscle protein synthesis rates in response to two types of milk protein and carbohydrate using a unilateral exercise leg model. METHODS: Twenty-seven older (69 ± 1 year, mean ± SE) men were randomly assigned one of three groups: Whey hydrolysate (WH), caseinate (CAS), or carbohydrate (CHO)...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470680/changes-in-skeletal-muscle-and-body-weight-on-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mediated-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-pig-migf-1
#7
Bo Gao, Wei Wang, Han Wu, Cai Chen, Dan Shen, Saisai Wang, Wei Chen, Li Zhang, Shuheng Chan, Chengyi Song
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) is an important growth factor in mammals, but the functions of the local muscle-specific isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) to skeletal muscle development have rarely been reported. To determine the effect of pig mIGF-1 on body development and muscle deposition in vivo and to investigate the molecular mechanisms, the transgenic mouse model was generated which can also provide experimental data for making transgenic pigs with pig endogenous IGF1 gene. We constructed a skeletal muscle-specific expression vector using 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions of porcine skeletal α-actin gene...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470134/the-effect-of-aronia-berry-on-type-1-diabetes-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#8
Yong-Deok Jeon, Sa-Haeng Kang, Kwang-Hyun Moon, Jeong-Ho Lee, Dae-Geun Kim, Wook Kim, Jong-Sung Kim, Byung-Yong Ahn, Jong-Sik Jin
The number of diabetic patients worldwide is increasing, and complications such as stroke and cardiovascular disease are becoming a serious cause of death. Diabetes mellitus is classified into two types according to the etiopathogenic mechanism and insulin dependence. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is caused by damage and destruction of pancreatic β cells that produce insulin. It is a disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Aronia berry has been used as a medicinal food in Europe...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470094/accuracy-user-acceptability-and-safety-evaluation-for-the-freestyle-libre-flash-glucose-monitoring-system-when-used-by-pregnant-women-with-diabetes
#9
Eleanor M Scott, Rudy W Bilous, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
BACKGROUND: Accuracy of the FreeStyle Libre™ Flash Glucose Monitoring System has not been evaluated in pregnant women with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine accuracy (compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose [SMBG]), clinical safety, and acceptability of the FreeStyle Libre System when used at home by this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four participants, with type 1 (T1D, n = 24), type 2 (T2D, n = 11), or gestational (n = 39) diabetes, were enrolled across 13 sites (9 in United Kingdom, 4 in Austria)...
February 22, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469970/glimepiride-treatment-in-a-patient-with-type-a-insulin-resistance-syndrome-due-to-a-novel-heterozygous-missense-mutation-in-the-insulin-receptor-gene
#10
Zhimin Huang, Juan Liu, Kaka Ng, Xuesi Wan, Lijuan Xu, Xiaoying He, Zhihong Liao, Yanbing Li
AIMS: Glimepiride is a sulfonylurea known to have unique insulin mimetic and sensitizing effect. We aimed to study the efficacy of glimepiride in a patient with type A insulin resistance syndrome. METHODS: A 15-year-old female with type A insulin resistance syndrome was treated with glimpiride for 6 months. Self-monitoring of blood glucose was recorded, OGTTs on glucose and insulin were measured during the treatment. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was used to evaluate whole body insulin sensitivity before and after the treatment...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468933/endocrinology-and-pediatric-exercise-science-the-year-that-was-2017
#11
Alon Eliakim
The Pediatric Exercise Science "Year That Was" section aims to highlight the most important (to the author's opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2017 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year's selection includes studies showing that 1) in pubertal swimmers, there is a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) during intense training (a catabolic-type hormonal response) with an anabolic "rebound" characterized by a significant increase of these growth factors during training tapering down...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468843/gpcr6a-is-a-molecular-target-for-the-natural-products-gallate-and-egcg-in-green-tea
#12
Min Pi, Karan Kapoor, Ruisong Ye, Jeremy C Smith, Jerome Baudry, L Darryl Quarles
SCOPE: The molecular mechanisms whereby gallates in green tea exert metabolic effects are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We found that GPRC6A, a multi-ligand sensing G-protein coupled receptor that regulates energy metabolism, sex hormone production and prostate cancer progression, is a target for gallates. Sodium gallate,1 gallic acid (GA) > ethyl gallate (EG) > octyl gallate (OG) dose dependently activated ERK in HEK-293 cells transfected with GPRC6A but not in non-transfected controls...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468559/15-years-of-experience-with-biphasic-insulin-aspart-30-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Andreas Liebl, Viswanathan Mohan, Wenying Yang, Krzysztof Strojek, Sultan Linjawi
Since clinical experience with biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was reviewed in 2012 after 10 years of use worldwide, additional studies have been published that highlight new aspects, including use in real-world populations. Evidence from 35 new studies confirms and builds upon previous work indicating that BIAsp 30 continues to have pharmacodynamic and clinical advantages over biphasic human insulin (BHI 30), including in real-world practice with unselected populations of patients...
