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Lobna Bouacida, Vanessa Suin, Veronik Hutse, Michaël Boudewijns, Reinoud Cartuyvels, Laurent Debaisieux, Emmanuel De Laere, Marie Hallin, Nicolas Hougardy, Katrien Lagrou, Els Oris, Elizaveta Padalko, Marijke Reynders, Gatien Roussel, Jean-Marc Senterre, Michel Stalpaert, Dominique Ursi, Carl Vael, Dolores Vaira, Jos Van Acker, Walter Verstrepen, Steven Van Gucht, Benoit Kabamba, Sophie Quoilin, Gaëtan Muyldermans
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of circulating HCV genotypes and subtypes in a country is crucial to guide antiviral therapy and to understand local epidemiology. Studies investigating circulating HCV genotypes and their trends have been conducted in Belgium. However they are outdated, lack nationwide representativeness or were not conducted in the general population. METHODS: In order to determine the distribution of different circulating HCV genotypes in Belgium, we conducted a multicentre study with all the 19 Belgian laboratories performing reimbursed HCV genotyping assays...
2018: PloS One
Gongyin Zhao, Ruixia Zhu, Shijie Jiang, Chao Xu, Nanwei Xu, Yuji Wang
BACKGROUND: With the patient in a constant supine position, elevation of the femur in THA (DAA) provides a more intuitive and conducive location of the acetabulum for the correct placement of the acetabular prosthesis, but elevation of the femur for broaching becomes more challenging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the restriction of the ischiofemoral ligament and short external rotation muscles, and its effect on the elevation of the proximal femur in the DAA. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 5 freshly frozen cadavers with 10 normal hips...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
C Bradley, R A Scott, E Cox, N Palaniyappan, B J Thomson, S D Ryder, W L Irving, G P Aithal, I N Guha, S Francis
METHODS: We applied multiparametric MRI to assess changes in liver composition, perfusion and blood flow in 17 patients before direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy and after treatment completion (within 12 weeks of last DAA tablet swallowed). RESULTS: We observed changes in hepatic composition indicated by a reduction in both liver longitudinal relaxation time (T1, 35 ± 4 ms), transverse relaxation time (T2, 2.5 ± 0.8 ms; T2* 3.0 ± 0.7 ms), and liver perfusion (28...
November 30, 2018: European Radiology
Vincenzo Occhipinti, Lucia Farina, Mauro Viganò, Marco Capecchi, Sara Labanca, Ilaria Fanetti, Paolo Corradini, Mariagrazia Rumi
INTRODUCTION: The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and B-cell non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL) is well established. Antiviral therapy (AVT) is the first-line treatment for HCV-related indolent NHL whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) requires immediate start of chemoimmunotherapy (CIT), usually deferring AVT. However, an early HCV elimination may reduce the risk of CIT-induced liver toxicity and consequent CIT interruption or withdrawal. To date few data are available on safety and efficacy of concomitant administration of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) and CIT in HCV-associated DLBCL...
November 3, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Sara M El-Sayed, Mohamed A M Ali, Bahaa El-Dien M El-Gendy, Samar S Dandash, Yvette Issac, Reda Saad, Mohamed M Azab, Mohamed R Mohamed
Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection poses a considerable threat to the public health. The current standard of care treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha in combination with ribavirin (PEG-IFN-α+RBV) is associated with significant side effects, poorly tolerated, and provides limited efficacy. The development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) targeting key viral enzymes essential for viral replication represents a significant milestone in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. Given its critical role in the viral polyprotein processing and the evasion of the host innate immunity, the NS3/4A protease has emerged as a promising drug target for the development of anti-HCV therapies...
December 3, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Annie Madden, Max Hopwood, Joanne Neale, Carla Treloar
Recent advances in the efficacy and tolerability of hepatitis C treatments and the introduction of a universal access scheme for the new Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) therapies in March 2016, has resulted in a rapid increase in the uptake of hepatitis C treatment in Australia. Despite these positive developments, recent data suggest a plateauing of treatment numbers, indicating that more work may need to be done to identify and address ongoing barriers to hepatitis C treatment access and uptake. This paper aims to contribute to our understanding of the ongoing barriers to DAA therapies, with a focus on people who inject drugs...
