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Pulmonary function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449487/performance-in-the-shuttle-walk-test-is-associated-with-cardiopulmonary-complications-after-lung-resections
#1
Joseph Fennelly, Lauren Potter, Cecilia Pompili, Alessandro Brunelli
BACKGROUND: The current functional guidelines recommend the shuttle walk test (SWT) as an initial screening tool to identify candidates for lung resection without requiring cardiopulmonary exercise testing. This study aims to: (I) assess the use of the SWT in predicting postoperative cardiopulmonary complications; and (II) determine whether the recommended 400 m cut-off is an appropriate distance. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 101 patients that had performed a SWT prior to surgery...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449482/retrospective-analysis-of-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-sabr-for-metastatic-lung-lesions-mlls-in-comparison-with-a-contemporaneous-cohort-of-primary-lung-lesions-plls
#2
Feras Oskan, Yvonne Dzierma, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Christian Rübe, Jochen Fleckenstein
BACKGROUND: The net benefit from local ablative therapy for pulmonary oligometastases remains unknown. The outcomes of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for metastatic lung lesions (MLLs) were analyzed retrospectively and compared with those of SABR for primary lung lesions (PLLs). METHODS: Medical records of patients treated with lung SABR between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Basic patient, lesion and treatment characteristics were compared using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449462/pulmonary-function-tests-findings-and-their-diagnostic-value-in-patients-with-igg4-related-disease
#3
Lu Cao, Yi-Bing Chen, Da-Hui Zhao, Wen-Fang Shi, Song Meng, Li-Xin Xie
BACKGROUND: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory disorder that can affect most organs. To date, there have been no detailed assessments of pulmonary function in patients with IgG4-RD. In this study, we investigated pulmonary function in IgG4-RD patients and evaluated the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in diagnosing IgG4-related respiratory disease (IgG4-RRD). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 17 patients with IgG4-RD...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449098/insights-on-persistent-airway-infection-by-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Christian P Ahearn, Mary C Gallo, Timothy F Murphy
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common bacterial cause of infection of the lower airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Infection of the COPD airways causes acute exacerbations, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. NTHi has evolved multiple mechanisms to establish infection in the hostile environment of the COPD airways, allowing the pathogen to persist in the airways for months to years. Persistent infection of the COPD airways contributes to chronic airway inflammation that increases symptoms and accelerates the progressive loss of pulmonary function, which is a hallmark of the disease...
April 25, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449058/corrigendum-to-diagnosis-and-management-of-acute-deep-vein-thrombosis-a-joint-consensus-document-from-the-european-society-of-cardiology-working-groups-of-aorta-and-peripheral-circulation-and-pulmonary-circulation-and-right-ventricular-function-eur-heart-j
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448615/emphysema-is-associated-with-thoracic-vertebral-bone-attenuation-on-chest-ct-scan-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#6
Alycia Petraglia, Joseph K Leader, Matthew Gingo, Meghan Fitzpatrick, John Ries, Cathy Kessinger, Lorrie Lucht, Danielle Camp, Alison Morris, Jessica Bon
BACKGROUND: Age-related chronic diseases are prevalent in HIV-infected persons in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Bone mineral density (BMD) loss and emphysema have separately been shown to occur at a younger age and with lesser risk exposure in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. In non-HIV infected smokers, emphysema has been shown to independently predict low BMD. We hypothesized that emphysema would independently associate with thoracic vertebral bone attenuation, a surrogate for bone mineral density, in HIV-infected individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448542/diminished-plasma-levels-of-common-%C3%AE-chain-cytokines-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-reversal-following-treatment
#7
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: The immune response to tuberculosis (TB) is T cell dependent. T cells are the major facilitators of protection and effector functions with CD4+ T cells being the most important players, followed by CD8+ T cells. The common γ-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 play a vital role in peripheral T cell growth and survival. However, the role of common γ-chain cytokines in pulmonary TB (PTB) is poorly understood. AIM AND METHODS: To examine the association of circulating common γ-chain cytokines with TB disease or infection, we examined the systemic levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448535/alpha-1-antitrypsin-supplementation-improves-alveolar-macrophages-efferocytosis-and-phagocytosis-following-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#8
