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Salivary hormones

Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Felipe Abad-Colil, Camila Monje, Luis Peñailillo, Jorge Cancino, Hermann Zbinden-Foncea
A soccer match induce changes in physiological stress biomarkers as testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and testosterone:cortisol (T:C) ration. Hydration state may also modulate these hormones, and therefore may alter the anabolic/catabolic balance in response to soccer match. The role of hydration status before the match in this biomarkers has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the salivary T, C, and the T:C ratio responses after two friendly matches in well-hydrated and mild-dehydrated (MD) elite young male soccer player...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
W J Hastings, A M Chang, R P Ebstein, I Shalev
Sex hormones are significant regulators of stress reactivity, however, little is known about how genetic variation in hormone receptors contributes to this process. Here we report interactions between biological sex and repeat polymorphisms in genes encoding sex hormone receptors, and their effects on salivary cortisol reactivity in a sample of 100 participants (47 men & 53 women; 24.7 ± 3.23 years). Three genes were investigated: estrogen receptors alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2), and the androgen receptor (AR)...
October 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Harald Murck, Matthias C Braunisch, Carsten Konrad, Daniela Jezova, Tilo Kircher
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its hormone receptors, i.e. the angiotensin and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), have emerged as important targets for central nervous system disorders and in particular for major depression. We have recently characterized baseline MR function as a predictor for treatment outcome with standard antidepressants. The aims of this study are (i) to characterize how strongly an early biomarker change (after 2 weeks) is related to outcome and (ii) whether these biomarker changes are related to the final outcome, that is, could serve as surrogate markers for response...
October 8, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Talisin T Hammond, Zoe A Au, Allison C Hartman, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki
Amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of species, facing stressors ranging from habitat degradation and pollution to disease and overexploitation. Stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) provide one quantitative metric of stress, and developing non-invasive methods for measuring GCs in amphibians would clarify how diverse environmental stressors impact individual health in this taxonomic group. Saliva is an advantageous matrix for quantifying GCs, as it is sampled less invasively than plasma while still detecting both baseline and acute elevation of GCs within a short timeframe...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Bettina Winzeler, Ismael da Conceição, Julie Refardt, Clara O Sailer, Gilles Dutilh, Mirjam Christ-Crain
Context: Recent findings from animal and human studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RA) modulate stress response by activating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may have relevant clinical implications. Objective: To investigate the influence of GLP-1 RA treatment on HPA axis activity compared to placebo in healthy volunteers. Design: Double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Setting: University Hospital Basel...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Elena M Varoni, Rita Paroni, Jacopo Antognetti, Giovanni Lodi, Andrea Sardella, Antonio Carrassi, Marcello Iriti
Melatonin (MLT) is a recently discovered phytochemical in wine, but its influence on physiological MLT levels is still unknown. This study aimed at evaluating variations, in serum and saliva, of MLT concentrations after the intake of MLT-enriched red wine. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited to receive 125 mL of red wine naturally lacking of MLT (placebo, PLC), or the same wine enriched with MLT (MLT+). A physiological steady decline of serum MLT was observed from baseline up to 90 min, for both wines...
