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monocytes macrophages

Seagal Teitz-Tennenbaum, Steven P Viglianti, Jonathan A Roussey, Stuart M Levitz, Michal A Olszewski, John J Osterholzer
The substantial morbidity and mortality caused by invasive fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans , necessitates increased understanding of protective immune responses against these infections. Our previous work using murine models of cryptococcal lung infection demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate critical transitions from innate to adaptive immunity and that IL-10 signaling blockade improves fungal clearance. To further understand interrelationships among IL-10 production, fungal clearance, and the effect of IL-10 on lung DCs, we performed a comparative temporal analysis of cryptococcal lung infection in wild type C57BL/6J mice (designated IL-10+/+ ) and IL-10-/- mice inoculated intratracheally with C...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Tamás Röszer
Macrophages reside in specific territories in organs, where they contribute to the development, homeostasis, and repair of tissues. Recent work has shown that the size of tissue macrophage populations has an impact on tissue functions and is determined by the balance between replenishment and elimination. Macrophage replenishment is mainly due to self-renewal of macrophages, with a secondary contribution from blood monocytes. Self-renewal is a recently discovered trait of macrophages, which can have a major impact on their physiological functions and hence on the wellbeing of the organism...
August 9, 2018: Cells
J M Proudfoot, M W Murrey, S McLean, E L Greenland, A E Barden, K D Croft, J-M Galano, T Durand, T A Mori, F J Pixley
F2 -isoprostanes (F2 -IsoP) are formed in vivo via free radical peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Enhanced oxidative stress is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis in humans and F2 -IsoP have been detected in atherosclerotic plaque. Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is essential to macrophage survival, proliferation and differentiation and has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques. Accumulation of macrophages within the vascular wall is an important component of atherosclerosis but little is known about the effect of F2 -IsoP on the migration of these cells...
August 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
P C Gaspar, R C M Rudolf-Oliveira, L M Wildner, A C R de Moraes, M L Reis, R M da Silva, J Gonçalves, M L Bazzo, M C Santos-Silva
SETTING: Information about the sputum cells of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is scarce. The analysis of sputum cells using optical microscopy (OM) is a well-established method, but it has some serious limitations. OBJECTIVE: To establish a new flow cytometry (FC) protocol for the leucocyte evaluation of sputum samples from PTB patients. DESIGN: A new FC protocol using 0.1% dithiothreitol and 0.5% paraformaldehyde was developed to fluidise sputum samples and kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively, to allow the analysis of sputum samples collected from TB patients...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Sanjana Mahadev-Bhat, Bridget Aylward, Casey Johnson, Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath, Ryan J Arsenault
Exacerbated inflammation upon persistent barn organic dust exposure is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of lung inflammation and lung function decline. Barn dust constituents and the mechanisms contributing to the exacerbated inflammation are not clearly known. We set out to understand the inflammatory effects of Swine Barn Dust Extracts (SBDE) on human lung epithelial (BEAS2B) and macrophage (THP-1 monocyte derived) cell lines on a kinome array to determine phosphorylation events in the inflammatory signaling pathways...
August 9, 2018: Innate Immunity
Donghui Liu, Liang Ji, Mingming Zhao, Yang Wang, Yansong Guo, Ling Li, Dongmei Zhang, Liang Xu, Bing Pan, Jinzi Su, Song Xiang, Subramaniam Pennathur, Jingxuan Li, Jianing Gao, Pingsheng Liu, Belinda Willard, Lemin Zheng
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein compontent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), exerts many anti-atherogenic functions. This study aimed to reveal whether nonenzymatic glycation of specific sites of apoA-I impaired its anti-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the specific sites and the extent of apoA-I glycation either modified by glucose in vitro or isolated from T2DM patients. Cytokine release in THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages was tested by ELISA...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Wenlin Yu, Catherine J Field, Jianping Wu
Dietary proteins harbour bioactive peptides that exert various physiological activities. Chicken meat prepared from spent layers from the egg industry is an inexpensive source of protein for the production of bioactive peptides. This study explored the effect of hen muscle-derived peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis on immune functions. The hydrolysate was incorporated into the diet of weanling Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per diet) for 3 weeks at 2% or 5% addition (w/w diet). At a dose of 5% (w/w) the hydrolysate exhibited immunomodulatory effects on splenocytes, including a lower proportion of OX6+ (professional antigen presenting cells) and a higher proportion of CD11b/c+ cells (macrophages/monocytes) (p < 0...
