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Alegra I Mendez, Amelia A Miramonti, Zachary M Gillen, Brianna D McKay, Todd J Leutzinger, Joel T Cramer
Mendez, AI, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, McKay, BD, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Stature, body mass, and BMI in high school american football players: Appropriate determinants of obesity prevalence? J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3119-3126, 2018-The purpose of this study was to evaluate stature (HT), mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), and obesity prevalence based on BMI categories in a large sample (n = 7,175) of high school American football players enrolled as freshmen, sophomores, or juniors. Players were categorized by their positions: offensive linemen (OLs), defensive linemen (DLs), tight end, defensive end, linebacker, running back, quarterback, defensive back, and wide receiver...
November 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Xiaojing Ouyang, Qingfeng Li, Mengjing Shi, Dongsheng Niu, Wenjing Song, Qinggong Nian, Xiangda Li, Zhonghui Ding, Xianyin Ai, Jian Wang
PURPOSE: Postoperative infection has seriously affected the prognosis of cancer patients, while probiotics have been increasingly used to prevent postoperative infection in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of probiotics on infection after colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. METHODS: Related clinical trial reports were collected from Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library as well as China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Rachael M Taylor, Roger Smith, Clare E Collins, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Alexis J Hure
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesised that epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation may underlie the relationship between early-life nutrition and child cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to identify dietary patterns associated with the intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients in children aged 2-3 years. METHODS: A validated 120-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires at 2-3 years of age were used to estimate the intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients (methionine, folate, choline and vitamins B2, B6, B12) and to quantify mean number of serves consumed of the food groups specified by the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE)...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ai Shiraishi, Yoshihiro Yoshimura, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Yuri Tsuji, Sayuri Shimazu, Seungwon Jeong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral health is an integral part of nutrition and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of impaired oral health status on clinical and functional outcomes in post-acute in-hospital rehabilitation. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients undergoing rehabilitation at a 225-bed post-acute rehabilitation hospital in Japan. All newly admitted patients were eligible to enroll during the two-year research period...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yu-Juan Xue, Yi-Fei Cheng, Ai-Dong Lu, Yu Wang, Ying-Xi Zuo, Chen-Hua Yan, Jun Wu, Yu-Qian Sun, Pan Suo, Yu-Hong Chen, Huan Chen, Yue-Ping Jia, Kai-Yan Liu, Wei Han, Lan-Ping Xu, Le-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Jun Huang
BACKGROUND: The role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), particularly haploidentical (haplo)-HSCT, in pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) era is unclear. This study aimed to identify prognostic factors and explore the role of haplo-HSCT in the treatment of Ph+ALL in the TKI era. METHODS: We analyzed clinical data of Ph+ALL patients aged 1-18 years who received imatinib added to intensive chemotherapy at the start of induction therapy...
December 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Natalie Z M Eichner, Julian M Gaitán, Nicole M Gilbertson, Mahnoor Khurshid, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
Background People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in part due to low insulin sensitivity mediated arterial stiffness. However, the effect of short-term exercise training intensity, and/or amount (i.e. kcal/session), on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased exercise intensity and dose (i.e. amount) would correlate with reduced fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in obese adults with prediabetes. Methods Following randomization, 31 adults (Age: 61...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Ai-Qun Song, Yang-Pu Zhang, Rui Chen, Feng-Xia Liang
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture for intervening insulin resistance (IR) by meta-analysis of related randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies published prior to 31 January 2018 were searched on Pubmed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase databases and Chinese databases. Only RCTs, which examined acupuncture as the sole or adjunctive treatment for IR-related diseases, were included. The primary outcome was homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The secondary outcomes consisted of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) and 2-h postprandial blood glucose (2h-PBG)...
December 2018: Current medical science
Tsubasa Nishino, Akira Kobayashi, Natsuko Mori, Toshinori Masaki, Hideaki Yokogawa, Keiko Fujiki, Ai Yanagawa, Akira Murakami, Kazuhisa Sugiyama
PURPOSE: To report genetic mutational analysis and in vivo histology of Meesmann corneal dystrophy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, case control study. METHODS: Six patients from three independent families with clinically diagnosed Meesmann corneal dystrophy were enrolled in this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy with fluorescein vital staining, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and in vivo laser confocal microscopy (IVCM) were performed on selected patients...
December 7, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Rashin Mohseni, Mahmood Reza Ashrafi, Jafar Ai, Mahin Nikougoftar, Mahmoud Mohammadi, Masood Ghahvechi-Akbari, Alireza Shoae-Hassani, Amir Ali Hamidieh
Cell therapy and stem cell transplantation strategies have provided potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neurological disorders. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are abundant adult stem cells with low immunogenicity, which can be used for allogeneic cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ADMSCs into acetylcholine-secreting motoneurons (MNs) is a promising treatment for MN diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), which is associated with the level of SMN1 gene expression...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Jun Kataoka, Akira Kuriyama, Yasuhiro Norisue, Shigeki Fujitani
BACKGROUND: Proportional modes (proportional assist ventilation, PAV, and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist, NAVA) could improve patient-ventilator interaction and consequently may be efficient as a weaning mode. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine whether proportional modes improved patient-ventilator interaction and whether they had an impact on the weaning success and length of mechanical ventilation, in comparison with PSV. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception through May 13, 2018...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Na Clara Pan, Ai Fang, Chen Shen, Le Sun, Qian Wu, Xiaoqun Wang
GABAergic interneurons perform distinct functions during cortical development in the mouse brain. Among the diverse GABAergic neurons present in the brain, early-born somatostatin (SST)-expressing inhibitory interneurons, which are innervated by other interneurons and local pyramidal cells (PCs), act in a neural computational role in circuitry regulation. The synapses between the SST+ interneurons and other cells form gradually during development. Here, we traced the developmental course of the electrophysiological properties of SST+ interneurons at layer 2/3 of the neocortical secondary motor area (M2) in mouse, and the synaptic connectivity between SST+ interneurons and PCs...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Vaishnavi Potluri, Preethi Sangeetha Kathiresan, Hemanth Kandula, Prudhvi Thirumalaraju, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Sandeep Kota Sai Pavan, Divyank Yarravarapu, Anand Soundararajan, Karthik Baskar, Raghav Gupta, Neeraj Gudipati, John C Petrozza, Hadi Shafiee
The ability to accurately predict ovulation at-home using low-cost point-of-care diagnostics can be of significant help for couples who prefer natural family planning. Detecting ovulation-specific hormones in urine samples and monitoring basal body temperature are the current commonly home-based methods used for ovulation detection; however, these methods, relatively, are expensive for prolonged use and the results are difficult to comprehend. Here, we report a smartphone-based point-of-care device for automated ovulation testing using artificial intelligence (AI) by detecting fern patterns in a small volume (<100 μL) of saliva that is air-dried on a microfluidic device...