Karina A Serban, Daniela N Petrusca, Andrew Mikosz, Christophe Poirier, Angelia D Lockett, Lauren Saint, Matthew J Justice, Homer L Twigg, Michael A Campos, Irina Petrache
Cigarette smoking (CS), the main risk factor for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in developed countries, decreases alveolar macrophages (AM) clearance of both apoptotic cells and bacterial pathogens. This global deficit of AM engulfment may explain why active smokers have worse outcomes of COPD exacerbations, episodes characterized by airway infection and inflammation that carry high morbidity and healthcare cost. When administered as intravenous supplementation, the acute phase-reactant alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces the severity of COPD exacerbations in A1AT deficient (AATD) individuals and of bacterial pneumonia in murine models, but the effect of A1AT on AM scavenging functions has not been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447319/-effects-of-geriatric-copd-rehabilitation-on-hospital-admissions-and-exercise-tolerance-a%C3%A2-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Stephanie Blindenbach, Jisca W F A Vrancken, Hans van der Zeijden, Herre J Reesink, Folkert Brijker, Martin Smalbrugge, Elizabeth M Wattel
INTRODUCTION: Frail COPD patients are frequently not accepted for regular pulmonary rehabilitation programs due to low physical condition and functional limitations. Rehabilitation programs in nursing homes for geriatric patients with COPD have been developed. The effects of such programs are largely unknown. AIMS: To assess the course of COPD-related hospital admissions and exercise tolerance in a cohort of frail COPD patients participating in geriatric COPD rehabilitation...
April 26, 2017: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447274/classification-and-regression-tree-model-for-predicting-tracheostomy-in-patients-with-traumatic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Dae-Sang Lee, Chi-Min Park, Keumhee Chough Carriere, Joonghyun Ahn
PURPOSE: In patients with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI), respiratory compromise and the need for tracheostomy are common. The purpose of this study was to identify common risk factors for tracheostomy following traumatic CSCI and develop a decision tree for tracheostomy in traumatic CSCI patients without pulmonary function test. METHODS: Data of 105 trauma patients with CSCI admitted in our institution from April, 2008 to February, 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...
April 26, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447104/bmp-type-ii-receptor-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Mar Orriols, Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto, Peter Ten Dijke
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive elevation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. This occurs due to abnormal remodeling of small peripheral lung vasculature resulting in progressive occlusion of the artery lumen that eventually causes right heart failure and death. The most common cause of PAH is inactivating mutations in the gene encoding a bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPRII). Current therapeutic options for PAH are limited and focused mainly on reversal of pulmonary vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular cells...
April 26, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446984/salvage-surgery-after-high-dose-radiotherapy
#12
REVIEW
Annemie Van Breussegem, Jeroen M Hendriks, Patrick Lauwers, Paul E Van Schil
Salvage surgery is a relatively new entity in thoracic surgery and oncology. Salvage resection after radiotherapy refers to surgery as only remaining therapeutic option in patients who were treated with high-dose stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for early-stage lung cancer or full-dose chemoradiation for locally advanced lung cancer. Indications include locally progressive tumors, recurrent local or locoregional disease, or specific complications after radiotherapy such as lung abscesses or infected, necrotic cavities...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza
#13
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titres in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446666/mouse-saliva-inhibits-transit-of-influenza-virus-to-the-lower-respiratory-tract-by-efficiently-blocking-influenza-neuraminidase-activity
#14
Brad Gilbertson, Wy Ching Ng, Simon Crawford, Jenny L McKimm-Breschkin, Lorena E Brown
We have previously identified a novel inhibitor of influenza virus in mouse saliva that halts the progression of susceptible viruses from the upper to the lower respiratory tract of mice in vivo and neutralizes viral infectivity in MDCK cells. Here, we investigated the viral target of the salivary inhibitor by using reverse genetics to create hybrid viruses with some surface proteins derived from an inhibitor-sensitive strain and others from an inhibitor-resistant strain. These viruses demonstrated that the origin of the viral neuraminidase (NA), but not the hemagglutinin or matrix proteins, was the determinant of susceptibility to the inhibitor...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446570/prevalence-and-outcomes-of-achromobacter-species-infections-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-north-american-cohort-study
