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nutrient requirements

Tinashe Chiurugwi, Stuart Kemp, Wayne Powell, Lee T Hickey
This review explores how speed breeding protocols that hasten plant growth and development could be applied to shorten breeding cycles and accelerate research activities in orphan crops. There is a growing need for the agri-food sector to sustainably produce larger quantities of higher-quality food, feed and fuel using fewer resources, within the context of changing agroclimatic conditions. Meeting this challenge will require the accelerated development and dissemination of improved plant varieties and substantial improvement of agricultural practices...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Daisuke Watanabe, Takuma Kajihara, Yukiko Sugimoto, Kenichi Takagi, Megumi Mizuno, Yan Zhou, Jiawen Chen, Kojiro Takeda, Hisashi Tatebe, Kazuhiro Shiozaki, Nobushige Nakazawa, Shingo Izawa, Takeshi Akao, Hitoshi Shimoi, Tatsuya Maeda, Hiroshi Takagi
Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7) and its relatives carry a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in the RIM15 gene, which encodes a Greatwall-family protein kinase. Disruption of RIM15 in non-sake yeast strains leads to improved alcoholic fermentation, indicating that the defect in Rim15p is associated with the enhanced fermentation performance of sake yeast cells. In order to understand how Rim15p mediates fermentation control, we here focused on target-of-rapamycin protein kinase complex 1 (TORC1) and protein phosphatase 2A with the B55δ regulatory subunit (PP2AB55δ ), complexes that are known to act upstream and downstream of Rim15p, respectively...
October 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Stewart Farling, Tate Rogers, Jackie S Knee, Elizabeth A Tilley, Joe Brown, Marc A Deshusses
Pit latrines are the most common sanitation option in the developing world. They are simple to build but require periodic emptying which results in widespread dispersion of fecal pathogens in the environment. While much is known about the health risks of fecal-oral exposure, little is known about those resulting from the aerosolization of pathogens from fecal material. Bioaerosols were sampled around seven pit latrines before, after, and during emptying in Blantyre, Malawi. Bioaerosols were collected directly onto nutrient and selective medium agar plates using an impact sampler...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Babar Shahzad, Mohsin Tanveer, Abdul Rehman, Sardar Alam Cheema, Shah Fahad, Shamsur Rehman, Anket Sharma
Nickel (Ni) is becoming a toxic pollutant in agricultural environments. Due to its diverse uses from a range of common household items to industrial applications, it is essential to examine Ni bioavailability in soil and plants. Ni occurs in the environment (soil, water and air) in very small concentrations and eventually taken up by plants through roots once it becomes available in soil. It is an essential nutrient for normal plant growth and development and required for the activation of several enzymes such as urease, and glyoxalase-I...
October 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Brenda Allan, Colette Wheler, Wolfgang Köster, Mishal Sarfraz, Andy Potter, Volker Gerdts, Arshud Dar
Omphalitis or yolk sac infection (YSI) and colibacillosis are the most common infectious diseases that lead to high rates of early chick mortalities (ECMs) in young chicks. Out of numerous microbial causes, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) or extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli infections are considered the most common cause of these conditions. YSI causes deterioration and decomposition of yolk, leading to deficiency of necessary nutrients and maternal antibodies, retarded growth, poor carcass quality, and increased susceptibility to other infections, including omphalitis, colibacillosis, and respiratory tract infection...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Daniel R Moore
Understanding how exercise and dietary protein alter the turnover and synthesis of body proteins in youth can provide guidelines for the optimal development of lean mass. This review hypothesizes that active youth obtain similar anabolic benefits from exercise and dietary protein as adults but the requirement for amino acids to support growth renders them more sensitive to these nutrients.
