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nutrient requirements

Diana Moreira, Jérôme Estaquier, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Ricardo Silvestre
A complex network that embraces parasite-host intrinsic factors and the microenvironment regulated the interaction between a parasite and its host. Nutritional pressures exerted by both elements of this duet thus dictate this host-parasite niche. To survive and proliferate inside a host and a harsh nutritional environment, the parasites modulate different nutrient sensing pathways to subvert host metabolic pathways. Such mechanism is able to change the flux of distinct nutrients/metabolites diverting them to be used by the parasites...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Félix Ramos-León, Sergio Arévalo, Vicente Mariscal, Enrique Flores
Filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria are multicellular organisms in which growth requires the activity of two interdependent cell types that exchange nutrients and regulators. Vegetative cells provide heterocysts with reduced carbon, and heterocysts provide vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Additionally, heterocyst differentiation from vegetative cells is regulated by inhibitors of differentiation produced by prospective heterocysts and heterocysts. Proteinaceous structures known as septal junctions join the cells in the filament...
October 16, 2018: Microbial Cell
Mary D Adu, Usman H Malabu, Aduli E O Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S Malau-Aduli
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone applications (apps) offer motivation and support for self-management of diabetes mellitus (DM), but their use is limited by high attrition due to insufficient consideration of end-users perspectives and usability requirements. This study aimed to examine app usage and feature preferences among people with DM, and explore their recommendations for future inclusions to foster engagement with diabetes apps. METHODS: The study was conducted internationally on adults with type 1 or type 2 DM using online questionnaire (quantitative) to investigate usage and preferences for app features that support diabetes self-management and semi structured telephone interview (qualitative) to explore suggestions on fostering engagement and specific educational information for inclusion into diabetes apps...
2018: PloS One
Philip Strandwitz, Ki Hyun Kim, Darya Terekhova, Joanne K Liu, Anukriti Sharma, Jennifer Levering, Daniel McDonald, David Dietrich, Timothy R Ramadhar, Asama Lekbua, Nader Mroue, Conor Liston, Eric J Stewart, Marc J Dubin, Karsten Zengler, Rob Knight, Jack A Gilbert, Jon Clardy, Kim Lewis
The gut microbiota affects many important host functions, including the immune response and the nervous system1 . However, while substantial progress has been made in growing diverse microorganisms of the microbiota2 , 23-65% of species residing in the human gut remain uncultured3,4 , which is an obstacle for understanding their biological roles. A likely reason for this unculturability is the absence in artificial media of key growth factors that are provided by neighbouring bacteria in situ5,6 . In the present study, we used co-culture to isolate KLE1738, which required the presence of Bacteroides fragilis to grow...
December 10, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Ada L García, Gabriela Morillo-Santander, Alison Parrett, Antonina N Mutoro
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in the UK, to explore the use of health and nutrition claims, and to assess their healthiness. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was carried out in seven UK supermarkets: Tesco, Aldi, Sainsbury's, Morrisons, Asda, Lidl and Waitrose. Products marketed as healthy to children above the age of 1 year containing child-oriented imagery including cartoon characters and terms such as 'one of 5-a-day' on product packaging were identified both in stores and online...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Joshua M Lensmire, Neal D Hammer
Pathogens have evolved elegant mechanisms to acquire essential nutrients from host environments. Sulfur is a requirement for bacterial growth and inorganic and organic sulfur-containing metabolites are abundant within the host-pathogen interface. A growing body of evidence suggests that pathogens are capable of scavenging both types of sulfur sources to fulfill the nutritional requirement. While therapeutic strategies focusing on inhibiting inorganic sulfate assimilation and cysteine synthesis show promise in vitro, in vivo efficacy maybe limited due to the diversity of host-derived sulfur sources and the fact that most pathogens are capable of acquiring multiple sources of sulfur...