December 11, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Christian Huyck, Ian Mitchell
The best way to develop a Turing test passing AI is to follow the human model: an embodied agent that functions over a wide range of domains, is a human cognitive model, follows human neural functioning and learns. These properties will endow the agent with the deep semantics required to pass the test. An embodied agent functioning over a wide range of domains is needed to be exposed to and learn the semantics of those domains. Following human cognitive and neural functioning simplifies the search for sufficiently sophisticated mechanisms by reusing mechanisms that are already known to be sufficient...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Ekaterine Pestvenidze, Babill Stray-Pedersen
Purpose: While induced abortion practices are common in Georgia, the sociodemographic subgroups of women predominantly affected by abortion and their leading motives have not yet been explored. The study aims to understand differentials in women undergoing abortion according to background characteristics and get insight into their reasons for availing of abortion services. Materials and methods: We analyzed the data on 2,054 abortions from the Georgian Reproductive Health Survey 2010...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
Lan Yang, Guangtao Yu, Xuan Ai, Wensheng Yan, Hengli Duan, Wei Chen, Xiaotian Li, Ting Wang, Chenghui Zhang, Xuri Huang, Jie-Sheng Chen, Xiaoxin Zou
The widespread use of proton exchange membrane water electrolysis requires the development of more efficient electrocatalysts containing reduced amounts of expensive iridium for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here we present the identification of 6H-phase SrIrO3 perovskite (6H-SrIrO3 ) as a highly active electrocatalyst with good structural and catalytic stability for OER in acid. 6H-SrIrO3 contains 27.1 wt% less iridium than IrO2 , but its iridium mass activity is about 7 times higher than IrO2 , a benchmark electrocatalyst for the acidic OER...
December 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Rajni Sharma, Shamnad Madathil, Vivek Maheshwari, Kakali Roy, Brijesh Kumar, Vandana Jain
Background The diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is based on the basal and stimulated levels of serum cortisol in response to the short Synacthen test (SST). In patients with secondary AI (SAI) due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis defects, the SST has been validated against the insulin tolerance test (ITT), which is the gold standard. However, injection Synacthen is not easily available in some countries, and endocrinologists often use Acton-Prolongatum (intramuscular [IM] long-acting adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH]) in place of Synacthen...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Gayatri Gopal, Clemens Suter-Crazzolara, Luca Toldo, Werner Eberhardt
Healthcare providers all over the world are faced with a single challenge: the need to improve patient outcomes while containing costs. Drivers include an increasing demand for chronic disease management for an aging population, technological advancements and empowered patients taking control of their health experience. The digital transformation in healthcare, through the creation of a rich health data foundation and integration of technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced analytics, Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), is recognized as a key component to tackle these challenges...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Zheng-Xiu Li, He-Xiao Wang, Yang Yang, Rui-Qun Qi, Yi-Lei Li, Ai-Jiao Yu, Xing-Hua Gao
BACKGROUND: Human skin or mucosa exposes cells to both an internal and exogeneous thermal environment and the cells survive within a certain range of temperature. Exogeneous hyperthermia has been applied for the treatment of various types of cancers, fungal disease, and warts. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether different cellular components in the skin adapt to hyperthermic conditions differentially and further elucidate the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cell lines derived from normal and tumour epithelial cells were treated with hyperthermic conditions and tested for viability (using an MTS assay), apoptosis (using a FITC-conjugated annexin V apoptosis detection kit), and changes in intracellular calcium (using a calcium-sensitive fluorescent single-wavelength dye, Fluo-4 AM)...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
Fausto Milletari, Johann Frei, Moustafa Aboulatta, Gerome Vivar, Seyed-Ahmad Ahmadi
BACKGROUND: Deep learning has been recently applied to a multitude of computer vision and medical image analysis problems. Although recent research efforts have improved the state of the art, most of the methods cannot be easily accessed, compared or used by other researchers or clinicians. Even if developers publish their code and pre-trained models on the internet, integration in stand-alone applications and existing workflows is often not straightforward, especially for clinical research partners...
December 5, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Wenxia Pei, Ajay Jain, Hao Ai, Xiuli Liu, Bing Feng, Xiaowen Wang, Yafei Sun, Guohua Xu, Shubin Sun
Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a post-translational modification of proteins that has important roles in plant growth and development as well as nutrition study. OsSIZ1, a SUMO E3 ligase in rice (Oryza sativa), exerts regulatory influence on nitrogen (N) homeostasis. Here, we investigated the biological function of OsSIZ2, a paralog of OsSIZ1, in the responses to nitrogen, anther dehiscence, and seed length using a reverse genetics approach. The expression of OsSIZ2 was increased during N deficiency...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
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