October 16, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
S Beavan, R Baker, H Sadler, A Collinson
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition affects up to 33.6% of hospitalised patients, with consequences that are detrimental for both patients and healthcare providers. In 2015, an audit demonstrated inadequate nutritional provision and consumption by hospitalised patients, comprising a major risk factor for malnutrition. This re-audit evaluates whether patients are meeting recommended energy and protein standards and estimated individual requirements, subsequent to food service improvements since 2015...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Phoebe B Chen, Ju Hyeon Kim, Daeyoung Kim, John M Clark, Yeonhwa Park
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to be a bioactive food component. However, there is limited knowledge on the sex-dependent effects of CLA on energy metabolism. In the present study, Drosophila melanogaster was used to investigate the sex-dependent effects of CLA with respect to body fat, muscle, locomotion, and a key metabolic regulator, AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα). Adult flies were fed a cornmeal-based fly food with 0.5% of CLA oil (50:50 of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers in triacylglycerol (TAG) form), 0...
October 17, 2018: Lipids
Louisa J Stewart, Denis Thaqi, Bostjan Kobe, Alastair G McEwan, Kevin J Waldron, Karrera Y Djoko
In bacteria, copper (Cu) is often recognised for its potential toxicity and its antibacterial activity is now considered a key component of the mammalian innate immune system. Cu ions bound in weak sites can catalyse harmful redox reactions while Cu ions in strong but adventitious sites can disrupt protein or enzyme function. For these reasons, the outward transport of Cu from bacteria has received significant attention. Yet, Cu is also a bacterial nutrient, required as a cofactor by enzymes that catalyse electron transfer processes, for instance in aerobic and anaerobic respiration...
October 18, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Alan Puttock, Hugh A Graham, Donna Carless, Richard E Brazier
Beavers, primarily through the building of dams, can deliver significant geomorphic modifications and result in changes to nutrient and sediment fluxes. Research is required to understand the implications and possible benefits of widespread beaver reintroduction across Europe. This study surveyed sediment depth, extent and carbon/nitrogen content in a sequence of beaver pond and dam structures in South West England, where a pair of Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were introduced to a controlled 1.8 ha site in 2011...
September 15, 2018: Earth surface processes and landforms
Alejandra M Wiedeman, Susan I Barr, Timothy J Green, Zhaoming Xu, Sheila M Innis, David D Kitts
Choline, an essential dietary nutrient for humans, is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, the methyl group donor, betaine, and phospholipids; and therefore, choline is involved in a broad range of critical physiological functions across all stages of the life cycle. The current dietary recommendations for choline have been established as Adequate Intakes (AIs) for total choline; however, dietary choline is present in multiple different forms that are both water-soluble (e.g., free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine) and lipid-soluble (e...
October 16, 2018: Nutrients
Justin Bartter, Helena Diffey, Ying Hei Yeung, Fiona O'Leary, Barbara Häsler, Wende Maulaga, Robyn Alders
Undernutrition resulting from inadequate access to high-quality, nutritious food is a widespread issue in sub-Saharan Africa impacting the health and survival of mothers and their children. Inadequate dietary intake leads to a deficiency in nutrients including calcium, required for growth and physiological functioning. This study investigated the potential of increasing dietary calcium intake by the addition of heat-treated ground eggshell to locally prepared food. A mixed methods approach of literature review, Delphi expert survey and focus group discussions with women of childbearing age in rural Tanzania, were used to assess the practicality, safety, and acceptability of consumption of ground eggshell...
