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Vascular liver disease

Jing Ma, Dan Zhao, Xiaolin Wang, Chuanrui Ma, Ke Feng, Shuang Zhang, Yuanli Chen, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Ke Qian, Xiaoju Li, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
Disorders of lipid metabolism and inflammation play an important role in atherosclerosis. LongShengZhi capsule (LSZ), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for treatment of patients with vascular diseases for many years. Herein, we determined the effect of LSZ on the progression of established atherosclerotic lesions in apoE deficient (apoE) mice. ApoE mice were pre-fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce atherosclerosis, then started with LSZ treatment contained in HFD for 10 weeks. Although LSZ had little effect on HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia, it substantially reduced en face and sinus aortic lesions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Honglan Yang, Yanmin Sui, Xingjun Guo, Xiaojing Tan, Yan Li, Minglin Wang
Objective: Endostar is a new vascular epithelial inhibitor, which is reported to be effective in treating liver metastasis from gastric cancer. However, the optimal therapeutic regimen of Endostar remains unclear. Thus, our study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of Endostar continuous intravenous infusion combined with S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) chemotherapy in treating such patients. Patients and Methods: A total of sixty patients with liver metastasis from gastric cancer admitted in our department were enrolled...
December 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
I Pettinari, R Vukotic, H Stefanescu, A Pecorelli, Mc Morelli, C Grigoras, Z Sparchez, P Andreone, F Piscaglia
OBJECTIVES: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis. Benefit, safety, and duration of anticoagulant treatment in this setting are controversial issues. The aim of this study was to analyze the course of PVT in a large cohort of cirrhotic patients undergoing or not anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: The data of 182 patients who presented between January 2008 and March 2016 with cirrhosis and PVT with at least 3 months of follow-up after the first PVT detection were analyzed...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Xiaodong Xu, Lujie Yuan, Yongkang Gai, Qingyao Liu, Lianglan Yin, Yaqun Jiang, Yichun Wang, Yongxue Zhang, Xiaoli Lan
PURPOSE: There has been no satisfactory treatment for advanced melanoma until now. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) may be a promising option for this heretofore lethal disease. Our goal in this study was to synthesize 131 I-N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-5-(iodo-131I)picolinamide (131 I-5-IPN) and evaluate its therapeutic ability and toxicity as a radioiodinated melanin-targeting therapeutic agent. METHODS: The trimethylstannyl precursor was synthesized and labeled with 131 I to obtain 131 I-5-IPN...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Madeleine Themanns, Florian Koban, Christian Bergmayr, Alicja Chrzan, Wolfgang Strohmaier, Johannes Haybaeck, Michael Freissmuth, Eva Zebedin-Brandl
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a major complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and belongs to a group of diseases increasingly identified as transplant-related systemic endothelial disease. Administration of defibrotide affords some protection against SOS, but the effect is modest. Hence, there is unmet medical need justifying the preclinical search for alternative approaches. Prostaglandins exert protective actions on endothelial cells of various vascular beds. Here, we explored the therapeutic potential of the prostacyclin analog treprostinil to prevent SOS...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Yingying Li, Valerio De Stefano, Hongyu Li, Kexing Zheng, Zhaohui Bai, Xiaozhong Guo, Xingshun Qi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global epidemiological data of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) are scant. A systemic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of BCS. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the study quality. The pooled incidence and prevalence of BCS with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using a random-effect model. The heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistics...
December 7, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Harshul Pandit, Joseph P Tinney, Yan Li, Guozhen Cui, Suping Li, Bradley B Keller, Robert C G Martin
We developed a protocol to investigate and optimize the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to non-invasive diagnosis of progressing fatty liver disease in mouse models. Eighteen 4-wk-old male C57 L/J mice were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and placed on a control diet, high-fat diet or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis diet for the next 10 wk. After 14 wk, B-mode imaging and CEUS imaging using a VisualSonics Vevo2100 system were performed. CEUS imaging and data analysis using three different parameters-peak enhancement, wash-in rate and wash-in perfusion index-revealed a significant decrease in representative blood flow in the high-fat diet group versus controls and a further significant decrease in the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis group (p < 0...
December 6, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Dianaly T Au, Mary Migliorini, Dudley K Strickland, Selen C Muratoglu
Hepatic inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance, which can perpetuate the disease state and may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Despite recent advances, mechanisms linking hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance are still unclear. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling receptor that is highly expressed in macrophages, adipocytes, hepatocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. To investigate the potential role of macrophage LRP1 in hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance, we conducted experiments using macrophage-specific LRP1-deficient mice ( macLRP1-/- ) generated on a low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout ( LDLR-/- ) background and fed a Western diet...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Brian W Powers, Jiali Yan, Jingsan Zhu, Kristin A Linn, Sachin H Jain, Jennifer L Kowalski, Amol S Navathe
BACKGROUND: There is a growing focus on improving the quality and value of health care delivery for high-cost patients. Compared to fee-for-service Medicare, less is known about the clinical composition of high-cost Medicare Advantage populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe a high-cost Medicare Advantage population and identify clinically and operationally significant subgroups of patients. DESIGN: We used a density-based clustering algorithm to group high-cost patients (top 10% of spending) according to 161 distinct demographic, clinical, and claims-based variables...