December 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Anna Radziejewska, Agata Chmurzynska
SCOPE: In this review, we attempt to assess how choline and folate transporters affect fetal development. We focus on how the expression of these transporters in response to choline and folate intake affects transport effectiveness. We additionally describe allelic variants of the genes encoding these transporters and their phenotypic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We made an extensive review of recent articles describing role of choline and folate - with particularl emphasize on their transporters - in fetal development...
December 6, 2018: Biochimie
Kento Tokuyama, Yoshihiro Toya, Fumio Matsuda, Brady Cress, Mattheos A G Koffas, Hiroshi Shimizu
Starvation of essential nutrients, such as nitrogen, sulfur, magnesium, and phosphorus, leads cells into stationary phase and potentially enhances target metabolite production because cells do not consume carbon for the biomass synthesis. The overall metabolic behavior changes depend on the type of nutrient starvation in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we determined the optimum nutrient starvation type for producing malonyl-CoA-derived metabolites such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) and naringenin in E...
December 6, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Yu Zhang, Hiroki Kato, Hiroshi Sato, Haruyoshi Yamaza, Yuta Hirofuji, Xu Han, Keiji Masuda, Kazuaki Nonaka
Enzymatic antioxidant systems, mainly involving mitochondria, are critical for minimizing the harmful effects of reactive oxygen species, and these systems are enhanced by interactions with nonenzymatic antioxidant nutrients. Because fetal growth requires extensive mitochondrial respiration, pregnant women and fetuses are at high risk of exposure to excessive reactive oxygen species. The enhancement of the antioxidant system, e.g., by nutritional management, is therefore critical for both the mother and fetus...
December 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
K Nichols, J Dijkstra, H van Laar, S Pacheco, H J van Valenberg, A Bannink
This study tested the effects of energy from glucogenic (glucose; GG) or lipogenic (palm olein; LG) substrates at low (LMP) and high (HMP) metabolizable protein levels on whole-body energy and N partitioning of dairy cattle. Six rumen-fistulated, second-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (97 ± 13 d in milk) were randomly assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design in which each experimental period consisted of 5 d of continuous abomasal infusion followed by 2 d of rest. A total mixed ration consisting of 42% corn silage, 31% grass silage, and 27% concentrate (dry matter basis) was formulated to meet 100 and 83% of net energy and metabolizable protein requirements, respectively, and was fed at 90% of ad libitum intake by individual cow...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Emma K McIlwraith, Neruja Loganathan, Denise D Belsham
Phoenixin (PNX) is a newly identified reproductive peptide required for the estrous cycle. It is most highly expressed in the hypothalamus, where it is a positive regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin. However, it is unknown what signals lie upstream of Pnx to coordinate its effects on GnRH and kisspeptin. We investigated the effects of the hormones, estrogen and leptin; the fatty acids, palmitate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), oleate and palmitoleate; and the endocrine disrupting chemical BPA on Pnx mRNA levels...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Elcio Ferreira Santos, Paula Pongrac, André Rodrigues Reis, Philip J White, José Lavres
The fragmentary information on phosphorus (P) × zinc (Zn) interactions in plants warrants further study, particularly in plants known for their high P and Zn requirements, such as cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of P × Zn interactions in a modern cultivar of cotton grown hydroponically. Biomass, mineral nutrition and photosynthetic parameters were monitored in plants receiving contrasting combinations of P and Zn supply. Root biomass, length and surface area were similar in plants with low P and/or low Zn supply to those in plants grown with high P and high Zn supply, reflecting an increased root/shoot biomass quotient when plants lack sufficient P or Zn for growth...
December 5, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Elizabeth A Cameron, Meredith M Curtis, Aman Kumar, Gary M Dunny, Vanessa Sperandio
Enteric pathogens have complex interactions with the gut microbiota. Most of what is known about them has focused on microbiota-derived metabolites or small molecules that serve as nutrients and/or signals to aid in growth or transcriptionally regulate virulence gene expression. A common virulence strategy is to express a type III secretion system (T3SS), which is a molecular syringe deployed by many Gram-negative pathogens to hijack host cell function. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) requires its T3SS to colonize the intestinal tract and cause disease...
