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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Elvira Lara, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Nathalie Swinnen, Ai Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: Despite the benefits of being active for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on cognition and the acknowledgement that MCI is a critical period for intervening to prevent dementia, little is known about the actual sedentary levels in people with MCI. This study investigates correlates of sedentary behavior (SB) in people with MCI. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed...
October 16, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Farman Ali, Zujie Yao, Wanxin Li, Lina Sun, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
luxS is conserved in several bacterial species, including A. hydrophila, which causes infections in prawn, fish, and shrimp, and is consequently a great risk to the aquaculture industry and public health. luxS plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of the autoinducer-2 (AI-2), which performs wide-ranging functions in bacterial communication, and especially in quorum sensing (QS). The prediction of a 3D structure of the QS-associated LuxS protein is thus essential to better understand and control A. hydrophila pathogenecity...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liangchang Zhang, Ting Li, Weidang Ai, Chunyan Zhang, Yongkang Tang, Qingni Yu, Yinghui Li
Water management subsystem (WMS) is a major component of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). For guaranteeing the water requirement of crop growth and crewmember's daily life, a WMS was established in a 4 person 180-day integrated experiment (carried out in Shenzhen, China, 2016) to maintain a closed cycle with a total water amount of ~23 m3 . The design and operation of the WMS was summarized as follows: (1) Collection and allocation of condensate water. About 917 L/d condensate water (>98% was from plants' evapotranspiration) was collected, and ~866 L/d of which was reused as plant nutrient solution after ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, and 50...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Diana Stanton, Christopher Batich, Gregory Schultz, Daniel Gibson, Carla Guidi, Qingping Yang, Alexandra Bechtle, Richard Eiferman
PURPOSE: Multiuse eye drops must maintain sterility and typically accomplish this by added preservatives. However, preservatives often cause harmful side effects. A gauze barrier dressing ("BIOGUARD® ") recently cleared by the FDA has an immobilized poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (p-DADMAC) coating and is an effective antimicrobial with minimal compound release into solution. To implement use of this dressing as a replacement for preservatives in multidose eye drop bottles, its ability to maintain sterility without interacting with the active ingredient (AI) of the ophthalmic medication was tested...
October 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
P Fossion, S Antonetti, C Lays
In this article, we propose to review the recent literature on Internet addiction (AI) by addressing several themes : we will begin by detailing the various questions that have arisen over time as to the reality of the syndrome and the responses that have been provided by the clinical and neuroimaging studies ; we will then discuss comorbidity problems as well as factors favoring the emergence of the AI and its consequences on health ; we will then detail the different treatments proposed and in a dialectical spirit, we will discuss the advantages that a moderate use of the Internet can have on the cognitive functioning as well as different tracks for future researches...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
John M Clements, Stephanie J Rhynard
This study uses data from the 2012 National Inpatient Sample to determine if mortality, length of stay, and discharge disposition are different between rural and urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with alcohol abuse, depression, diabetes, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Results show no difference in mortality between groups. Alcohol abuse, depression, and diabetes are less prevalent in rural AI/ANs, and rural patients have shorter lengths of stay and fewer chronic conditions, diagnoses, and procedures...
2018: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
Shadab Fatima Hussain, Benjamin W Domingue, Teresa LaFromboise, Nidia Ruedas-Gracia
The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) scale is widely used to measure school belongingness among adolescents. However, previous studies identify inconsistencies in factor structures across different populations. The factor structure of the PSSM has yet to be examined with American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth, a population of keen interest given reports of their educational and health disparities, and the potential of belongingness as a protective factor against risk behaviors. Thus, this study examined the factor structure of the PSSM in two samples of AI adolescents (N = 349)...