August 9, 2018: Food & Function
Katelyn S Lavrich, Adam M Speen, Andrew J Ghio, Philip A Bromberg, James M Samet, Neil E Alexis
The function and cell surface phenotype of lung macrophages vary within the respiratory tract. Whether the bioenergetic profile of macrophages also differs depending on location within the lung is currently unknown. This study sought to characterize the bioenergetic profile of macrophages sampled from different locations within the respiratory tract at baseline and in response to ex vivo xenobiotic challenge. Surface macrophages recovered from healthy volunteers by induced sputum and by bronchial and bronchoalveolar lavage were profiled using extracellular flux analyses...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Gaetano Zizzo, Philip L Cohen
Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) is key for efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils (ANs) and homeostasis of IL-10 production by human anti-inflammatory M2c monocytes/macrophages. We asked whether stimulation of M2c surface receptors contributes in turn to MerTK activation. For this purpose, human monocytes/macrophages were differentiated under M1, M2a, and M2c polarizing conditions. The effects of antibody-mediated cross-linking of M2c receptors (i.e., CD14, CD16, CD32, CD163, CD204) on MerTK phosphorylation and phagocytosis of ANs were tested...
August 8, 2018: Inflammation
Prasenjit Das, Ritika Rampal, Sonakshi Udinia, Tarun Kumar, Sucharita Pilli, Nahid Wari, Imtiaz Khan Ahmed, Saurabh Kedia, Siddhartha Datta Gupta, Dhiraj Kumar, Vineet Ahuja
Background/Aims: Classical M1 macrophage activation exhibits an inflammatory phenotype while alternative M2 macrophage activation exhibits an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We aimed to determine whether there are discriminant patterns of macrophage polarization in Crohn's disease (CD) and intestinal tuberculosis (iTB). Methods: Colonic mucosal biopsies from 29 patients with iTB, 50 with CD, and 19 controls were examined. Dual colored immunohistochemistry was performed for iNOS/CD68 (an M1φ marker) and CD163/CD68 (an M2φ marker), and the ratio of M1φ to M2φ was assessed...
July 2018: Intestinal Research
Kiyoto Mori, Makoto Naganuma, Shinta Mizuno, Hiroaki Suzuki, Mina T Kitazume, Katsuyoshi Shimamura, Sayako Chiba, Akira Sugita, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Tadakazu Hisamatsu, Takanori Kanai
Background/Aims: Recent research has highlighted the importance of interactions between commensal fungi and intestinal inflammation. However, there are few studies investigating whether commensal fungi contribute to inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study is to investigate reveal interactions between commensal fungi and host immune cells in CD. Methods: CD14-positive monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human volunteers and then differentiated in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (referred to as M-macrophages, M-Mϕs) or M-CSF and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (referred to as M-gamma macrophages, Mγ-Mϕs)...
July 2018: Intestinal Research
Karl R VanDerMeid, Michael R Elliott, Andrea M Baran, Paul M Barr, Charles C Chu, Clive S Zent
CD20 monoclonal antibodies (CD20 mAbs) induce cellular cytotoxicity, which is traditionally measured by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays. However, data suggest that antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) is the primary cytotoxic mechanism. We directly compared in vitro ADCP versus ADCC using primary human cells. After establishing the primacy of ADCP, we examined next generation CD20 mAbs, including clinically relevant drug combinations for their effects on ADCP. ADCP and ADCC induction by rituximab, ofatumumab, obinutuzumab, or ocaratuzumab was measured using treatment-naïve chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) target cells and either human monocyte-derived macrophages (for ADCP) or NK cells (for ADCC)...
August 8, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Ju Kim, Ye Lin Yang, Sun-Hee Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are primarily known for their innate immune defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. In addition, recent research has suggested their modulatory activity in immune induction. Given that most subunit vaccines require an adjuvant to achieve effective immune induction through the activation of innate immunity, AMPs are plausible candidate molecules for stimulating not only innate immune but also adaptive immune responses. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the ability of human β-defensin (HBD) 2 to promote antiviral immunity in vitro and in vivo using a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein (S RBD) as a model antigen (Ag)...
