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Salivary hormones

Michelle Henry, Ian Louis Ross, Kevin Garth Flusk Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Cortisol plays a key role in initiating and maintaining different sleep stages. Patients with Addison's disease (AD) frequently report disrupted sleep, and their hydrocortisone medication regimes do not restore the natural diurnal rhythm of cortisol. However, few studies have investigated relations between sleep quality, especially as measured by polysomnographic equipment, and night-time cortisol concentrations in patients with AD. METHODS: We used sleep-adapted EEG to monitor a full night of sleep in 7 patients with AD and 7 healthy controls...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Konstantia Psianou, Ioannis Panagoulias, Anastasios D Papanastasiou, Anne-Lise de Lastic, Maria Rodi, Panagiota I Spantidea, Søren E Degn, Panagiotis Georgiou, Athanasia Mouzaki
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the exocrine glands, resulting in their functional impairment. In SS, lymphocytic infiltration of salivary and lacrimal glands, and deposition of several types of autoantibodies, mainly anti-SS-A (anti-Ro) and anti-SS-B (anti-La), lead to chronic inflammation, with xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. In its primary form (pSS), SS does not involve additional connective tissue diseases, whereas in its secondary and more common form (sSS), SS presents in association with other rheumatic autoimmune diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)...
August 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Patricia A Crock, Dieter K Lüdecke, Ulrich J Knappe, Wolfgang Saeger
Background Transnasal surgery (TNS) is the first choice in the treatment of pediatric Cushing's disease. The question is how can high remission rates be achieved with minimally invasive investigations and TNS whilst avoiding radiotherapy or bilateral adrenalectomy in children. Methods Data from a published series 1 (n=55) of surgeon DKL will be compared with his recent series 2 (n=45) until 2009. All patients were operated by direct transnasal microsurgery. Over time, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) was replaced by cavernous sinus sampling (CSS), restricted to unclear cases without increase of salivary cortisol in corticotropin-releasing hormone-test, difficult sellar anatomy or negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Andrew W Manigault, Wilson S Figueroa, Cari R Hollenbeck, Anna E Mendlein, Alex Woody, Katrina R Hamilton, Matt C Scanlin, Ryan C Johnson, Peggy M Zoccola
OBJECTIVE: Revealing one's sexual identity to others is a complex process marked by a shift in the types of stressors faced by sexual minority young adults. Such stressors influence the secretion of health-relevant hormones, including cortisol, yet how dimensions of disclosure (i.e., the degree and context) influence neuroendocrine functioning remains poorly understood. The current study examined the association between disclosure context (disclosure to family members, friends/co-workers/acquaintances, and members of religious groups) and diurnal cortisol while allowing disclosure to vary in degree (i...
August 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Cecile A Lengacher, Richard R Reich, Carly L Paterson, Melissa Shelton, Steve Shivers, Sophia Ramesar, Michelle L Pleasant, Pinky Budhrani-Shani, Maureen Groer, Janice Post-White, Versie Johnson-Mallard, Bradley Kane, Lakeshia Cousin, Manolete S Moscoso, Tiffany A Romershausen, Jong Y Park
Breast cancer survivors (BCS) often experience psychological and physiological symptoms after cancer treatment. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), a complementary and alternative therapy, has reduced subjective measures of stress, anxiety, and fatigue among BCS. Little is known, however, about how MBSR affects objective markers of stress, specifically the stress hormone cortisol and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). In the present study, BCS ( N = 322) were randomly assigned to a 6-week MBSR program for BC or usual-care control...
August 5, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Jakob O Ström, Edvin Ingberg, Julia K Slezak, Annette Theodorsson, Elvar Theodorsson
BACKGROUND: It has not yet been established whether men in heterosexual relationships adapt their hormone levels to their female partner's menstrual cycle to allocate reproductive resources to the period when the female is actually fertile. AIM: This prospective observational study tested the hypothesis that some males have peaks in testosterone or acne (a possible biomarker for androgen activity) near their partners' ovulation, whereas other males display the opposite pattern...