December 4, 2018: MBio
Andrea Romanos-Nanclares, Itziar Zazpe, Susana Santiago, Lucía Marín, Anaïs Rico-Campà, Nerea Martín-Calvo
Parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes play a fundamental role in their children's food knowledge. However, little is known about their influence on their children's diet quality and micronutrient intake. Thus, we aimed to assess the association of parental nutrition knowledge and healthy-eating attitudes with their children's adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and micronutrient adequacy. Parental healthy-eating attitudes and knowledge of the quality of their child's diet as well as anthropometric, lifestyle, and nutrient intake characteristics were recorded with a basal questionnaire that included a 140-item-food frequency-questionnaire...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Tsutomu Ohno, Ganga M Hettiarachchi
Population growth and technical and social changes have always exerted pressure on environmental quality. However, we are experiencing unprecedented change in the rate and scale of human impacts on the environment. The One Health Initiative recognizes that improving the quality of life for humans and other animal species requires a holistic and integrated framework to seek multidisciplinary solutions to global environmental quality challenges. This special section is designed to elucidate the connections among soil health, environmental quality, food safety and security, and human health...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
K N Nilaweera, J R Speakman
The growth of the intestine requires energy, which is known to be met by catabolism of ingested nutrients. Paradoxically, during whole body energy deficit including calorie restriction, the intestine grows in size. To understand how and why this happens, we reviewed data from several animal models of energetic challenge. These were bariatric surgery, cold exposure, lactation, dietary whey protein intake and calorie restriction. Notably, these challenges all reduced the adipose tissue mass, altered hypothalamic neuropeptide expression and increased intestinal size...
December 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Docus Alowo, Christopher Muggaga, Duncan Ongeng
The occurrence of anti-nutritional constituents in plants is an important factor that negatively affects bioavailability of nutrients and effectiveness of plant-based foods in complementary feeding in rural areas in developing countries. However, proven methods that improve bioavailability of nutrients and tailored for application in processing complementary foods among rural communities are largely lacking. This study examined the efficacy of a traditional malting technology practiced by the Acholi ethnic community of northern Uganda to improve protein digestibility and bioavailability of iron and zinc from millet-sesame-soy composite containing 200, 300, and 550 kcal meant for complementary feeding of children aged 6-8, 9-12, and 13-23 years old, respectively...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Lawrence Okidi, Walter Odongo, Duncan Ongeng
Nutritional knowledge and attitude of a population greatly affect intake of essential micronutrients. Much of the understanding on the impact of nutritional knowledge and attitude on nutrient intake has been derived from studies conducted among affluent societies using commercial food products. However, information on the link between status of nutritional knowledge and attitude on intake of essential nutrients from wild fruits and vegetables among rural communities is largely lacking. This study examined the status of nutritional knowledge and attitude associated with intake of vitamin A and iron from wild fruits and vegetables among rural households in Acholi subregion of northern Uganda...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Tomi L Olatunji, Anthony J Afolayan
Human micronutrient dietary deficiency remains an enormous global problem and probably accounts for the cause of many chronic health conditions and diseases. Above two (2) billion individuals on the planet today have been estimated to be deficient in major minerals and vitamins, predominantly zinc, iodine, vitamin A, and iron primarily due to inadequate dietary intake. The eradication of deficiencies in micronutrient on a sustainable basis will be conceivable only when diets of vulnerable populace provide all required nutrients in adequate amounts...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Pedro A Mejia Guerra, Maria Del Carmen Salas Sanjúan, Maria J López
Background: Organic soilless production in containers requires substrates with appropriate physicochemical and biological properties to ensure that production is sustainable and profitable for several production cycles. The main objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate these properties in three different mixtures of organic substrates (vermicompost [V] and coconut fibers [CF] in ratios 20V80CF, 40V60CF, 60V40CF) for four horticultural crop production cycles (PCs) using vermicompost tea (VT) as the main source of nutrients...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
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