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Type one diabetes mellitus

Anirban Maitra, Ayush Sharma, Randall E Brand, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, William E Fisher, Phil A Hart, Steven J Hughes, Kieren J Mather, Stephen J Pandol, Walter G Park, Ziding Feng, Jose Serrano, Jo Ann S Rinaudo, Sudhir Srivastava, Suresh T Chari
The National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases initiated the Consortium for the Study of Chronic Pancreatitis, Diabetes, and Pancreatic Cancer (CPDPC) in 2015 (the CPDPC's origin, structure, governance, and research objectives are described in another article in this journal). One of the key objectives of CPDPC is to assemble a cohort of 10,000 subjects 50 years or older with new-onset diabetes, called the NOD cohort. Using a define, enrich, and find early detection approach, the aims of the NOD study are to (a) estimate the 3-year probability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in NOD (define), (b) establish a biobank of clinically annotated biospecimens from presymptomatic PDAC and control new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects, (c) conduct phase 3 validation studies of promising biomarkers for identification of incident PDAC in NOD patients (enrich), and (d) provide a platform for development of a future interventional screening protocol for early detection of PDAC in patients with NOD that incorporates imaging studies and/or clinical algorithms (find)...
November 2018: Pancreas
Melikşah Keskin, Şenay Savaş-Erdeve, Semra Çetinkaya, Zehra Aycan
Keskin M, Savaş-Erdeve Ş, Çetinkaya S, Aycan Z. Low hemoglobin A1c levels in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis: Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 201-205. Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) is a clinical condition that is characterized by remarkably rapid and complete pancreatic β-cell destruction, rapid onset of hyperglycemic symptoms followed by ketoacidosis. In most cases this process takes a few days. Although rare, there have been clinical manifestations with a prolonged progress that lasts longer than one week...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Yacob Pinchevsky, Frederick Raal, Neil Butkow, Tobias Chirwa, Larry Distiller, Alan Rothberg
Purpose: With the realities of resource constraints existing in South Africa's public sector and the evidence of disparities in health care between populations, the study sought to compare the quality of diabetes care and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving care within two specialized settings: one in the public and the other in the private sector. Particular emphasis was placed on complication rates at the two sites. Patients and methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected between June and October 2016 from existing patients' records at each setting...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Melkamu Merid Mengesha, Andreas A Teferra, Mamaru Ayenew Awoke, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) poses a significant risk for the development of active tuberculosis (TB) and complicates its treatment. However, there is inconclusive evidence on whether the TB-DM co-morbidity is associated with a higher risk of developing multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB and to estimate a pooled effect measure. METHODS: PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Web of Science, World Health Organization (WHO), and Global Health Library database were searched for all studies published in English until July 2018 and that reported the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
M Ahmed, S Lutze, M Tembulatow, G Daeschlein, M Jünger, A Arnold
BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disease (CVD) is extremely common worldwide. The prevalence is increasing with age and is associated with a reduced quality of life, particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. Symptomatic chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) with venous ulcer at its' endpoint, indicates interventional surgery to cure venous reflux therewith promoting wound healing and preventing recurrence. To our knowledge up to now no coherent study has been undertaken in patients with CVI who underwent an open venous surgery concerning complications, venous hemodynamics and perioperative symptomology in one study population...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
Pradeep Gadge, Roshani Gadge, Nikita Paralkar, Preeti Jain, Vrunda Tanna
Introduction: Telmisartan is one of the preferred choices of antihypertensive in patients of diabetes with hypertension (HTN) and lowers blood pressure (BP) effectively. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine BP-lowering efficacy of telmisartan monotherapy in patients of Stage I HTN with or without complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, patients of T2DM without (Group A) or with (Group B) complications who had Stage I HTN and were prescribed telmisartan (20-80 mg/day) treatment were identified from database...
October 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Edgar Guevara, Juan Carlos Torres-Galván, Miguel G Ramírez-Elías, Claudia Luevano-Contreras, Francisco Javier González
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is one of the most widely prevalent diseases worldwide and is currently screened by invasive techniques based on enzymatic assays that measure plasma glucose concentration in a laboratory setting. A promising plan of action for screening DM2 is to identify molecular signatures in a non-invasive fashion. This work describes the application of portable Raman spectroscopy coupled with several supervised machine-learning techniques, to discern between diabetic patients and healthy controls (Ctrl), with a high degree of accuracy...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Luana G Leal, Magno A Lopes, Miguel L Batista
Physical exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, and a combined therapeutic regimen of regular exercise and pharmaceutical treatment is often recommended for their clinical management. However, the mechanisms by which exercise produces these beneficial effects are not fully understood. Myokines, a group of skeletal muscle (SkM) derived peptides may play an important part in this process. Myokines are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibers under contraction and exert both local and pleiotropic effects...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
R Ali, A El-Said, H El-Baz, A Settin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has multigenetic and environmental interactive factors. Although diabetic neuropathies (DPN) are the most common, but at the same time, the least recognized and understood long-term complication of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association of IL-4 VNTR gene polymorphism with T2DM complicated with neuropathy in Egyptian subjects. This is a case control study including 102 T2DM Egyptian patients, plus 188 unrelated healthy individuals as controls. They were evaluated for variable number tandem repeat (VNTR); 70 base pair repeats located in the intron 3; of IL-4 gene using the PCR technique...
