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Salivary hormones

Benedict Herhaus, Katja Petrowski
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 600 million adults worldwide suffer from obesity. In addition to individual's eating behavior and lack of physical activity in the development of obesity and overweight, psychosocial stress as well as hormonal stress reactivity must also be considered as important contributing factors. In the current study we compared the cortisol stress response pathway in a psychosocial stress induction (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) with obese individuals and normal-weight controls...
December 11, 2018: Obesity Facts
Michael R Dolsen, Julianna Deardorff, Allison G Harvey
PURPOSE: Puberty influences biological and psychological development during adolescence. This includes a shift toward an evening circadian preference, which is characterized by greater physical and mental activity at night compared to the morning. This study examines how pubertal hormones are related to risk across key health domains among adolescents with an evening circadian preference. METHODS: Participants were adolescents with an evening circadian preference (n = 165, 96 female and 69 male, mean age = 14...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Zahra Khalesi, Michelle K Jetha, Kristie L Poole, Joel O Goldberg, Ryan J Van Lieshout, Louis A Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Although individual differences in personality are known to influence quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia, relatively few studies have attempted to identify putative links underlying this relation. METHODS: Here, we examined associations among temperamental shyness, hormones (ie baseline salivary cortisol and testosterone), and quality of life (QoL) measured in 42 stable outpatient adults with schizophrenia. RESULTS: We found that baseline cortisol, but not testosterone, moderated the relation between shyness and QoL (ß = 1...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Sara L Davis, Anne-Marie Kaulfers, John E Lochman, S A Morrison, Erica R Pryor, Marti Rice
Despite adequate insulin regimens and concurrent treatments for Type 1 diabetes (T1D), many children have trouble achieving glycemic control, as evidenced by elevated HbA1c levels. Maternal and child depressive symptoms, as well as child perceived stress, are associated with less optimal glycemic control. Cortisol, a stress hormone, may mediate the relationships among depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and glycemic control. The purposes of this pilot study were to (1) examine the feasibility of collecting salivary samples to measure cortisol change in prepubertal school-age children diagnosed with T1D and (2) determine effect sizes for the relationships among maternal depressive symptoms and child depressive symptoms, perceived stress, cortisol levels, and glycemic control...
December 5, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Jeong-Hyun Kang, Hong-Seop Kho
The use of saliva samples in clinical studies has increased. However, the diagnostic value of whole saliva is compromised in the presence of blood contamination, owing to the higher levels of analytes in blood compared with those in saliva. The aim of this study was to review the existing methods and their limitations for measuring the levels of blood contamination in saliva. A literature search was performed using Web of Science, SCOPUS, and PubMed databases and 49 articles dealing with salivary diagnostics and measurements of blood contamination were included...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
S Nazzari, P Fearon, F Rice, N Dottori, F Ciceri, M Molteni, A Frigerio
Accumulating evidence suggests that antenatal maternal stress is associated with altered behavioral and physiological outcomes in the offspring, however, whether this association is causal and the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. While the most studied mediator of maternal stress influences on the fetus has generally been cortisol, alternative novel markers of stress or inflammation warrant further consideration. The current investigation explored the influence of variations in self-reported symptoms of distress, stress hormones and inflammatory markers on infant birth outcomes and early stress regulation...
November 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shoulin Jiang, Yang Dai, Yongqing Lu, Shuqin Fan, Yanmin Liu, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah, Megha N Parajulee, Fajun Chen
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration is likely to influence insect-plant interactions. Aphid, as a typical phloem-feeding herbivorous insect, has shown consistently more positive responses in fitness to elevated CO2 concentrations than those seen in leaf-chewing insects. But, little is known about the mechanism of this performance. In this study, the foliar soluble constituents of cotton and the life history of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and its mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and feeding behavior were measured, as well as the relative transcript levels of target genes related appetite, salivary proteins, molting hormone (MH), and juvenile hormone, to investigate the fitness of A...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Christian J Cook, Blair T Crewther
The concept of competition has implications for educational contexts, as hormonal and emotional changes under competitive stress can modulate learning and memory processes. This study examined the impact of a competitive learning environment and associated hormonal and emotional responses on skill acquisition and expression in a medical domain. Using a cross-over design, sixteen male medical students participated in a competitive (in pairs facing each other) and non-competitive (alone) learning situation. In each treatment, an instructional video was followed by a timed straight-line suture evaluation with anxiety and competitiveness recorded...