2018: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
Mina K Kim, Mi-Ai Lee, Kwang-Geun Lee
In this study, two prototype radish-based kimchi were developed for Chinese consumer market. The major difference between these samples was the liquid used during the salting stage. Kimchi 1 was salted in soy sauce while Kimchi 2 was salted in saline water. The quality factor differences were observed in Brix (°Brix), salinity, and capsaicin levels ( p  < 0.05). The volatile flavor analysis revealed that a different flavor profile was noted between the two kimchi samples; however, this did not influence consumer acceptance...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Lun Liu, Jian Gao, Weili Bao, Chengyang Hu, Yajing Xu, Bingying Zhao, Jie Zheng, Lingling Fan, Yehuan Sun
Purpose: To analyze foveal microvascular abnormalities in different stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) with projection artifact removal (PAR). Methods: We analyzed 93 eyes of 59 patients with diabetes-31 with no DR (no DR), 34 with mild to moderate nonproliferative DR (mild DR), and 28 with severe nonproliferative DR to proliferative DR (severe DR)-and 31 age-matched healthy controls. Sections measuring 3 × 3 mm2 centered on the fovea were obtained using OCTA...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Zhiqiang Wang, Zhexuan Fan, Qi Zhao, Mingcheng Wang, Jinzhi Ran, Heng Huang, Karl J Niklas
Nutrient resorption plays an important role in ecology because it has a profound effect on subsequent plant growth. However, our current knowledge about patterns of nutrient resorption, particularly among herbaceous species, at a global scale is still inadequate. Here, we present a meta-analysis using a global dataset of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiency encompassing 227 perennial herbaceous species. This analysis shows that the N and P resorption efficiency (NRE and PRE, respectively), and N:P resorption ratios (NRE:PRE) across all herbaceous plant groups are 59...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hidetoshi Ikeno, Ajayrama Kumaraswamy, Kazuki Kai, Thomas Wachtler, Hiroyuki Ai
The morphology of a neuron is strongly related to its physiological properties, application of logical product and thus to information processing functions. Optical microscope images are widely used for extracting the structure of neurons. Although several approaches have been proposed to trace and extract complex neuronal structures from microscopy images, available methods remain prone to errors. In this study, we present a practical scheme for processing confocal microscope images and reconstructing neuronal structures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Sasank Chilamkurthy, Rohit Ghosh, Swetha Tanamala, Mustafa Biviji, Norbert G Campeau, Vasantha Kumar Venugopal, Vidur Mahajan, Pooja Rao, Prashant Warier
BACKGROUND: Non-contrast head CT scan is the current standard for initial imaging of patients with head trauma or stroke symptoms. We aimed to develop and validate a set of deep learning algorithms for automated detection of the following key findings from these scans: intracranial haemorrhage and its types (ie, intraparenchymal, intraventricular, subdural, extradural, and subarachnoid); calvarial fractures; midline shift; and mass effect. METHODS: We retrospectively collected a dataset containing 313 318 head CT scans together with their clinical reports from around 20 centres in India between Jan 1, 2011, and June 1, 2017...
October 11, 2018: Lancet
Alexander McGown, Matthew John Stopford
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapid adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Current treatment options are limited for ALS, with very modest effects on survival. Therefore, there is a unmet need for novel therapeutics to treat ALS. Areas covered: This review highlights the many diverse high-throughput screening platforms that have been implemented in ALS drug discovery. The authors discuss cell free assays including in silico and protein interaction models...
October 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Toru Fujii, Yuji Shiozaki, Hiroko Segawa, Shiori Nishiguchi, Ai Hanazaki, Miwa Noguchi, Ruri Kirino, Sumire Sasaki, Kazuya Tanifuji, Megumi Koike, Mizuki Yokoyama, Yuki Arima, Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Mikiko Ito, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: The role of Na+ -dependent inorganic phosphate (Pi) transporters in the human kidney is not fully clarified. Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the IIc Na+ -dependent Pi transporter (NPT2c/Npt2c/NaPi-IIc) gene. Another Na+ -dependent type II transporter, (NPT2A/Npt2a/NaPi-IIa), is also important for renal Pi reabsorption in humans. In mice, Npt2c deletion does not lead to hypophosphatemia and rickets because Npt2a compensates for the impaired Pi reabsorption...