October 14, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Yaser Khajebishak, Laleh Payahoo, Mohammadreza Alivand, Beitollah Alipour
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the most common form of the disease, has become a serious threat to public health and is a growing burden on global economies. Due to the unexpected adverse effects of antidiabetic medicines, the use of nutraceuticals as a complementary therapy has drawn extensive attention by investigators. In this issue, a novel nutraceutical, Punicic acid (PA)-the main ingredient of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) that has potential therapeutic effects in T2DM-has been investigated...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Cuili Zou, Qiaoqin Zhang, Shenghong Zhang
As one kind of complications of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can influence the health of maternal-child in clinical practice. The C57 BL/KsJdb/+ (db/+) mice, genetic GDM model, and C57 BL/KsJ+/+ (wild-type) mice were purchased and classified into three groups: normal pregnancy (C57 BL/KsJ+/+ ), GDM (C57 BL/KsJdb/+ ), and GDM plus Mogroside IIIE (20.0 mg/kg) group. GDM symptoms (maternal body weight, serum glucose, and insulin levels), glucose and insulin tolerance, and reproductive outcome (body weight at birth and litter size of offspring) were investigated...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Shreyasi Asthana, Zaved Hazarika, Parth Sarathi Nayak, Jyoti Roy, Anupam Nath Jha, Bibekanand Mallick, Suman Jha
BACKGROUND: Injection localized amyloidosis is one of the most prevalent disorders in type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM) patients relying of insulin injections. Previous studies have reported that nanoparticles can play a role in the amyloidogenic process of proteins. Hence, the present study deals with the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) on the amyloidogenicity and cytotoxicity of insulin. METHODS: ZnONP is synthesized and characterized using XRD, Zeta Sizer, UV-Visible spectroscope and TEM...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Kyu Yon G Cho, Akinobu Nakamura, Kazuno Omori, Takahiro Takase, Aika Miya, Naoki Manda, Yoshio Kurihara, Shin Aoki, Tatsuya Atsumi, Hideaki Miyoshi
The effects of dapagliflozin and pioglitazone on body weight and glycemic control were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Seventy-one patients on pioglitazone (PIO) were either switched to dapagliflozin (DAP, n = 36) at 5 mg per day or continued on PIO (n = 35). Primary endpoints were superiority of weight loss and non-inferiority of HbA1c level after 24 weeks with DAP. Body weight decrease was greater with DAP than with PIO (75.3 ± 14.9 to 71.3 ± 15.1 kg vs. 74.7 ± 13.8 to 75.2 ± 13.9 kg; p < 0...
October 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Phong Ching Lee, Hong Chang Tan, Shanker Pasupathy, Sonali Ganguly, Alvin Kim Hock Eng, Nivedita Nadkarni, Kwang Wei Tham
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a key risk factor in the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery causes a large amount of durable weight loss in those with clinically severe obesity. We reported the effect of weight loss via bariatric surgery on DM prevention in those at high risk of developing DM. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 44 patients with obesity (mean body mass index 43.8 kg/m2 ) and pre-DM who underwent bariatric surgery and were followed up for up to three years...
September 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Karin Åvall, Per-Olof Berggren, Lisa Juntti-Berggren
Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) are increased in type-1 diabetic (T1D) patients and when β-cells are exposed to apoCIII they undergo apoptosis, which can be prevented by an antibody against apoCIII. We have previously investigated the BB rat, an animal model that develops a human-like T1D at the age of around 60 days, and found that apoCIII was also increased in sera from pre-diabetic rats and this promoted β-cell death. Lowering apoCIII with an oligonucleotide antisense during a phase of the pre-diabetic period prolonged the time to onset of T1D...
September 2018: Laboratory Animal Research
Jesper Gromada, Pauline Chabosseau, Guy A Rutter
Findings from the past 10 years have placed the glucagon-secreting pancreatic α-cell centre stage in the development of diabetes mellitus, a disease affecting almost one in every ten adults worldwide. Glucagon secretion is reduced in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, increasing the risk of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, but is enhanced in type 2 diabetes mellitus, exacerbating the effects of diminished insulin release and action on blood levels of glucose. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these changes is therefore an important goal...
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Montserrat Prados, Juana A Flores-Le Roux, David Benaiges, Gemma Llauradó, Juan José Chillarón, Antoni Paya, Juan Pedro-Botet
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for diabetes. Ethnicity may modify such risk, but no studies have been conducted in our environment. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes one year after delivery in women with GDM and in a multiethnic background and to identify the associated factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospective, observational cohort of women with GDM who attended annual postpartum follow-up visits at Hospital del Mar from January 2004 to March 2016...
October 8, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Zhi-Chun Sun, Jing Yu, Yi-Lan Liu, Zhen-Zhen Hong, Lin Ling, Guo-Qian Li, Ya-Fen Zhuo, Wan-Ru Wang, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cognitive dysfunction. The present study sought to assess the role of serum levels of BDNF in the pathophysiological process of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a preclinical phase of dementia in 715 Chinese patients with T2DM. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 715 patients with T2DM recruited from a Chinese diabetes center. Serum levels of BDNF were measured with sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Linda Sun Liu, Nikolaos Gkranias, Bruna Farias, Dave Spratt, Nikolaos Donos
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence in the literature in regard to the subgingival microbial population of chronic periodontitis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM+PD) compared to non-diabetic subjects (NDM+PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted at Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE database from 1980 to 2016, supplemented by hand searching as needed. Studies presenting with at least one of the primary outcomes (presence of any subgingival microorganisms, proportion and/or the amount of any subgingival plaque bacteria in T2DM+PD versus NDM+PD) were included...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Shi-Ying Zhang, Kai-Lin Yang, Liu-Ting Zeng, Xiao-He Wu, Hui-Yong Huang
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of coenzyme Q10 for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Data from randomized controlled trials were obtained to assess the effects of coenzyme Q10 versus placebo or western medicine on patients with T2DM. The study's registration number is CRD42018088474. The primary outcomes included glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin. Result: Thirteen trials involving 765 patients were included...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
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