November 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Wen Wang, Shannin N Moody, Jeff Kiesner, Anna Tonon Appiani, Olivia C Robertson, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff
INTRODUCTION: Saliva is a common noninvasive biofluid for measuring stress and sex hormones, yet one pressing limitation is that salivary hormones fluctuate momentarily, daily, and (for girls) across the menstrual cycle. Hair steroid assays are thought to provide a cumulative index which collapses across hormonal variability, potentially eliminating the confound of daily and menstrual cyclicity and thereby reflecting individual differences in average hormone levels. Here we seek to validate a hair bioassay methodology and test whether hair androgens accurately measure long-term, stable androgen levels in emerging adult women across two menstrual cycles...
October 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Maria Rita G Carvalho, Luis Pezo-Lanfranco, Sabine Eggers
Women from ancient societies have shown a higher prevalence of dental caries in comparison with men. Recent research has shown that the relationship between increased oestrogen production during pregnancy and decreased salivary flow is a possible cause for the higher levels of caries in women, which is in contrast to the traditional view of sexual division of labour resulting in unequal access to cariogenic food. In order to test these two hypotheses, individuals exhumed from 12 South American archaeological sites were examined for markers of oral health (caries, ante mortem tooth loss, deep caries, and enamel hypoplasia) and compared in terms of fertility (Crude Birth Rate) and subsistence systems...
November 16, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Masaki Yamaguchi
This research proposes a mass sensor based on mechanical resonance that is free from power supply lines (line-free) and incorporates both microfluidic mechanisms and label-free techniques to improve its sensitivity and reusability. The microfluidic line-free mass sensor comprises a disk-shaped mechanical resonator, a separate piezoelectric element used to excite vibrations in the resonator, and a microfluidic mechanism. Electrical power is used to actuate the piezoelectric element, leaving the resonator free from power lines...
April 12, 2018: Micromachines
Yoon Ju Bae, Janis Reinelt, Jeffrey Netto, Marie Uhlig, Anja Willenberg, Uta Ceglarek, Arno Villringer, Joachim Thiery, Michael Gaebler, Juergen Kratzsch
BACKGROUND: Stress activates the central nervous, the autonomic nervous, and the endocrine system. This study aimed to (1) test the usability of salivary cortisone in a standardized psychosocial stressor, (2) create a comprehensive profile of hormonal responses to determine laboratory parameters with high discriminatory power, and (3) analyze their association with psychometric and autonomic stress measures. METHODS: Healthy young men (18-35 years) completed either the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) (n = 33) or a Placebo-TSST (n = 34)...
October 28, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mary Rodríguez-Rabassa, Pablo López, Ronald E Rodríguez-Santiago, Antonio Cases, Marcos Felici, Raphael Sánchez, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Vanessa Rivera-Amill
Tobacco use has been implicated as an immunomodulator in the oral cavity and contributes to the development of oral cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoking on bacterial diversity and host responses compared to healthy nonsmoking controls. Saliva samples were collected from eighteen smokers and sixteen nonsmoking individuals by passive drool. The 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the salivary microbiome by using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Cytokine and chemokine expression analyses were performed to evaluate the host response...