September 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Harry P Cintineo, Daniel J Freidenreich, Caitlin M Blaine, Thomas D Cardaci, Joseph K Pellegrino, Shawn M Arent
Cintineo, HP, Freidenreich, DJ, Blaine, CM, Cardaci, TD, Pellegrino, JK, and Arent, SM. Acute physiological responses to an intensity-and time under-under-tension-equated single- vs. multiple-set resistance training bout in trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Regardless of the setting, proper manipulation of resistance training program design variables is pivotal in eliciting the desired physiological adaptations. Furthermore, how these variables, especially volume and intensity, work together to affect training outcomes is a major topic of investigation...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nobuyuki Kutsukake, Migaku Teramoto, Seijiro Honma, Yusuke Mori, Koki Ikeda, Rain Yamamoto, Takafumi Ishida, Toshikazu Hasegawa
OBJECTIVES: In group-living primates, it has been reported that the alpha male exhibits high concentrations of cortisol and testosterone in the context of mating competition. We investigated how the presence of females affected salivary cortisol and testosterone levels in males from a small captive group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Specifically, we assessed whether the presence of females resulted in a rapid increase in salivary cortisol and testosterone levels in the alpha male...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Jago M Van Dam, Amy J Garrett, Luke A Schneider, Femke T A Buisman-Pijlman, Michelle A Short, Nicolette A Hodyl, Hannah K Edwards, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Julia B Pitcher
Exogenously-administered oxytocin interacts with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to modulate endogenous cortisol levels, suggesting a synergistic role for these two hormones in the response to stress, cognitive performance, and the development of psycho-behavioural disorders. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is considered a reliable measure of HPA axis function in humans. However, the CAR appears to vary considerably from day to day, and may be strongly influenced by the anticipated demands of the day ahead...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Karyn Geralyn Butler
Affective disorders impact women's health, with a lifetime prevalence of over twelve per cent. They have been correlated with reproductive cycle factors, under the regulation of hormonal circadian rhythms. In affective disorders, circadian rhythms may become desynchronized. The circadian rhythms of cortisol and estradiol may play a role in affective disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal relationship between the rhythms of cortisol and estradiol and its relationship to affect. It was hypothesized that a cortisol-estradiol phase difference (PD) exists that correlates with optimal affect...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Circadian Rhythms
Janek S Lobmaier, Urs Fischbacher, Urs Wirthmüller, Daria Knoch
Individuals are thought to have their own distinctive body odour which reportedly plays an important role in mate choice. In the present study we investigated individual differences in body odours of women and examined whether some women generally smell more attractive than others or whether odour preferences are a matter of individual taste. We then explored whether levels of reproductive hormones explain women's body odour attractiveness, to test the idea that body odour attractiveness may act as a chemosensory marker of reproductive fitness...
September 12, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Samatha Meda, Bernard Ajay Reginald, B Siva Reddy
Background and Objectives: Human chorionic gonadotropin-β (hCGβ) is a hormone glycoprotein usually secreted by trophoblastic cells in early pregnancy and helps in growth and development of the embryo. While many trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic malignancies express elevated levels of hCGβ in serum, increased immunohistochemical reactivity has also been reported in malignant and aggressive tumors, thus serving as a marker. As limited studies exist on tumors of the oral- and para-oral region, it prompted us to observe the immunohistochemical expression of hCGβ in salivary gland tumors...
July 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Katarzyna Pisanski, Aleksander Kobylarek, Luba Jakubowska, Judyta Nowak, Amelia Walter, Kamil Błaszczyński, Magda Kasprzyk, Krystyna Łysenko, Irmina Sukiennik, Katarzyna Piątek, Tomasz Frackowiak, Piotr Sorokowski
Examining the effects of acute stress across multiple modalities (behavioral, physiological, and endocrinological) can increase our understanding of the interplay among stress systems, and may improve the efficacy of stress detection. A multimodal approach also allows for verification of the biological stress response, which can vary between individuals due to myriad internal and external factors, thus allowing for reliable interpretation of behavioral markers of stress. Here, controlling for variables known to affect the magnitude of the stress response, we utilized the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to elicit an acute stress response in 80 healthy adult men and women...
September 18, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
G Goudet, L Nadal-Desbarats, C Douet, J Savoie, C Staub, E Venturi, S Ferchaud, S Boulot, A Prunier
Estrus synchronization is important for optimal management of gilt reproduction in pig farms. Hormonal treatments, such as synthetic progestogens, are used on a routine basis, but there is a growing demand for non-hormonal alternative breeding tools. Before puberty, gilts exhibit a 'waiting period,' related to the ovarian development and gonadotrophin secretions, during which external stimulations, such as boar exposure, could induce and synchronize first ovulation. Practical non-invasive tools for identification of this period in farms are lacking...