December 3, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Benjamin Kramer, Lucas Martins França, Youhua Zhang, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes, A Martin Gerdes, Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda
Overconsumption of a diet rich in fat and carbohydrates, called the Western diet, is a major contributor to the global epidemic of cardiovascular disease. Despite previously documented cardiovascular protection exhibited in female rats, this safeguard may be lost under certain metabolic stressors. We hypothesized that female Wistar rats challenged by a Western diet composed of 21% fat and 50% carbohydrate (34.1% sucrose) for 17 wk would develop endothelial dysfunction via endothelial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Na Li, Chu Liu, Guifen Ma, Yujen Tseng, Duyi Pan, Jie Chen, Feng Li, Xiaoqing Zeng, Tiancheng Luo, Shiyao Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: pathological angiogenesis plays an important role in the progression of chronic liver diseases. Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) participates in tumor angiogenesis and was recently shown to be associated with liver fibrosis. This study aimed to explore the effect of AEP on liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSECs) angiogenesis and determine the underlying mechanism. METHODS: cultured LSECs were infected with lentiviruses in order to suppress AEP expression (AEP-KD1, AEP-KD2)...
December 3, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Vanessa P Ho, Nicholas K Schiltz, Andrew P Reimer, Elizabeth A Madigan, Siran M Koroukian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Over a million older patients in the United States are admitted yearly for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. Seven procedure types dominate: colon, small bowel, gallbladder, ulcer disease, adhesiolysis, appendix, and laparotomy operations. A higher comorbidity burden is known to increase mortality in this population, but the impact of specific comorbidity combinations is unknown. Our objectives were to (1) characterize the distribution of procedures, comorbidities, and outcomes for older patients undergoing EGS; and (2) apply a data-driven approach (association rule mining) to identify comorbidity combinations associated with disproportionately high mortality...
December 2, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Sara Karjoo
Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) evaluated by ultrasound are non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis. Increased cIMT in adults has been correlated to early vascular damage. Several studies show similar correlations of elevated cIMT in children with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, several articles have correlated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with elevated cIMT, indicating early atherosclerosis. It is alarming that these vascular changes may be seen in children as young as 10 years of age...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Marina Vilaseca, Sergi Guixé-Muntet, Anabel Fernández-Iglesias, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
Portal hypertension represents one of the major clinical consequences of chronic liver disease, having a deep impact on patients' prognosis and survival. Its pathophysiology defines a pathological increase in the intrahepatic vascular resistance as the primary factor in its development, being subsequently aggravated by a paradoxical increase in portal blood inflow. Although extensive preclinical and clinical research in the field has been developed in recent decades, no effective treatment targeting its primary mechanism has been defined...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Antoni Riera-Mestre, Jesús Ribas, José Castellote
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant inherited Rare Disease that causes a systemic anomalous vascular overgrowth. The approach and follow-up of these patients should be from multidisciplinary units. Its diagnosis is carried out according to Curaçao clinical Criteria. Telangiectasia in the nasal mucosa cause recurrent epistaxis, the main symptom of HHT and difficult to control. The three types of hepatic shunting, hepatic artery to hepatic vein, hepatic artery to portal vein or to portal vein to hepatic vein, can cause high-output heart failure, portal hypertension or porto-systemic encephalopathy, respectively...
November 27, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Haruhiko Takeda, Norihiro Nishijima, Akihiro Nasu, Hideyuki Komekado, Ryuichi Kita, Toru Kimura, Masatoshi Kudo, Yukio Osaki
BACKGROUND: Lenvatinib is a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, which has recently demonstrated antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a phase III trial. We report the case of a woman in whom lenvatinib showed long-term antitumor activity, and in whom CT scans demonstrated a series of suggestive radiological changes on the intra-tumor vascularity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus-related liver disease presented with multiple HCCs...
November 29, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Xiumei Wang, Youde Liu, Jing Sun, Wenjing Gong, Ping Sun, Xiangshuo Kong, Miaomiao Yang, Weiwei Zhang
Objective: To investigate the expression of Mitofusin-2 (MFN2) in HCC tissues and its role in the development of HCC. Methods: A total of 107 HCC specimens were collected for tissue microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The relationship between MFN2 expression and clinical features of patients with HCC was analyzed. Results: Expression level of MFN2 in HCC tissues was 0.92 ± 0.78, significantly lower than that of matched paracancerous liver tissues (1...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Agnieszka Baranowska-Bik, Wojciech Bik
Insulin was discovered in 1922 by Banting and Best. Since that time, extensive research on the mechanisms of insulin activity and action has continued. Currently, it is known that the role of insulin is much greater than simply regulating carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin in physiological concentration is also necessary to maintain normal vascular function. Insulin resistance is defined as a pathological condition characterized by reduced sensitivity of skeletal muscles, liver, and adipose tissue, to insulin and its downstream metabolic effects under normal serum glucose concentrations...
November 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Nobuyuki Takakura
The roles that blood vessels play in the maintenance of organs and tissues in addition to the delivery of oxygen and nutrients are being gradually clarified. The maintenance of tissue-specific organ stem cells, such as hematopoietic and neuronal stem cells, is supported by endothelial cells (ECs), which represent an important component of the stem cell niche. The maintenance of organogenesis, for example, osteogenesis and liver generation/regeneration, is supported by molecules referred to as "angiocrine signals" secreted by EC...
November 28, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Rajasekharreddy Pala, Maha Jamal, Qamar Alshammari, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found in most mammalian cell types. Cilia act as sensory organelles that transmit extracellular clues into intracellular signals for molecular and cellular responses. Biochemical and molecular defects in primary cilia are associated with a wide range of diseases, termed ciliopathies, with phenotypes ranging from polycystic kidney disease, liver disorders, mental retardation, and obesity to cardiovascular diseases. Primary cilia in vascular endothelia protrude into the lumen of blood vessels and function as molecular switches for calcium (Ca2+ ) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling...
November 27, 2018: Cells
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