November 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marianne Kaiser, Stine Jacobsen, Pia Haubro Andersen, Poul Bækbo, José Joaquin Cerón, Jan Dahl, Damián Escribano, Peter Kappel Theil, Magdalena Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is difficult to diagnose and the pathogenesis is obscure. Hormonal changes related to the disease are often difficult to distinguish from those found in the normal transition period from gestation to lactation. The study aimed to investigate metabolic and hormonal changes related to PDS with the goal of identifying potential biomarkers in sows suffering from PDS (PDS+). Selected biomarkers were examined by comparing 38 PDS+ sows with 38 PDS negative (PDS-) sows...
November 7, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Timothy S McHale, Peter B Gray, Ka-Chun Chan, David T Zava, Wai-Chi Chee
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about salivary steroid hormone responses to dyadic competition among prepubescent boys. The current study explored pre-match and post-match testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and cortisol among 22 ethnically Chinese, Hong Kongese table tennis athletes, aged 8-11 years, during dyadic competition against peers. These data provide novel comparative insight into boys' hormone responses when participating in similar forms of competition to that of adults...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Billy Sperlich, Ine De Clerck, Christoph Zinner, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich
The aim was to examine certain aspects of circulatory, metabolic, hormonal, thermoregulatory, cognitive, and perceptual responses while sitting following a brief session of high-intensity interval exercise. Twelve students (five men; age, 22 ± 2 years) performed two trials involving either simply sitting for 180 min (SIT) or sitting for this same period with a 6-min session of high-intensity exercise after 60 min (SIT+HIIT). At T0 (after 30 min of resting), T1 (after a 20-min breakfast), T2 (after sitting for 1 h), T3 (immediately after the HIIT), T4 , T5 , T6 , and T7 (30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the HIIT), circulatory, metabolic, hormonal, thermoregulatory, cognitive, and perceptual responses were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Stacy Rosenbaum, Lee T Gettler, Thomas W McDade, Sonny S Bechayda, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVE: Cross-culturally, men's T declines in response to pairbonding and fatherhood, but less is known about what happens to T during and after life history transitions that theoretically lead to renewed mating effort. We tested whether men's T rises (or declines less with age) as their children age, or when pairbonds end, independent of changes in fatherhood-related variables such as co-residence with children. METHODS: We used demographic, behavioral, and salivary hormone data (waking and pre-bed T) collected in 2009 and 2014 for the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 571 men)...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Élida Mara Carneiro, Luana Pereira Barbosa, Ana Carolina Bittencourt, César Gómez Hernández, Rodolfo Pessato Timóteo, Claudienne de Oliveira Almeida, Maria de Fátima Borges
Background Among the practices of complementary medicine used to treat several diseases is the Spiritist "passe (SP)." Experimental studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this energy therapies in reducing anxiety in adults. However, studies evaluating the effects of the "passe" energy therapy on health outcomes in newborns (NBs) are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SP on stress hormone levels, pain, physiological parameters and length of stay in NBs. Methods NBs were randomly allocated into two groups: intervention (3 days SP sessions, n=13) and control (3 days sham sessions, n=12)...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Ademir Felipe Schultz de Arruda, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki, Gustavo Drago, Alexandre Moreira
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing semi-final (SFM) and final (FM) matches on salivary testosterone (T) concentration, anxiety, session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) and perceived performance (PP) in elite male youth basketball players. Data from 25 players who participated ≥15 min in 6 assessed matches consisting of SFM (n = 3; 1 match for each age-category [U15, U16, and U17]), and FM (n = 3; 1 match for each age-category) were retained for analysis. Saliva sampling was conducted before and after the matches...
October 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mohamed Hassanein, Lilit Karapetyan, Afshan Khan, Supratik Rayamajhi
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in different organs. Sarcoidosis associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a rare finding with only 10 cases reported to date. We describe a 79-year-old male patient who presented with dry mouth for 4 months. Lip biopsy done prior to admission showed nonnecrotizing epithelioid cell granulomas. On admission, laboratory analysis was significant for elevated calcium, decreased parathyroid hormone, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, undetectable parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrp), mildly decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D, elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, elevated angiotensin converting enzyme, and positive Bence Jones protein in the urine...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
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