September 5, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Elzbieta Paszynska, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Magdalena Roszak, Yves Boucher, Agata Dutkiewicz, Marta Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, Maria Gawriolek, Justyna Otulakowska-Skrzynska, Szymon Rzatowski, Agnieszka Słopień
OBJECTIVES: Opiorphin is a physiological inhibitor of peptidases inactivating endogenous opioids displaying strong analgesic properties without undesirable side effects, antidepressant properties and hormonal dependency. It might therefore play an important role in patients with painful diseases related to neuro-hormonal dysregulation of the nervous system, affecting saliva secretion and composition such as anorexia (AN). The main objective aim of this study was to compare the level of opiorphin in saliva of patients with AN to matched subjects free of eating disorders...
September 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Martin I Antov, Ursula Stockhorst
Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory. Factors contributing to whether stress aids or impairs memory are timing of the stressor, memory stage, form of memory studied, and sex of the subjects. The female sex hormone 17-beta-estradiol (E2) has widespread effects in the brain and affects hippocampus-dependent memory in animals. In humans, the interaction between stress effects and E2 has not been widely studied. We report data from a healthy sample divided into 3 hormone-status groups: free-cycling women in the early follicular phase (EF: low E2, low progesterone [P4]), or during midcycle (MC: high E2, low P4), and men...
August 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Duygu Kara, Nevzat Aykut Bayrak, Burcu Volkan, Cihat Uçar, Mehmet Nuri Cevizci, Sedat Yılmaz
OBJECTIVES: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) can cause fear and anxiety in children. Cortisol, which is the most important glucocorticoid hormone in humans, can increase under physiological stress. The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol level (SCL) and anxiety level in patients undergoing EGD and evaluate their effects on the procedure. METHODS: Children undergoing EGD under sedoanalgesia with propofol for various reasons were included. Their basal SCLs were compared with those of healthy age- and sex-matched controls...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Patty X Kuo, Julia M Braungart-Rieker, Jennifer E Burke Lefever, Mallika S Sarma, Molly O'Neill, Lee T Gettler
Human paternal behavior is multidimensional, and extant research has yet to delineate how hormone patterns may be related to different dimensions of fathering. Further, although studies vary in their measurement of hormones (i.e., basal or reactivity), it remains unclear whether basal and/or reactivity measures are predictive of different aspects of men's parenting. We examined whether men's testosterone and cortisol predicted fathers' involvement in childcare and play with infants and whether fathers' testosterone and cortisol changed during fathers' first interaction with their newborn...
September 11, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Elsa Lamy, Sandra Neves, Joana Ferreira, Lénia Rodrigues, Gonçalo da Costa, Carlos Cordeiro, Luísa Fialho, Mónica Lima, Ana Rodrigues Costa, Célia Miguel Antunes, Orlando Lopes, Francisco Amado, Fernando Capela E Silva
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of the satiety hormone, leptin, in saliva proteome and salivary gland histology and ultrastructure. DESIGN: Increases in blood leptin levels were induced through mini-pump infusion in male Wistar rats, during a period of 7 days. Saliva was collected before and at the end of the experimental period, for proteomic analysis, and major salivary glands were collected, at the end, for biochemical, histological and ultrastructural analysis...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Jodi A Quas, Amy Castro, Crystal I Bryce, Douglas A Granger
In contrast to a large body of work concerning the effects of physiological stress reactivity on children's socioemotional functioning, far less attention has been devoted to understanding the effects of such reactivity on cognitive, including mnemonic, functioning. How well children learn and remember information under stress has implications for a range of educational, clinical, and legal outcomes. We evaluated 8-14 year olds' (N = 94, 50 female) memory for negative, neutral, and positive images. Youth had seen the images a week previously as a part of a laboratory stress task...
September 2018: Developmental Psychology
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