#15
B D Edwards, J Greysson-Wong, R Somayaji, B Waddell, F J Whelan, D G Storey, H R Rabin, M G Surette, M D Parkins
Introduction:Achromobacter species are now increasingly recognized in CF, with unclear epidemiology and impact.Methods: We studied a cohort of patients attending a Canadian adult CF clinic who had positive sputum cultures for Achromobacter species from 1984-2013. Infection was categorized as transient or persistent (≥50% positive cultures in one year). Those with persistent infection were matched 2:1 with age, sex, and time-matched controls without history of Achromobacter infection and mixed effects models used to assess pulmonary exacerbation(PEx) frequency and lung function decline...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446199/different-determinants-of-exercise-capacity-in-hfpef-compared-to-hfref
#16
Arlind Batalli, Pranvera Ibrahimi, Ibadete Bytyçi, Artan Ahmeti, Edmond Haliti, Shpend Elezi, Michael Y Henein, Gani Bajraktari
BACKGROUND: Quality of life is as important as survival in heart failure (HF) patients. Controversies exist with regards to echocardiographic determinants of exercise capacity in HF, particularly in patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine echocardiographic parameters that correlate and predict functional exercise capacity assessed by 6 min walk test (6-MWT) in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: In 111 HF patients (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 47% female), an echo-Doppler study and a 6-MWT were performed in the same day...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446163/exploratory-analysis-of-the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#17
Lars Harbaum, Kaaja M Baaske, Marcel Simon, Tim Oqueka, Christoph Sinning, Antonia Glatzel, Nicole Lüneburg, Karsten Sydow, Carsten Bokemeyer, Hans Klose
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation emerges as a feature of the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in experimental models. Alterations of circulating cell subsets have been observed in patients with PAH. We aimed to assess associations of the white blood cell count with disease severity and outcome in patients with PAH. METHODS: The total and differential white blood cell count was related to functional parameters, pulmonary hemodynamics and transplantation-free survival in 77 patients with PAH in an observational single center study...
April 26, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445938/pirfenidone-normalizes-the-tumor-microenvironment-to-improve-chemotherapy
#18
Christiana Polydorou, Fotios Mpekris, Panagiotis Papageorgis, Chrysovalantis Voutouri, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Normalization of the tumor microenvironment by selectively targeting components of the tumor extracellular matrix has been recently proposed to have the potential to decompress tumor blood vessels, increase vessel perfusion and thus, improve drug delivery and the efficacy of cancer therapy. Therefore, we now need to identify safe and well tolerated pharmaceutical agents that are able to remodel the microenvironment of solid tumors and enhance chemotherapy. In this study, we repurposed Pirfenidone, a clinically approved anti-fibrotic drug for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, to investigate its possible role on tumor microenvironment normalization...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445803/jetvalve-rapid-manufacturing-of-biohybrid-scaffolds-for-biomimetic-heart-valve-replacement
#19
Andrew K Capulli, Maximillian Y Emmert, Francesco S Pasqualini, Debora Kehl, Etem Caliskan, Johan U Lind, Sean P Sheehy, Sung Jin Park, Seungkuk Ahn, Benedikt Weber, Josue A Goss, Simon P Hoerstrup, Kevin Kit Parker
Tissue engineered scaffolds have emerged as a promising solution for heart valve replacement because of their potential for regeneration. However, traditional heart valve tissue engineering has relied on resource-intensive, cell-based manufacturing, which increases cost and hinders clinical translation. To overcome these limitations, in situ tissue engineering approaches aim to develop scaffold materials and manufacturing processes that elicit endogenous tissue remodeling and repair. Yet despite recent advances in synthetic materials manufacturing, there remains a lack of cell-free, automated approaches for rapidly producing biomimetic heart valve scaffolds...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444932/the-association-of-lamb1-polymorphism-and-expression-changes-with-the-risk-of-coal-workers-pneumoconiosis
#20
Xiaoming Ji, Baiqun Wu, Ruhui Han, Jingjin Yang, Esther Ayaaba, Ting Wang, Lei Han, Chunhui Ni
BACKGROUND: Pneumoconiosis is a serious occupational disease worldwide, which is characterized by irreversible and diffuse lung fibrotic lesions. Laminin beta 1(LAMB1) is widely expressed in tissues and it is crucial for both lung morphogenesis and physiological function. In this study, we explored the association between LAMB1 rs4320486 and risk of pneumoconiosis in a Chinese population, as well as its mechanisms. METHODS: In this case-control study, 600 CWP patients and 605 controls were genotyped for the LAMB1 rs4320486 polymorphism using TaqMan methods...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
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