February 21, 2018: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468461/flavonoid-intake-from-fruit-and-vegetables-during-adolescence-is-prospectively-associated-with-a-favourable-risk-factor-profile-for-type-2-diabetes-in-early-adulthood
#14
Katharina J Penczynski, Christian Herder, Danika Krupp, Johanna Rienks, Sarah Egert, Stefan A Wudy, Michael Roden, Thomas Remer, Anette E Buyken
PURPOSE: Flavonoid consumption during adolescence could contribute to preventing adult onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the prospective association between habitual intake of flavonoids from fruit and vegetables (FlavFV) during adolescence and risk markers of type 2 diabetes in early adulthood. METHODS: This analysis included participants of the DONALD Study, who had provided a fasting blood sample in adulthood (18-39 years), data on FlavFV-intake during adolescence (females: 9-15 years, males: 10-16 years) and relevant covariates...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467239/frequency-and-consequence-of-the-recurrent-yy1-p-t372r-mutation-in-sporadic-insulinomas
#15
Vaishali I Parekh, Sita D Modali, James Welch, William Simonds, Lee Scott Weinstein, Electron Kebebew, Sunita K Agarwal
Extract: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs/pNETs/p-NETs/PanNETs) are rare endocrine neoplasms that can be either functioning tumors that secrete hormones characteristic of their endocrine cell of origin, or nonfunctioning tumors. The most common functioning PNETs are the insulin-secreting b-cell tumors (insulinomas) that are mainly sporadic, but may also occur in 10% of patients with the hereditary tumor syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) (OMIM ID: 131100). Patients with the MEN1 syndrome carry a heterozygous germline inactivating mutation in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene and specific somatic loss of the normal MEN1 allele, leading to endocrine tumors mainly of the parathyroids, pituitary and pancreas (PNETs)...
February 21, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467067/a-brief-review-of-caprylidene-axona-and-coconut-oil-as-alternative-fuels-in-the-fight-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Monica Chintapenta, Justin Spence, Hyanggi Irene Kwon, Amie Taggart Blaszczyk
Type 3 diabetes mellitus has been coined to describe an alternative pathologic pathway of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling seen on positron-emission tomography scans in the brain of those affected by AD support this disease hypothesis. Two products-the medical food caprylidene (Axona) and coconut oil-seek to target the underlying pathology of type 3 diabetes mellitus by providing an alternative fuel source in the brain. Rather than improving glucose utilization, these two products seek to supply ketone bodies in sufficient quantities to pass through the blood-brain barrier and provide an alternative energy source to glucose...
December 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466957/altered-dna-methylation-in-liver-and-adipose-tissues-derived-from-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
Francisco Barajas-Olmos, Federico Centeno-Cruz, Carlos Zerrweck, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Angélica Martínez-Hernández, Emilio J Cordova, Claudia Rangel-Escareño, Faustino Gálvez, Armando Castillo, Hernán Maydón, Francisco Campos, Diana Gabriela Maldonado-Pintado, Lorena Orozco
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), although the precise mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unknown. In this study we identified alterations of DNA methylation influencing T2D pathogenesis, in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, liver, and blood from individuals with obesity. METHODS: The study included individuals with obesity, with and without T2D. From these patients, we obtained samples of liver tissue (n = 16), visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (n = 30), and peripheral blood (n = 38)...
February 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466797/a-prospective-cohort-study-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-for-validation-of-biomarkers-provalid-study-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#18
Susanne Eder, Johannes Leierer, Julia Kerschbaum, Laszlo Rosivall, Andrzej Wiecek, Dick de Zeeuw, Patrick B Mark, Georg Heinze, Peter Rossing, Hiddo L Heerspink, Gert Mayer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and kidney disease in these patients varies widely between European countries. METHODS: In addition to store bio-samples the "Prospective cohort study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for validation of biomarkers" collects information on history, physical status, laboratory measurements and medication in 4000 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, being taken care of at the primary level of healthcare in 5 European countries (Austria, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland and Scotland)...
February 16, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466739/genetic-ablation-of-mir-33-increases-food-intake-enhances-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-promotes-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#19
Nathan L Price, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Allison Wing, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Araldi, Ángel Baldán, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Yajaira Suárez, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Gerald I Shulman, Rafael de Cabo, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33-/- mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Our work provides an in-depth characterization of miR-33-/- mice and explores the mechanisms by which loss of miR-33 promotes insulin resistance in key metabolic tissues...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466592/effect-of-low-fat-vs-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-12-month-weight-loss-in-overweight-adults-and-the-association-with-genotype-pattern-or-insulin-secretion-the-dietfits-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Christopher D Gardner, John F Trepanowski, Liana C Del Gobbo, Michelle E Hauser, Joseph Rigdon, John P A Ioannidis, Manisha Desai, Abby C King
Importance: Dietary modification remains key to successful weight loss. Yet, no one dietary strategy is consistently superior to others for the general population. Previous research suggests genotype or insulin-glucose dynamics may modify the effects of diets. Objective: To determine the effect of a healthy low-fat (HLF) diet vs a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet on weight change and if genotype pattern or insulin secretion are related to the dietary effects on weight loss...
February 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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