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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#1
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040868/identification-of-a-novel-proinsulin-associated-snp-and-demonstration-that-proinsulin-is-unlikely-to-be-a-causal-factor-in-subclinical-vascular-remodelling-using-mendelian-randomisation
#2
Rona J Strawbridge, Angela Silveira, Marcel den Hoed, Stefan Gustafsson, Jian'an Luan, Denis Rybin, Josée Dupuis, Ruifang Li-Gao, Maryam Kavousi, Abbas Dehghan, Kadri Haljas, Jari Lahti, Jesper R Gådin, Alexandra Bäcklund, Ulf de Faire, Karl Gertow, Phillipe Giral, Anuj Goel, Steve E Humphries, Sudhir Kurl, Claudia Langenberg, Lars L Lannfelt, Lars Lind, Cecilia C M Lindgren, Elmo Mannarino, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Andrew P Morris, Renée de Mutsert, Rainer Rauramaa, Peter Saliba-Gustafsson, Bengt Sennblad, Andries J Smit, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Elena Tremoli, Fabrizio Veglia, Björn Zethelius, Hanna M Björck, Johan G Eriksson, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Hugh Watkins, J Wouter Jukema, Jose C Florez, Nicholas J Wareham, James B Meigs, Erik Ingelsson, Damiano Baldassarre, Anders Hamsten
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased proinsulin relative to insulin levels have been associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (measured by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)) and are predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of established risk factors. The mechanisms linking proinsulin to atherosclerosis and CVD are unclear. A genome-wide meta-analysis has identified nine loci associated with circulating proinsulin levels. Using proinsulin-associated SNPs, we set out to use a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that proinsulin plays a causal role in subclinical vascular remodelling...
September 28, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040630/assessment-of-beta-cell-mass-and-function-by-airmax-and-ivgtt-in-high-risk-subjects-for-type-1-diabetes
#3
Wei Hao, Alyssa Wookwyk, Craig Beam, Tee Bahnson, Jerry P Palmer, Carla J Greenbaum
Context: There is little information regarding beta cell mass in individuals at early stages of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Objective: To investigate both AIRmax, as a correlate of beta cell mass, and beta cell function by IVGTT in subjects at early stages of T1D. Design/Setting/Participants: Forty subjects were enrolled: (1) low risk group: relatives of patients with T1D with 0-1 antibody (n=21) and (2) high risk group: relatives with > 2 antibodies (n=19)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040598/effect-of-metformin-on-vascular-function-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Jemma J A Anderson, Jennifer J Couper, Lynne C Giles, Catherine E Leggett, Roger Gent, Brian Coppin, Alexia S Peña
Context: Children with type 1 diabetes have vascular dysfunction preceding atherosclerosis. Early interventions are needed to reduce cardiovascular disease. Objective: To evaluate the effect of metformin on vascular function in type 1 diabetes children. Design: 12 month double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Tertiary pediatric diabetes clinic. Participants: 90 type 1 diabetes children(8-18 years), above 50th percentile body mass index (BMI)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040530/the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-is-not-increased-in-normal-weight-women-with-pcos
#5
Rasa Pelanis, Jan Roar Mellembakken, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Pernille Ravn, Laure Morin-Papunen, Juha S Tapanainen, Terhi Piltonen, Johanna Puurunen, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Peter Fedorcsak, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
STUDY QUESTION: Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY QNSWER: OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI < 25 kg/m2. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040429/the-role-of-glp-1-in-the-metabolic-success-bariatric-surgery
#6
Chelsea R Hutch, Darleen Sandoval
Two of the most popular bariatric procedures, vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), are commonly considered 'metabolic surgeries' because they are thought to impact metabolism in a weight loss-independent manner. In support of this, improvements in glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and even discontinuation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication can occur before substantial postoperative weight loss. The mechanisms that underlie this effect are unknown. However, one of the common findings after VSG and RYGB in both animal models and in humans is the sharp postprandial rise in several gut peptides, including the incretin and satiety peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
October 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040050/latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-north-indian-region-assessment-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-metabolic-and-immunological-features
#7
Alok Kumar, Alberto de Leiva
BACKGROUND: We undertook a study to assess β-cell function and metabolic and immunological features of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and assess heterogeneity within LADA based on low and high glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) titers. METHODS: A total of 139 patients with adult-onset diabetes were examined cross-sectionally in the National capital region of Northern India. Medical history of all subjects was reviewed with the aim of collecting clinical data...
