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Christine Hong Ting Yang, Aparna Goel, Aijaz Ahmed
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects an estimated 0.1%-2% of the pediatric population in the United States. While the clinical course in young children is indolent, adolescents who contract HCV have a disease course similar to adults, with a 26-fold increased risk of chronic liver disease-associated mortality, hepatocellular carcinoma, and need for curative liver transplantation. Furthermore, adolescent patients are entering childbearing age and carry a risk of passing HCV to their offspring via vertical transmission...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Ratna B Ray, Ranjit Ray
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection associated liver disease is a global health problem. HCV often causes silent disease, and eventually progresses to end stage liver disease. HCV infects hepatocytes, however initial manifestation of liver disease is mostly displayed in hepatic stellate cells causing fibrosis/cirrhosis, and believed to be occurring from inflammation in the liver. It is still unclear why HCV is not spontaneously cleared from infected liver in the majority of individuals and develops chronic infection with progressive liver disease...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Christoph Sarrazin, Curtis L Cooper, Michael P Manns, K Rajender Reddy, Kris V Kowdley, Stuart K Roberts, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Evguenia Svarovskia, Ross Martin, Gregory Camus, Brian P Doehle, Luisa M Stamm, Robert H Hyland, Diana M Brainard, Hongmei Mo, Stuart C Gordon, Marc Bourliere, Stefan Zeuzem, Steven L Flamm
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral agents of sofosbuvir (SOF), velpatasvir (VEL), and voxilaprevir (VOX), inhibit distinct HCV targets: the NS5B polymerase, the NS5A protein, and NS3/4A protease, respectively. In Phase 3 studies, fixed dose combination of SOF/VEL/VOX administered for 12 weeks demonstrated a 96% SVR12 rate in NS5A inhibitor-experienced patients, and a 98% SVR12 rate in DAA-experienced patients who had not previously received an NS5A inhibitor...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Aabha Nagral, Ajay Jhaveri, Smita Sawant, Nirzar Samir Parikh, Nishtha Nagral, Rashid Merchant, Mihir Gandhi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir based generic Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) in treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in adolescents with thalassemia major (TM). METHODS: In this prospective single-arm study, 18 TM adolescents with Chronic Hepatitis C received sofosbuvir based generic DAAs. Patients with genotype 1 and genotype 3 received ledipasvir and daclatasvir respectively. Two cirrhotic patients with genotype 3 also received ribavirin...
August 10, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Chao-Ming Shih, Chih-Hsien Wu, Wen-Jun Wu, Yi-Min Hsiao, Jiunn-Liang Ko
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent pathogen and a leading cause of death and morbidity. Traditional therapy with pegylated interferon-<alpha> and ribavirin has had only limited success, with some adverse effects. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are effective in suppressing HCV replication, but are expensive. PURPOSE: Hypericin has been reported to be a good antiviral agent for inhibiting HCV replication, however, little is known about its mechanisms of action...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Vijay Gayam, Benjamin Tiongson, Mazin Khalid, Amrendra K Mandal, Osama Mukhtar, Arshpal Gill, Pavani Garlapati, Binav Shrestha, Mowyad Khalid, Sandipan Chakraborty, Debra Guss, Jagannath Sherigar, Mohammed Mansour, Smruti Mohanty
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs have been highly effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Limited data exist comparing the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of DAAs in African-American (AA) patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 (HCV GT-1) in the community practice setting. We aim to evaluate treatment response of DAAs in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All the HCV GT-1 patients treated with DAAs between January 2014 and January 2018 in a community clinic setting were retrospectively analyzed...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Gema M Lledó, Itziar Carrasco, Laura M Benítez-Gutiérrez, Ana Arias, Ana Royuela, Silvia Requena, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Carmen de Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) eradicates HCV from most chronic carriers. Information on regression of liver fibrosis and the influence of HIV is scarce in cured patients. METHODS: All consecutive HCV-infected individuals treated with DAA at our institution were examined. Hepatic elastography was performed at baseline and at the time of SVR12. Liver fibrosis regression was defined as a shift from advanced fibrosis (Metavir F3-F4) to null-mild fibrosis (F0-F2) and/or a reduction >30% KPa...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
Giuseppina Novo, Francesca Macaione, Lydia Giannitrapani, Maria Giovanna Minissale, Vito Bonomo, Francesco Indovina, Salvatore Petta, Maurizio Soresi, Giuseppe Montalto, Salvatore Novo, Antonio Craxi, Anna Licata
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is associated with morpho-functional cardiovascular alterations. AIMS: To detect early features of cardiovascular damage in HCV-compensated cirrhotic patients using myocardial deformation indices and carotid arterial stiffness, and further, to evaluate their short-term behaviour after HCV eradication with direct antiviral agents (DAAs). METHODS: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with HCV cirrhosis, without previous cardiovascular events, were studied and matched for age, gender and cardiovascular risk factors to 39 controls without liver or cardiovascular disease...
