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Vascular liver disease

Henrique Donato, Luísa Andrade, Nina Bastati, Augusta Cipriano, Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah, Filipe Caseiro-Alves
INTRODUCTION: Multiacinar regenerative nodules are benign hepatocellular nodules related to vascular disturbances of the liver. They strongly resemble conventional focal nodular hyperplasia but are connected to different clinical settings, typically chronic liver disease. The purpose of the present study was to describe the key imaging features of these lesions and compare them with a control arm of focal nodular hyperplasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A blinded consensus review of liver magnetic resonance consisting of 26 cases of multiacinar regenerative nodules and 25 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia was performed...
September 28, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Masaki Koda, Shogo Tanaka, Shigekazu Takemura, Hiroji Shinkawa, Masahiko Kinoshita, Genya Hamano, Tokuji Ito, Norifumi Kawada, Toshihiko Shibata, Shoji Kubo
Background: Although studies have reported on long-term (10-year) survival after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), they did not focus on patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC, and the contribution of antiviral therapy to long-term survival (especially ≥15 years) has not been adequately examined. We investigated the long-term outcome after hepatic resection for HCV-related HCC, including the effects of interferon (IFN) therapy, and the changes in prognostic factors according to postoperative duration...
September 2018: Liver Cancer
Octavia Bane, Steven Peti, Mathilde Wagner, Stefanie Hectors, Hadrien Dyvorne, Michael Markl, Bachir Taouli
BACKGROUND: The test-retest/interobserver repeatability and diagnostic value of 4D flow MRI in liver disease is underreported. PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility/repeatability of flow quantification in abdominal vessels using a spiral 4D flow MRI sequence; to assess the value of 4D flow parameters in diagnosing cirrhosis and degree of portal hypertension. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SUBJECTS: Fifty-two patients with chronic liver disease...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
J G Abraldes, J Trebicka, N Chalasani, G D'Amico, D Rockey, V Shah, J Bosch, G Garcia-Tsao
Portal hypertension is the main driver of cirrhosis decompensation, the main determinant of death in patients with cirrhosis. Portal hypertension results initially from increased intrahepatic vascular resistance. Later, increased inflow from splanchnic vasodilation and increased cardiac output lead to a further increase in portal pressure. Reducing portal pressure in cirrhosis results in better outcomes. Removing the cause of cirrhosis might improve portal pressure. However, this is a slow process and patients may continue to be at risk of decompensation...
October 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Gyorgy Baffy
Gut microbiota is the largest collection of commensal microorganisms in the human body, engaged in reciprocal cellular and molecular interactions with the liver. This mutually beneficial relationship may break down and result in dysbiosis, associated with disease phenotypes. Altered composition and function of gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathobiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a prevalent condition linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. NAFLD may progress to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which is the result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and altered splanchnic circulation...
October 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Ivana Nikolic, Lai-Ming Yung, Peiran Yang, Rajeev Malhotra, Samuel D Paskin-Flerlage, Teresa Dinter, Geoffrey A Bocobo, Kathleen E Tumelty, Anthony J Faugno, Luca Troncone, Megan E McNeil, Xiuli Huang, Kathryn R Coser, Carol S C Lai, Paul D Upton, Marie Jose Goumans, Roham T Zamanian, C Gregory Elliott, Arthur Lee, Wei Zheng, Stephen P Berasi, Christine Huard, Nicholas W Morrell, Raymond T Chung, Richard W Channick, Kari E Roberts, Paul B Yu
RATIONALE: Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 (BMP9) is a circulating endothelial quiescence factor with protective effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Loss-of-function mutations in BMP9, its receptors and downstream effectors have been reported in heritable PAH. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine how an acquired deficiency of BMP9 signaling might contribute to PAH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of BMP9 and antagonist soluble Endoglin (sEng) were measured in Group 1 PAH, Group 2 and 3 pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in patients with severe liver disease without PAH...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
Diabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, "metabolic memory," a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Dyuti Shah, Govind K Makharia, Uday C Ghoshal, Sanskriti Varma, Vineet Ahuja, Susan Hutfless
There is no comprehensive report on the burden of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases in India. In this study, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence, mortality, and disability adjusted life years (DALY) rates of GI and liver diseases in India from 1990 to 2016 using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, which systematically reviews literature and reports for international disease burden trends. Despite a decrease in the overall burden from GI infectious disorders since 1990, they still accounted for the majority of DALYs in 2016...
October 10, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Sampath Gunda, Santosh K Padala, Aditya Saini, Le Kang, Kenneth A Ellenbogen, Jayanthi N Koneru
Aims: Outcome data on ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation has been limited to few experienced centres. We sought to identify complication rates, predictors, and create a risk score model for predicting complications in patients from real-world data. Methods and results: A total of 25 451 patients undergoing VT ablation from year 2006 to 2013 were identified from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. The whole cohort was randomly divided into derivation cohort to derive the model and validation cohort to validate the model...
October 9, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Adriana Carino, Silvia Marchianò, Michele Biagioli, Mariarosaria Bucci, Valentina Vellecco, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Chiara Fiorucci, Angela Zampella, Maria Chiara Monti, Eleonora Distrutti, Stefano Fiorucci
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications and mortality, suggesting that treatment of NASH might benefit from combined approaches that target the liver and the cardiovascular components of NASH. Using genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we show that G protein-coupled bile acid-activated receptor 1 (GPBAR1) agonism reverses liver and vascular damage in mouse models of NASH. NASH is associated with accelerated vascular inflammation representing an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular-related mortality...