October 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Dai Ishiyama, Yoshihiro Nakamura, Tomomi Tanaka, Fumie Magata, Fuko Matsuda, Kei-Ichiro Maeda
Fusion failure of the Müllerian ducts is thought to occur congenitally in cattle. We aimed to elucidate the contribution of incomplete fusion of the Müllerian ducts to reproductive difficulties in dairy cattle. We observed the vaginas of Holstein cattle to classify the anomalies into mild and severe types, based on severity of incomplete fusion, and recorded information about the cattle at the time of artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer. Of the 1054 Holstein cattle examined, 22 (2.09%) individuals showed incomplete fusion of the Müllerian ducts...
September 28, 2018: Theriogenology
Ryo Asaoka, Hiroshi Murata, Kazunori Hirasawa, Yuri Fujino, Masato Matsuura, Atsuya Miki, Takashi Kanamoto, Yoko Ikeda, Kazuhiko Mori, Aiko Iwase, Nobuyuki Shoji, Kenji Inoue, Junkichi Yamagami, Makoto Araie
PURPOSE: To construct and evaluate a Deep Learning (DL) model to diagnose early glaucoma from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. DESIGN: AI diagnostic tool development, evaluation, and comparison METHODS: Setting: multiple institutional practices. STUDY POPULATION: Pre-training data consisted of 4316 OCT images (RS3000, Nidek) from 1565 eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG) irrespective of the stage of glaucoma and 193 normal eyes...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Kamila Pires de Carvalho, Mariana Tavares Miranda Lima, Fernanda Silva Mazzutti, Isis Danyelle Dias Custódio, Paula Philbert Lajolo Canto, Carlos Eduardo Paiva, Yara Cristina de Paiva Maia
PURPOSE: To study the use of functional capacity (FC) level and duration of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy with adiposity parameters in women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: FC was evaluated through the Health Assessment Questionnaire, which was assessed by classification and divided into 3 groups: G1 = mild to moderate difficulty, G2 = moderate to severe disability, and G3 = severe or very severe disability. Body mass, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated...
September 13, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Amber L Harris Bozer, Ai-Ling Li, Perry N Fuchs, Yuan B Peng
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain patients have described experiencing unprovoked, intermittent pain attacks with shooting, stabbing, and burning qualities. Rodent models used in previous literature usually only involve acute exposure, and/or are unable to manipulate the stimulation intensity in vivo by the experimenter during an experiment. NEW METHOD: This paper describes a method to induce controllable pain behaviors in rodents using a wireless portable electronic device that can be manipulated within the course of an experiment...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
James K Ruffle, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz
Technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) represent an enticing opportunity to benefit gastroenterological practice. Moreover, AI, through machine or deep learning, permits the ability to develop predictive models from large datasets. Possibilities of predictive model development in machine learning are numerous dependent on the clinical question. For example, binary classifiers aim to stratify allocation to a categorical outcome, such as the presence or absence of a gastrointestinal disease. In addition, continuous variable fitting techniques can be used to predict quantity of a therapeutic response, thus offering a tool to predict which therapeutic intervention may be most beneficial to the given patient...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Mebratu A Bitew, Chen Ai Khoo, Nitika Neha, David P De Souza, Dedreia Tull, Nadeeka K Wawegama, Hayley J Newton, Fiona M Sansom
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the important zoonotic disease Q fever. Improved genetic tools and the ability to grow this bacterium in host cell-free media has advanced the study of C. burnetii pathogenesis, but the mechanisms that allow it to survive inside the hostile phagolysosome remain incompletely understood. Previous screening of a transposon mutant library for replication within HeLa cells has suggested that nadB , encoding a putative L-aspartate oxidase required for de novo NAD synthesis, is needed for intracellular replication...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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