October 17, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040025/effect-of-chronic-consumption-of-pistachios-pistacia-vera-l-on-glucose-metabolism-in-pre-diabetics-and-type-2-diabetics-a-systematic-review
#8
Priscila Vaz de Melo Ribeiro, Alessandra da Silva, Alinne Paula de Almeida, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Pistachio is a nut with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyphenols and carotenoids content, and the synergism between these compounds appears to affect glucose metabolism. In this systematic review we analyzed studies in which the effect of chronic consumption of pistachio on markers of glucose metabolism was evaluated in pre-diabetic and type 2 diabetics. We used the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Lilacs databases. The research terms used were pistachio, pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, blood glucose, hyperglycemia and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036763/effect-of-treadmill-exercise-on-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-in-rats-with-obesity-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#9
Do Keun Cho, Dong Hun Choi, Joon Yong Cho
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on body weight, blood biochemistry, and autophagy. METHODS: Triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and glucose levels were measured, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score was calculated, and the soleus muscle was analyzed for autophagy-related factors (Beclin-1, p62, LC3, Lamp-2) in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036762/low-intensity-aerobic-exercise-training-inhibition-of-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-in-high-fat-diet-induced-ovariectomized-rats
#10
Hye Jin Kim, Won Jun Lee
PURPOSE: Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036231/vildagliptin-increases-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-diabetic-rats
#11
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Jia Zheng, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035567/hit-to-lead-optimization-and-discovery-of-5-5-1-1-biphenyl-4-yl-6-chloro-1h-benzo-d-imidazol-2-yl-oxy-2-methylbenzoic-acid-mk-3903-a-novel-class-of-benzimidazole-based-activators-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#12
Ping Lan, F Anthony Romero, Dariusz Wodka, Andrew J Kassick, Qun Dang, Tony Gibson, Dan Cashion, Gaochao Zhou, Yuli Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Aihua Zhang, Ying Li, Maria E Trujillo, Qing Shao, Margaret Wu, Shiyao Xu, Huaibing He, Deidre MacKenna, Jocelyn Staunton, Kevin T Chapman, Ann Weber, Iyassu K Sebhat, Gergely M Makara
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an essential role as a cellular energy sensor and master regulator of metabolism in eukaryotes. Dysregulated lipid and carbohydrate metabolism resulting from insulin resistance leads to hyperglycemia, the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While pharmacological activation of AMPK is anticipated to improve these parameters, the discovery of selective, direct activators has proven challenging. We now describe a hit-to-lead effort resulting in the discovery of a potent and selective class of benzimidazole-based direct AMPK activators, exemplified by 5-((5-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-6-chloro-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)oxy)-2-methylbenzoic acid, 42 (MK-3903)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035384/effect-of-anthelmintic-treatment-on-leptin-adiponectin-and-leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
D L Tahapary, K de Ruiter, I Martin, E A T Brienen, L van Lieshout, Y Djuardi, C C Djimandjaja, J J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Soewondo, E Sartono, T Supali, J W A Smit, M Yazdanbakhsh
Emerging evidence suggests that helminths might confer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the role of adipokines in mediating the effect of helminths on insulin resistance. Serum samples were obtained from a randomized-controlled trial of anthelmintic treatment in an area endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Flores Island, Indonesia. In STH-infected subjects, anthelmintic treatment significantly increased the ratio of leptin to adiponectin (treatment effect factor (95% confidence interval (CI)), P-value for interaction: 1...