August 10, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Cameron Sikavi, Lisa Najarian, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials evaluating efficacy of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies demonstrate sustained virologic response (SVR) rates greater than 90% in patients infected with hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, generalizability of this data to real-world coinfected populations is unknown. AIM: We aim to compare efficacy data from clinical trials to effectiveness data of real-world observational studies that evaluate oral interferon-free HCV treatment regimens in patients infected with HIV and HCV...
August 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Magdalena Harris, Tim Rhodes
BACKGROUND: The development of simplified and effective hepatitis C (HCV) pharmaceuticals enables treatment scale up among the most marginalised. This potentiates a promise of viral elimination at the population level but also individual level clinical and non-clinical benefits. Reports of transformative non-clinical outcomes, such as changes in self-worth and substance use, are primarily associated with arduous interferon-based treatments that necessitate intensive care relationships...
August 6, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Lídia Teixeira, Cristina Fonseca, Sandra Sousa, Filipe Vinagre, Ana Cordeiro, Pedro Gonçalves, Maria José Santos, José Canas da Silva
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem. Because Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) seems to have an important role in immune response to HCV infection, suppression by TNFi (TNF inhibitors) may pose a potential worsening of chronic HCV infection. We report our experience with 3 cases of patients with chronic HCV infection and advanced liver disease, with different Rheumatic diseases, treated with a TNFi, etanercept (ETN), for a period ranging from 4 months to 4 years without hepatitis C treatment and, in two of them, concomitant therapy with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) and afterwards...
April 2018: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Norio Akuta, Hitomi Sezaki, Fumitaka Suzuki, Shunichiro Fujiyama, Yusuke Kawamura, Tetsuya Hosaka, Masahiro Kobayashi, Mariko Kobayashi, Satoshi Saitoh, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Yasuji Arase, Kenji Ikeda, Hiromitsu Kumada
In real-world setting, no many information is probably available on the treatment efficacy with the combination of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P) as salvage therapy in failures to prior direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) regimens. Especially, the evolution of NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) and treatment efficacy in patients, who received G/P for failures to prior treatment more than once, is unknown. 20 patients, who were introduced glecaprevir 300 mg/day and pibrentasvir 120 mg/day for 12 weeks in failures to prior DAAs regimens, could be evaluated sustained virological response at 12 weeks after end of treatment (SVR12)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Takayoshi Oba, Yutaka Inaba, Izumi Saito, Takahiro Fujisawa, Tomoyuki Saito
BACKGROUND: The use of direct anterior approach (DAA) for hemiarthroplasty in femoral neck fracture patients has recently increased worldwide. However, no previous studies have elucidated or validated risk factors for prolonged operative time in hemiarthroplasty through DAA. Accurately predicting operative time would contribute to and the selection of the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient and the effective use of operating room. METHODS: Data from 151 femoral neck fracture patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty through DAA were evaluated...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Evangelista Sagnelli, Mario Starace, Carmine Minichini, Mariantonietta Pisaturo, Margherita Macera, Caterina Sagnelli, Nicola Coppola
BACKGROUND: Introduced in 2013-2014, the second- and third-wave directly acting antivirals (DAAs) have strongly enhanced the efficacy and tolerability of anti-HCV treatment, with a sustained virological response (SVR) in 90-95% of cases treated. The aim of this paper was to focus on the type and prevalence of viral strains with a reduced sensitivity to DAAs and on treatment choices for DAA-experienced patients. METHODS: The Medline was searched for "HCV infection", "HCV treatment", "Directly acting antivirals","HCV resistance"...