October 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
S K Krombeen, W C Bridges, M E Wilson, T A Wilmoth
Variations in placental efficiency (PE), a measure of grams of fetus produced per gram of placenta, were initially researched between swine breeds, where increased PE was associated with larger litters. Placental efficiency was also found to vary greatly within production herds and individual litters; however, the use of PE as a selection tool has been debated. Nonetheless, PE is an index of feto-placental adaptation and may help identify compensatory mechanisms that maintain fetal growth when placental size is reduced, potentially providing an opportunity to address production concerns like low birth weights and preweaning survival...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Audrey Machado Dos Reis, Ana Valéria Fruchtenicht, Sérgio Henrique Loss, Luis Fernando Moreira
To meet the nutritional requirements of patients admitted to intensive care units, it is necessary to establish a diet schedule. Complications associated with enteral nutrition by tube feeding are not uncommon and may reduce the delivery of required nutrient to patients in intensive care units. Research on the osmolality, fat content, caloric intensity and fiber content of formulas are under way, and a substantial number of studies have focused on fiber content tolerability or symptom reduction. We conducted a systematic review of dietary fiber use and safety in critically ill patients in 8 studies based on diarrhea, other gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal distension, gastric residual volume, vomiting and constipation), intestinal microbiota, length of stay in the intensive care unit and death...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Maria Luisa Astolfi, Elisabetta Marconi, Carmela Protano, Matteo Vitali, Elisa Schiavi, Paola Mastromarino, Silvia Canepari
Breast milk guarantees all the nutrients required by infants during their first few months of life and remains the most important food source for their health and growth. However, the mother may transfer potentially toxic chemicals to the suckling infant through breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to optimize and validate a fast method for the determination of a total content of 34 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) in liquid and lyophilized breast milk...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Gilmar Tuta-Navajas, Katherin Gutierrez-Avila, Sebastian Roa-Prada, Graciela Chalela-Alvarez
The presence of phenol in industrial wastewater is an issue of great relevance for petrochemical and energy companies, among others. The high toxicity level of this substance requires polluting industries to continuously monitor the concentration of phenol in their wastewaters so as to comply with environmental regulations and to minimize environmental impact. This research work proposes the experimental development of an analytical method for "in situ" measurement of the concentration of phenol diluted in water, with application in Oil & Gas production wastewater monitoring...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Prabhat Pramanik, Anup Jyoti Goswami, Swayambhu Ghosh, Chayanika Kalita
AIM: Potassium (K) is one of the three major nutrients required of plant growth and muriate of potash (MoP) is the only recognized chemical fertilizer used in agriculture. In many countries, 100% of the applied MoP is imported costing huge revenue. Application of suitable potassium-solubilizing bacteria (KSB) as biofertilizer could be an integral part of K management in arable soil. The object of this study was to evaluate K-solubilizing ability of a ubiquitous microorganism as KSB to supplement K in soil...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bethany J Farr, Samuel E Rice-Townsend, Nilesh M Mehta
Providing adequate nutrition to critically ill pediatric patients is essential and positively impacts outcomes. Critically ill infants and children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy are nutritionally vulnerable, yet there are challenges to reliable assessment of nutrition requirements and to the delivery of optimal nutrition in this cohort. In this review of the relevant literature, we present the current evidence and guidelines for the optimal prescription and delivery of nutrition for pediatric patients receiving ECMO...
October 16, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Sai Gong, Chen Chen, Jingxian Zhu, Guangyao Qi, Shuxia Jiang
Background: Cultivating the wine-cap mushroom ( Stropharia rugosoannulata ) on forestland has become popular in China. However, the effects of wine-cap Stropharia cultivation on soil nutrients and bacterial communities are poorly understood. Methods: We employed chemical analyses and high-throughput sequencing to determine the impact of cultivating the wine-cap Stropharia on soil nutrients and bacterial communities of forestland. Results: Cultivation regimes of Stropharia on forestland resulted in consistent increases of soil organic matter (OM) and available phosphorus (AP) content...
2018: PeerJ
Bruce N Ames
It is proposed that proteins/enzymes be classified into two classes according to their essentiality for immediate survival/reproduction and their function in long-term health: that is, survival proteins versus longevity proteins. As proposed by the triage theory, a modest deficiency of one of the nutrients/cofactors triggers a built-in rationing mechanism that favors the proteins needed for immediate survival and reproduction (survival proteins) while sacrificing those needed to protect against future damage (longevity proteins)...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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