October 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Michelle Lipton, Stephen Aniskevich
Acute compartment syndrome is the physiologic consequence of increasing pressures within an enclosed anatomic space; if left untreated, it can subsequently cause irreversible necrosis, nerve injury, and tissue damage. A number of iatrogenic causes have been reported in the literature; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no prior reports of upper extremity compartment syndrome in orthotopic liver transplant following arterial line placement. Here, we report a 52-year-old male with a history of end-stage liver disease secondary to primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented for orthotopic liver transplant...
October 5, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Miguel N Albano, Sofia G Brazão, Teresa V Caroço, João M Louro, Maria I Coelho, Carlos E Costa Almeida, Luís S Reis, Carlos M Costa Almeida
Introduction: Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a rare syndrome defined by the peripheral ischemic lesion of two or more extremities in the absence of major vascular obstructive disease. Presentation of case: A 45yo woman, admitted in intensive care unit due to urinary septic shock, in need of high doses of amines, developed cold extremities with acrocyanosis that rapidly progressed to gangrene. Laboratory analysis revealed increased inflammatory parameters, liver shock, thrombocytopenia, prolonged coagulation times, increased D-Dimers and isolation of Acinetobacter baumanni in urine culture...
November 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Rebecca L McCullough, Megan R McMullen, Kyle L Poulsen, Adam Kim, M Edward Medof, Laura E Nagy
Background and aims: Chronic ethanol exposure results in inflammation in adipose tissue; this response is associated with activation of complement as well as the development of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). Adipose communicates with other organs, including liver, via the release of soluble mediators, such as adipokines and cytokines, characterized as the "adipose secretome." Here we investigated the role of the anaphaylatoxin receptors C3aR and C5aR1 in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and regulation of the adipose secretome in murine ALD (mALD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ahmed Khalil, Sebnem E Cevik, Stephanie Hung, Sridurgadevi Kolla, Monika A Roy, Alexander Suvorov
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were used as flame-retardant additives starting 1965 and were recently withdrawn from commerce in North America and Europe. Approximately 1/5 of the total U.S. population were born when environmental concentrations of PBDE plateaued at their maximum. Accumulating evidence suggests that developmental exposures to PBDE may result in long-lasting programming of liver metabolism. In this study, CD-1 mice were exposed prenatally or neonatally to 1 mg/kg body weight of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and changes in liver histology, transcriptome, and liver-blood balance of triglycerides were analyzed in 10 months old male offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Clément Lejealle, Valérie Paradis, Onorina Bruno, Emmanuelle de Raucourt, Claire Francoz, Olivier Soubrane, Didier Lebrec, Pierre Bedossa, Dominique Valla, Hervé Mal, Valérie Vilgrain, François Durand, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
BACKGROUND: s: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect - defined by an increased alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient - induced by pulmonay vascular dilatations in the context of liver disease. The pathogenesis of HPS is poorly understood. Morphological changes associated with HPS are unknown. This study aimed at describing imaging and pathology changes associated with HPS. METHODS: We performed a case-control study in candidates for transplant with suspicion of cirrhosis...
October 4, 2018: Chest
Jianyong Zhong, Haichun Yang, Valentina Kon
The strong inverse relationship between low levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) led to the designation of HDL as the "good" cholesterol. The atheroprotection is thought to reflect HDL's capacity to efflux cholesterol from macrophages, followed by interaction with other lipoproteins in the plasma, processing by the liver and excretion into bile. However, pharmacologic increases in HDL-C levels have not led to expected clinical benefits, giving rise to the concept of dysfunctional HDL, in which increases in serum HDL-C are not beneficial due to lost or altered HDL functions and transition to "bad" HDL...
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
F Morschhauser, B Dekyndt, C Baillet, C Barthélémy, E Malek, J Fulcrand, P Bigot, D Huglo, B Décaudin, N Simon, P Odou
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are key components in several therapies for cancer and inflammatory diseases but current knowledge of their clinical pharmacokinetics and distribution in human tissues remains incomplete. Consequently, optimal dosing and scheduling in clinics are affected. With sequential radiolabeled mAb-based imaging, radiation dosing in tissues/organs can be calculated to provide a better assessment of mAb concentrations in tissues. This is the first pharmacokinetic model of 90 Y-Ibritumomab tiuxetan (90 Y-IT) in humans to be described, based on three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using single-photon emission computed-tomography coupled with computed-tomography...
October 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sanghoon Lee, Ping Zhou, Anita Gupta, Soona Shin
While reactive ductules (RDs) have been observed in viral hepatitis, biliary atresia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and adult hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), RDs in pediatric liver cancer remain uncharacterized. This study investigated the relationship of RDs with angiogenic paracrine factors, the extent of angiogenesis, and tumor cell proliferation in pediatric hepatoblastoma (HBL)/HCC livers. We quantified the extent of RDs and their expression of paracrine factors that include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGFD), platelet-derived growth factor C, and angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1)...
October 2018: Hepatology communications
Xiao-Bing Cui, Shi-You Chen
Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) is a protein that was identified in rat oligodendrocytes after complement activation. It is expressed in most of the organs and tissues, such as brain, placenta, heart, and the liver. Functionally, RGC32 is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, fibrosis, metabolic disease, and cancer. Emerging evidences support the roles of RGC32 in vascular diseases. RGC32 promotes injury-induced vascular neointima formation by mediating smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Kosuke Sawami, Atsushi Tanaka, Tsukasa Nakamura, Eiichi Sato, Yoshihiko Ueda, Koichi Node
Dyslipidemia is often complicated by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Lipid-lowering medications may be effective, in part, for inhibiting development and progression of CKD. Ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, has pleiotropic actions, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, contributing to a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A 40-year-old woman was admitted with dyslipidemia and macroproteinuria, whose samples of renal biopsy showed exudative lesions, but without glomerular basement membrane thickening or nodular lesions, in some glomeruli...
June 2018: Journal of Cardiology Cases
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