2018: PloS One
Martina Gambato, Laetitia Canini, Sabela Lens, Frederik Graw, Elena Perpiñan, Maria-Carlota Londoño, Susan L Uprichard, Zoe Mariño, Enric Reverter, Concepcio Bartres, Patricia González, Anna Pla, Josep Costa, Patrizia Burra, Scott J Cotler, Xavier Forns, Harel Dahari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Detailed hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics modeling is scarce in patients with advanced liver disease receiving direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Due to budget restrictions, patients and health systems would benefit from the shortest possible treatment course. We investigated whether modeling very early HCV kinetics in cirrhotic patients under DAAs therapy could be used to individualize care and reduce treatment duration to achieve cure. METHODS: We included 74 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis who received interferon-free treatments for 12-24 weeks...
November 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Federico J Mensa, Sandra Lovell, Tami Pilot-Matias, Wei Liu
In recent years, management of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been revolutionized by the availability of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which have significantly better efficacy and safety profiles than interferon-containing regimens. Simple, short-duration DAA therapies will facilitate expansion of HCV treatment to nonspecialist providers, which will be vital to achieve the WHO target of eliminating chronic HCV as a major public health threat by 2030. Coformulated glecaprevir/pibrentasvir is the only 8-week, pan-genotypic, 2-DAA regimen recommended by international guidelines as a first-line regimen in treatment-naive, noncirrhotic HCV genotype 1-6 patients...
November 30, 2018: Future Microbiology
Lydia Sastre, Pablo Ruiz, Josep Costa, Xavier Forns
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) can be associated with reactivation of hepatitis B (HBV). We report a case of a kidney transplant recipient who had a fatal severe HBV reactivation during treatment for chronic hepatitis C with DAA. Diagnosis of HBV reactivation was delayed due to undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg) by standard assays. The latter was explained by the presence of HBsAg escape mutants. The case illustrates the relevance of HBV-DNA testing in transplant recipients with previous exposure to HBV, even in the absence of HBsAg, and particularly when liver tests abnormalities are present...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Craig E Gordon, Ethan M Balk, Jean M Francis
KDIGO recently updated its clinical practice guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The management of HCV in patients with CKD has dramatically shifted over the past 10 years with the development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents and subsequent demonstration of their efficacy in CKD populations. The opportunity to cure HCV with DAA treatment has impacted all aspects of the KDIGO guideline on HCV in CKD including: (a) HCV diagnosis in CKD populations; (b) HCV treatment in CKD populations; (c) preventing HCV transmission in HD units; (d) management of HCV before and after kidney transplantation; and (e) management of HCV-associated glomerular disease...
November 29, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Bilal Khan, Ian Duncan, Mohamad Saad, Daniel Schaefer, Ashly Jordan, Daniel Smith, Alan Neaigus, Don Des Jarlais, Holly Hagan, Kirk Dombrowski
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is endemic in people who inject drugs (PWID), with prevalence estimates above 60% for PWID in the United States. Previous modeling studies suggest that direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment can lower overall prevalence in this population, but treatment is often delayed until the onset of advanced liver disease (fibrosis stage 3 or later) due to cost. Lower cost interventions featuring syringe access (SA) and medically assisted treatment (MAT) have shown mixed results in lowering HCV rates below current levels...
2018: PloS One
Ting-Chun Hung, Alagie Jassey, Chien-Ju Lin, Ching-Hsuan Liu, Chun-Ching Lin, Ming-Hong Yen, Liang-Tzung Lin
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) remains an important public health threat with approximately 170 million carriers worldwide who are at risk of developing hepatitis C-associated end-stage liver diseases. Despite improvement of HCV treatment using the novel direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting viral replication, there is a lack of prophylactic measures for protection against HCV infection. Identifying novel antivirals such as those that target viral entry could help broaden the therapeutic arsenal against HCV. Herein, we investigated the anti-HCV activity of the methanolic extract from Rhizoma coptidis (RC), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine documented by the WHO and experimentally reported to possess several pharmacological functions including antiviral effects...
November 27, 2018: Viruses
Pritom Chowdhury, Marie-Emmanuelle Sahuc, Yves Rouillé, Céline Rivière, Natacha Bonneau, Alexandre Vandeputte, Priscille Brodin, Manoranjan Goswami, Tanoy Bandyopadhyay, Jean Dubuisson, Karin Séron
The treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by combination of direct acting antivirals (DAA), with different mode of action, has made substantial progress in the past few years. However, appearance of resistance and high cost of the therapy is still an obstacle in the achievement of the therapy, more specifically in developing countries. In this context, search for affordable antivirals with new mechanisms of action is still needed. Tea, after water, is the most popular drink worldwide. Polyphenols extracted from green tea have already shown anti-HCV activity as entry inhibitors...