August 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Benedict C Jones, Amanda C Hahn, Claire I Fisher, Hongyi Wang, Michal Kandrik, Junpeng Lao, Chengyang Han, Anthony J Lee, Iris J Holzleitner, Lisa M DeBruine
Putative associations between sex hormones and attractive physical characteristics in women are central to many theories of human physical attractiveness and mate choice. Although such theories have become very influential, evidence that physically attractive and unattractive women have different hormonal profiles is equivocal. Consequently, we investigated hypothesized relationships between salivary estradiol and progesterone and two aspects of women's physical attractiveness that are commonly assumed to be correlated with levels of these hormones: facial attractiveness (N = 249) and waist-to-hip ratio (N = 247)...
July 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Dongun Lee, Sang A Lee, Dong M Shin, Jeong H Hong
Secretory glands including salivary glands by many hormonal inputs produce and secrete biological fluids determined by variety of ion transporters. Spinophilin is a multifunctional scaffolding protein, which involved in receptor signaling and regulation of anion exchangers AE2 activity. We found that spinophilin expressed in salivary glands. The role of salivary spinophilin on the modulation of chloride/bicarbonate exchange remains unknown. The spinophilin enhanced AE2 activity and associated with a STE20/SPS1-related kinase and showed an additive effect on the modulation of the activity of AE2...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Melody Dzviti, Lizwell Mapfumo, Voster Muchenje
Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between plasma and salivary cortisol concentrations in beef cattle that were subjected to handling prior to sampling. Methods: Twenty-one Nguni cows of three age categories; 5-7yrs (n= 7), 8-10yrs (n=6) and 11-13yrs (n=8) were handled for five consecutive weeks. In the pen, a human avoidance test was performed and cattle responses to restraint in the chute and crush were observed. In addition, faecal samples were collected and analysed for glucocorticoid metabolites, and rectal temperature readings were taken...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Franziska Lautenbach, Babett H Lobinger
Competitive taekwondo composes a high stress situation leading to an increase in the stress hormone cortisol. Little is known about cortisol's relation to outcome (winning vs. losing) and performance in taekwondo. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate cortisol relation to outcome, performance and whether cortisol can predict performance during a competition. Twenty taekwondo combatants (13 males; Mage = 15) provided four salivary samples (C1: 30 min prior, C2: during, C3: after, and C4: 30 min after competition) during an international competition...
July 27, 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Mirjam Holinger, Barbara Früh, Peter Stoll, Robert Graage, Sandra Wirth, Rupert Bruckmaier, Armelle Prunier, Michael Kreuzer, Edna Hillmann
Entire male pigs display more aggressive and sexual behaviour. This might cause a condition of chronic stress and impair their welfare. In order to assess chronic stress in entire and castrated male pigs, as well as effects of providing grass silage as occupational and feed material on behaviour and health, we carried out a 2 × 2 × 2-factorial experiment with 147 growing-finishing pigs. Factors investigated were castration (entire/castrated), chronic intermittent social stress exposure (yes/no) and access to grass silage (yes/no), as well as their interactions...
July 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jeremy R Townsend, David Bender, William C Vantrease, Philip A Sapp, Ann M Toy, Clint A Woods, Kent D Johnson
We sought to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation ( Bacillus subtilis DE111; 1 billion CFU∙d-1 ) on markers of immune and hormonal status in collegiate male athletes following 12 weeks of offseason training. Twenty-five Division I male baseball athletes (20.1 ± 1.5 years, 85.5 ± 10.5 kg, 184.7 ± 6.3 cm) participated in this double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Participants were randomly assigned to a probiotic (PRO; n = 13) or placebo (PL; n = 12) group. Pre- and post-training, all athletes provided resting blood and saliva samples...
July 26, 2018: Sports
Fatma Ucan Yarkac, Ozge Gokturk, Osman Demir
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of nonsurgical periodontal therapy considering the salivary stress-related hormone and cytokine levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) on pregnant and nonpregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty non-pregnant (control group) and 30 pregnant women (test group) that met the study inclusion criteria were chosen. Only participants with gingivitis were included. Clinical data and samples of GCF and saliva were collected at baseline and after periodontal therapy...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Austin Leeds, Patricia M Dennis, Kristen E Lukas, Tara S Stoinski, Mark A Willis, Mandi W Schook
The neuroendocrine hormone oxytocin, which is an important physiological driver of social behavior and bonding, is increasingly being measured in conjunction with behavior to better understand primate sociality. To date no data are available on oxytocin concentrations within the genus Gorilla; however, as a result of their close genetic relatedness to humans, and tolerance-based social system, Gorilla represents an important group of study. The purpose of this study was to validate the measurement of urinary and salivary oxytocin in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to help facilitate future study of the interaction between oxytocin and behavior within the subspecies...