October 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035308/gut-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-insights-on-mechanisms-and-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Junli Ma, Qihang Zhou, Houkai Li
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035280/adipocyte-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-and-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#15
Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Giacomo Mancini, Raj Kamal Srivastava, Alejandro Aparisi Rey, Pierre Cardinal, Laura Tedesco, Cristina Maria Zingaretti, Antonia Sassmann, Carmelo Quarta, Claudia Schwitter, Andrea Conrad, Nina Wettschureck, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jens Hartwig, Maria Mendez-Lago, Laura Bindila, Krisztina Monory, Antonio Giordano, Saverio Cinti, Giovanni Marsicano, Stefan Offermanns, Enzo Nisoli, Uberto Pagotto, Daniela Cota, Beat Lutz
Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035174/in-male-rats-the-ability-of-central-insulin-to-suppress-glucose-production-is-impaired-by-olanzapine-whereas-glucose-uptake-is-left-intact
#16
Chantel Kowalchuk, Celine Teo, Virginia Wilson, Araba Chintoh, Loretta Lam, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Adria Giacca, Gary J Remington, Margaret K Hahn
BACKGROUND: Insulin receptors are widely expressed in the brain and may represent a crossroad between metabolic and cognitive disorders. Although antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, are the cornerstone treatment for schizophrenia, they are associated with high rates of type 2 diabetes and lack efficacy for illness-related cognitive deficits. Historically, this risk of diabetes was attributed to the weight gain propensity of antipsychotics, but recent work suggests antipsychotics can have weight-independent diabetogenic effects involving unknown brain-mediated mechanisms...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035092/vitamin-d-supplementation-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-critical-and-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials
#17
Nasrin Sharifi, Reza Amani
Previous observational studies have found a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, this type of study could not show the causal relationship between these two conditions. Therefore, we systematically and critically reviewed the available clinical trials to elucidate such relationship. We searched databases such as Medline, Scopus and Cochrane to identify the clinical trials that assessed the effects of vitamin D supplementation in adults with NAFLD...
October 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034607/complete-loss-of-insulin-secretion-capacity-in-type-1a-diabetic-patients-during-long-term-follow-up
#18
Sae Uno, Akihisa Imagawa, Junji Kozawa, Kenji Fukui, Hiromi Iwahashi, Iichiro Shimomura
AIM/INTRODUCTION: The patients with type 1 diabetes are classified into three subtypes: acute-onset, fulminant, and slowly progressive in Japan. Acute-onset type 1 diabetes would be equivalent to type 1A diabetes, the typical type 1 diabetes in Western countries. The insulin secretion capacity in Japanese subjects with long-standing type 1A diabetes is unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the course of endogenous insulin secretion during long-term follow-up and factors associated with residual insulin secretion in patients with acute-onset type 1 diabetes (autoimmune)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034415/a-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-context-of-hyperglycemia-addiction
#19
Guillaume Rousseau, Cristian Palmiere, Vincent Dupont, Marion Verschoore, Caroline Savary, Nathalie Jousset, Clotilde Rougé-Maillart
We herein present a case of a 20-year-old woman who suffered from type I diabetes mellitus and died from a diabetic ketoacidosis in a context of addiction to hyperglycemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a lethal complication of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, which can result from insulin therapy stoppage. This can occur voluntarily with suicidal intent or involuntarily due to treatment inaccessibility, forgotten injections, or material deficiency. A new possibility is investigated in our case study: hyperglycemia addiction...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034189/antidiabetic-activity-of-extracts-of-anacardium-occidentale-linn-leaves-on-n-streptozotocin-diabetic-rats
#20
Y S Jaiswal, P A Tatke, S Y Gabhe, A B Vaidya
Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) is used in South Cameroon as well as in other tropical countries by traditional practitioners as a folk remedy for treatment of diabetes mellitus. We demonstrated the antidiabetic potential of the plant extracts in n-streptozotocin diabetic rats. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of ethanol extract of leaves of A. occidentale on neonatal streptozotocin diabetic rats. Two day old neonates were injected with 100 mg/kg of streptozotocin...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
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