August 6, 2018: Infection
Jieqiong Zhang, Zichen Wu, Fuchu Hu, Lian Liu, Xuming Huang, Jietang Zhao, Huicong Wang
Cell wall invertase (CWIN) are known to play important roles in seed development. However, most reports to date have focused on a single gene family member, and have mainly investigated CWIN functions during the filling stage of seed development. In this study, we found significant lower levels of CWIN protein and activity associated with seed abortion in the Litchi chinensis cultivar "Nuomici." We identified five litchi CWIN genes and observed that the expression of LcCWIN5 was limited to the flower tissues and decreased sharply with fruit development...
2018: Horticulture Research
Shuntai Zhou, Sara E Williford, David R McGivern, Christina L Burch, Fengyu Hu, Tiffany Benzine, Paul Ingravallo, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Anita Y M Howe, Ronald Swanstrom, Stanley M Lemon
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting NS5A are broadly effective against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, but sustained virological response rates are generally lower in patients infected with genotype (gt)-1a than gt-1b viruses. The explanation for this remains uncertain. Here, we adopted a highly accurate, ultra-deep primer ID sequencing approach to intensively study serial changes in the NS5A-coding region of HCV in gt-1a- and gt-1b-infected subjects receiving a short course of monotherapy with the NS5A inhibitor, elbasvir...
August 3, 2018: Antiviral Research
Marlina Mansour, Lucas Hill, Janice Kerr
BACKGROUND: The direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of greater than 90% in most patients. However, data evaluating DAA use in transplant patients are limited. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of HCV treatment in this high-risk population. METHODOLOGY: This single-center retrospective study included liver, kidney, lung and/or heart transplant patients who were treated for HCV infection with DAAs...
August 6, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Mohit Bhatia, Ekta Gupta, Manish C Choudhary, Ankur Jindal, Shiv Kumar Sarin
CONTEXT: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) may contribute to liver damage and variable therapeutic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. AIMS: To study the prevalence of OBI and to evaluate its impact and/or that of anti-HBc total seropositivity on clinical outcomes and response to directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in CHC-infected patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care liver hospital from January to May 2017...
July 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Sahar I Daas, Balsam R Rizeq, Gheyath K Nasrallah
Cancer cachexia is a complex disorder that is driven by inflammation and metabolic imbalances, resulting in extreme weight loss. Adipose tissue, a main player in cancer cachexia, is an essential metabolic and secretory organ consisting of both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue. Its secretory products, including adipokines and cytokines, affect a wide variety of central and peripheral organs, such as the skeletal muscle, brain, pancreas, and liver. Therefore, a combination of metabolic alterations, and systemic inflammation dysregulation of both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory modulators contribute toward adipose tissue wasting in cancer cachexia...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ashley N Tran, Rishabh Sachdev, Zachary P Fricker, Michael Leber, Toni Zahorian, Bhavesh Shah, David P Nunes, Michelle T Long
BACKGROUND: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens has resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR). Treatment of vulnerable populations may be improved by incorporating an on-site intensive specialty pharmacy (ON-ISP). AIMS: To describe outcomes of HCV treatment at a safety-net hospital and proportion of subjects achieving SVR for those using the ON-ISP compared to an off-site pharmacy (OFF-SP). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 219 subjects treated for HCV with DAA at Boston Medical Center was conducted...
August 4, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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