July 20, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Satu Kämäräinen, Marianne Mäki, Tiina Tolonen, Giuseppe Palleschi, Vesa Virtanen, Laura Micheli, Adama Marie Sesay
Cortisol is a steroidal hormone and an important stress marker. Free serum cortisol concentration has been identified to correlate well with free salivary cortisol. In this present work an electrochemical immunosensor was developed to determine cortisol concentration within the physiological concentration range found in human saliva. The immunosensor is based on a direct competitive enzyme linked immunoassay using a home-made cortisol-alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugate synthesized in our laboratory with disposable graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs)...
October 1, 2018: Talanta
Alex Woody, Emily D Hooker, Peggy M Zoccola, Sally S Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that exposure to social-evaluative threat (SET) can elicit a physiological stress response, especially cortisol, which is an important regulatory hormone. However, an alternative explanation of these findings is that social-evaluative laboratory tasks are more difficult, or confer greater cognitive load, than non-evaluative tasks. Thus, the current experiment tested whether social-evaluative threat, rather than cognitive load, is truly an "active ingredient" in eliciting a cortisol response to stressors...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Marcos Gonçalves de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo Rosa, Cybele Garcia-Leal, Felipe Pinheiro de Figueiredo, Ricardo de Carvalho Cavalli, Heloisa Bettiol, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Margaret de Castro, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Cristina Marta Del-Ben
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate associations between indicators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) functioning and metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) of women with postpartum depression (PPD). METHODS: The sample (mean age = 28.5 ± 4.6 years) consisted of 20 women with PPD and 19 postpartum euthymic (PPE) women. Brain metabolites were quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS). Salivary cortisol samples were collected upon awakening and 30 min and 12 h later, at 20...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gerald T Mangine, Trisha A Van Dusseldorp, Yuri Feito, Alyssa J Holmes, Paul R Serafini, Allyson G Box, Adam M Gonzalez
To determine the salivary steroid response to high-intensity functional training (HIFT) competition workouts, saliva samples were collected from ten recreationally trained male and female competitors during a 5-week (WK1⁻WK5) international competition. Competitors arrived at their local affiliate and provided samples prior to (PRE) their warm-up, immediately (IP), 30-min (30P), and 60-min (60P) post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and their ratio (TC)...
July 14, 2018: Sports
Alexandra S Muscher-Banse, Gerhard Breves
Ruminants have a unique utilization of phosphate (Pi ) based on the so-called endogenous Pi recycling to guarantee adequate Pi supply for ruminal microbial growth and for buffering short-chain fatty acids. Large amounts of Pi enter the gastrointestinal tract by salivary secretion. The high saliva Pi concentrations are generated by active secretion of Pi from blood into primary saliva via basolateral sodium (Na+ )-dependent Pi transporter type II. The following subsequent intestinal absorption of Pi is mainly carried out in the jejunum by the apical located secondary active Na+ -dependent Pi transporters NaPi IIb (SLC34A2) and PiT1 (SLC20A1)...
July 16, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mattia Barbot, Valentina Guarnotta, Marialuisa Zilio, Filippo Ceccato, Alessandro Ciresi, Andrea Daniele, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Elena Campello, Anna Chiara Frigo, Carla Giordano, Carla Scaroni
INTRODUCTION: Cushing's disease (CD) is characterized by procoagulative profile. Treatment with cortisol-reducing medications might normalize the coagulation impairment potentially eliminating the risk of thromboembolic complications. AIM: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of 6-12 months of treatment with pasireotide (Signifor®, Novartis) 600 µg twice daily on coagulative factors in 21 patients (16 females, mean age 46 ± 12...
July 6, 2018: Endocrine
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