August 8, 2018: Virology Journal
Jingyou Yu, Shan-Lu Liu
Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are one of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that restrict entry of enveloped viruses, including flaviviruses, filoviruses and retroviruses. It has been recently reported that in U87 glioblastoma cells IFITM proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry in a co-receptor-dependent manner, that is, IFITM1 is more inhibitory on CCR5 tropic HIV-1 whereas IFITM2/3 confers a greater suppression of CXCR4 counterparts. However, how entry of HIV-1 with distinct co-receptor usage is modulated by different IFITM orthologs in physiologically relevant CD4⁺ T cells and monocytes/macrophages has not been investigated in detail...
August 7, 2018: Viruses
Adil Rasheed, Carolyn L Cummins
Atherosclerosis is a chronic condition associated with cardiovascular disease. While largely identified by the accumulation of lipid-laden foam cells within the aorta later on in life, atherosclerosis develops over several stages and decades. During atherogenesis, various cell types of the aorta acquire a pro-inflammatory phenotype that initiates the cascade of signaling events facilitating the formation of these foam cells. The liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that upon activation induce the expression of transporters responsible for promoting cholesterol efflux...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ashwani K Singal, Shannon M Bailey
Alcohol associated liver disease (AALD) is the third most common preventable cause for disease burden and mortality in the US. AALD including alcoholic hepatitis (AH) contributes to half of admissions from decompensated liver disease and 20% of all liver transplants in the US. Peripheral blood cells contribute to systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and fibrosis in AALD and AH. Alcohol dysregulates function of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and tissue macrophages of the innate immune system...
July 25, 2018: Gene Expression
Daniel B Harmon, Chao Wu, Nikolas Dedousis, Ian J Sipula, Maja Stafanovic-Racic, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Christopher P O'Donnell, Laura C Alonso, Erin E Kershaw, Eric E Kelley, Robert M O'Doherty
Accumulation of myeloid cells in the liver, notably dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes/macrophages (MC), is a major component of the metainflammation of obesity. However, the mechanism(s) stimulating hepatic DC/MC infiltration remain ill-defined. Herein, we addressed the hypothesis that adipose tissue (AT) free fatty acids (FFA) play a central role in the initiation of hepatic DC/MC accumulation, using a number of mouse models of altered FFA supply to the liver. In two models of acute FFA elevation (lipid infusion and fasting) hepatic DC/MC and triglycerides (TG), but not AT DC/MC, were increased without altering plasma cytokines (PC; TNFα and MCP-1), and with variable effects on oxidative stress (OxS) markers...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Monika Reuss-Borst, Anne-Kathrin Tausche
The metabolic diseases gout and calciumpyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) (formerly: chondrocalcinosis/pseudogout) are crystal arthropathies which are caused by crystals in synovial fluid and in the case of gout also in periarticular structures. Today, in particular gout is considered as an auto-inflammatory process since phagocytosis of monosodium urate crystals by monocytes/macrophages results in the activation of the innate immune system by activation of the NRLP3-Inflammasome and consecutive secretion of the key cytokine interleukin-1ß and other pro-inflammatory cytokines...
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ting Wang, Hang Ouyang, Hong Zhou, Longfei Xia, Xiaoyan Wang, Ting Wang
A previous study has revealed that oxidized low‑density lipoprotein (oxLDL)/β2‑glycoprotein I (β2GPI)/anti‑β2‑glycoprotein I (anti‑β2GPI), an immune complex, is able to activate the Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor κβ (NF‑κβ) inflammatory signaling pathway in macrophages, and consequently enhance foam cell formation and the secretion of prothrombin activators. However, the effects of the oxLDL/β2GPI/anti‑β2GPI complex on vascular smooth muscle cells have yet to be investigated...
October 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Roberta Sagheddu, Sara Chiappalupi, Laura Salvadori, Francesca Riuzzi, Rosario Donato, Guglielmo Sorci
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked disease affecting striated muscles, which undergo progressive degeneration and chronic inflammation. RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products), a multiligand receptor involved in myogenesis and inflammation, is absent in healthy adult muscles but is re-expressed in myoblasts, regenerating myofibers and activated immune cells upon acute muscle injury, and in certain myopathies. We show here that RAGE is expressed and chronically stimulated in muscles of mdx mice, an experimental model of DMD, which also release high amounts of the RAGE ligands, HMGB1 and S100B...
August 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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