2018: PloS One
Hiroki Ikeda, Tsunamasa Watanabe, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Tetsuya Hiraishi, Hiroyasu Nakano, Yohei Noguchi, Nobuhiro Hattori, Ryuta Shigefuku, Masaki Yamashita, Kazunari Nakahara, Kotaro Matsunaga, Chiaki Okuse, Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi, Atsushi Tanaka, Michihiro Suzuki, Fumio Itoh
Aims: Interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) regimens for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients have improved their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Currently, there are no published data assessing the impact of DAAs regimens without sofosbuvir on HRQOL. The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement of HRQOL in Japanese HCV patients treated with a protease inhibitor and a nonstructural protein 5A inhibitor. Methods and Results: A total of 123 Japanese genotype 1b HCV patients receiving daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks were enrolled...
June 2018: JGH open: an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Mohammad Khalid Zakaria, Tea Carletti, Alessandro Marcello
Classical antiviral therapy targets viral functions, mostly viral enzymes or receptors. Successful examples include precursor herpesvirus drugs, antiretroviral drugs that target reverse transcriptase and protease, influenza virus directed compounds as well as more recent direct antiviral agents (DAA) applied in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, from early times, the possibility of targeting the host cell to contain the infection has frequently re-emerged as an alternative and complementary antiviral strategy...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Giten Khwairakpam, Jessica Burry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With increasing availability of generic direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and associated price reductions, various governments, multilateral institutions, and donors have started providing testing and treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. More data on the quality of these generic medicines and on cost-effectiveness of their use are becoming widely available. This review seeks to describe some of the treatment programs for HCV that are evolving in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand...
January 2019: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Yu Ozaki, Tomonori Baba, Yasuhiro Homma, Hironori Ochi, Taiji Watari, Sammy Banno, Mikio Matsumoto, Kazuo Kaneko
INTRODUCTION: When the postoperative outcome of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) was compared with the direct anterior approach (DAA) and the posterior approach (PA), there was no significant difference of the clinical outcome at 6 months to 1 year after surgery in many studies. This study was performed to compare the medium-term outcome of THA via the DAA or PA and clarify which approach achieves better quality of life (QOL). METHODS: We investigated 61 hips receiving primary THA (30 via DAA and 31 via PA), using hip function scores such as the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and patient-reported outcomes such as the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ), and the Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS)...
2018: SICOT-J
Carla Carnovale, Marco Pozzi, Alice Dassano, Francesca D'Addio, Marta Gentili, Carlo Magni, Emilio Clementi, Sonia Radice, Paolo Fiorina
AIMS: The effect of HCV eradication following the use of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) on the glyco-metabolic control is unknown. Through a meta-analysis of available clinical studies, we investigated whether eradication of HCV infection with interferon-free DAAs is associated with improved glyco-metabolic control in diabetic patients. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase, up to 08th June 2018, for all studies evaluating whether eradication of HCV infection with DAAs is associated with changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels from baseline in human subjects, without restrictions for study type and language...
November 26, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Luz Martín-Carbonero, Lourdes Domínguez-Domínguez, Lucía Bailón, Rafael Torres, Rafael Rubio, Raquel Ron, Francisco Moreno, Mikel Rico, Inmaculada Jimenez-Nacher, Juan González-García, Federico Pulido, María Luisa Montes
OBJECTIVE: Data of hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in HIV infected patients are limited to a few number of antiretroviral therapies (ART). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of non-conventional ART as monotherapy or dual therapy (MDT) when combined with DAA. METHODS: Retrospective review of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with DAAs during one year in 3 centers. Sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR) and maintenance of HIV viral suppression were compared between patients receiving triple ART (TT) or MDT...
November 23, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Matthew D Free, David H Owen, Edward Pascoe, Penny Allen, Luke Yang, Paul Harvie
INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). Most studies have focused on TXA in THA performed using a posterior approach (PA) or lateral approach. The aim of this study was to analyse the efficacy of TXA in patients undergoing THA using the direct anterior approach (DAA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using our institutional database, a retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive primary THA performed for osteoarthritis to determine transfusion rates in patients undergoing THA with the DAA with and without TXA...
November 27, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
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