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gastrocnemius medialis

Scott F Brennan, Andrew G Cresswell, Dominic J Farris, Glen A Lichtwark
At a constant power output, cyclists prefer to use a higher cadence than those that minimise metabolic cost. The neuromuscular mechanism underpinning the preferred higher cadence remains unclear. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cadence on joint level work and vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle mechanics while cycling at a constant, submaximal, power output. We hypothesised that preferred cycling cadence would enhance the power capacity of the VL muscle when compared to a more economical cadence...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Encarnación Liébana, Cristina Monleón, Raquel Morales, Carlos Pablos, Consuelo Moratal, Esther Blasco
Dancers are subjected to high-intensity workouts when they practice dancesport, and according to the literature, they are prone to injury, primarily of the lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in relative activation amplitudes for dancers involved in dancesport due to muscle, gender, and type of dance. Measurements were carried out using surface electromyography equipment during the choreography of a performance in the following leg muscles: rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius medialis...
December 2018: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Depeng Meng, Huihao Chen, Yaofa Lin, Haodong Lin, Chunlin Hou
BACKGROUND: Sciatic nerve injuries cause significant disability. We propose here a novel reconstructive procedure of transferring the motor branches of the femoral nerve as donor nerves to reconstruct both the peroneal and tibial nerve function as a novel approach to treat high sciatic nerve injury. METHODS: The autopsies of donor nerves (vastus lateralis nerve branch (VLN), vastus medialis nerve branch (VMN), saphenous nerve (SAN)) and respective recipient nerves (deep peroneal nerve branch (DPN), medial gastrocnemius nerve branch (MGN), sural nerve (SN)) were conducted in six fresh-frozen lower limbs...
November 27, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Adrien Rapeaux, Emma Brunton, Kianoush Nazarpour, Timothy G Constandinou
High-Frequency alternating current nerve block has great potential for neuromodulation-based therapies. However, no precise measurements have been made of the time needed for nerves to recover from block once the signal has been turned off. This study aims to characterise time to recovery of the rat sciatic nerve after 30 seconds of block at varying amplitudes and frequencies. Experiments were carried out invivo to quantify recovery times and recovery completeness within 0.7 s from the end of block. The sciatic nerve was blocked with an alternating square wave signal of amplitude and frequency ranging from 2 to 9mA and 10 to 50 kHz respectively...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Martin Svehlik, Markus Tilp
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of functional progressive resistance training (PRT) and high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on the mechano-morphological properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon unit in children with spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: Twenty-two children (12.8 [2.6] y old, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I/II = 19/3) were randomly assigned to either a PRT group or an HICT group. The interventions consisted of functional lower limb exercises, which were performed at home 3 times per week for 8 weeks...
November 14, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
R Trama, Y Blache, C Hautier
Previous studies have shown a possible effect of running speed and the sole material of footwear on lower-limb mechanics and soft tissue vibrations, while little information has been offered concerning the influence of the shape of the footwear's sole. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of running speed and rocker shoes on muscular activity, ground reaction force, and soft tissue vibrations. Twenty participants performed heel-toe running with two shoes, differentiated only by their sole shape (i...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Matthias König, Svenja Hemmers, Gaspar Epro, Christopher McCrum, Thijs Maria Anne Ackermans, Ulrich Hartmann, Kiros Karamanidis
Reductions in muscular power output and performance during multi-joint motor tasks with aging have often been associated with muscle weakness. This study aimed to examine if matching younger and middle-aged adults for triceps surae (TS) muscle strength and tendon stiffness eliminates age-related differences in muscular power production during drop jump. The maximal ankle plantar flexion moment and gastrocnemius medialis tendon stiffness of 29 middle-aged (40-67 years) and 26 younger (18-30 years) healthy physically active male adults were assessed during isometric voluntary ankle plantar flexion contractions using simultaneous dynamometry and ultrasonography...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthew F Jacques, Gladys L Onambele-Pearson, Neil D Reeves, Georgina K Stebbings, Jonathon Smith, Christopher I Morse
BACKGROUND: Muscular dystrophy (MD) is characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness, yet few comparisons to non-MD controls (CTRL) of muscle strength and size in this adult population exist. Physical activity (PA) is promoted to maintain health and muscle strength within MD; however, PA reporting in adults with MD is limited to recall data, and its impact on muscle strength is seldom explored. METHODS: This study included 76 participants: 16 non-MD (CTRL, mean age 35...
December 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Lena V Gast, Teresa Gerhalter, Bernhard Hensel, Michael Uder, Armin M Nagel
Double quantum filtered 23 Na MRI with magic angle excitation (DQF-MA) can be used to selectively detect sodium ions located within anisotropic structures such as muscle fibers. It might therefore be a promising tool to analyze the microscopic environment of sodium ions, for example in the context of osmotically neutral sodium retention. However, DQF-MA imaging is challenging due to various signal dependences, on both measurement parameters and external influences. The aim of this work was to examine how B0 in combination with B1 inhomogeneities alter the DQF-MA signal intensity...
October 5, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Ricardo J Andrade, Sandro R Freitas, François Hug, Guillaume Le Sant, Lilian Lacourpaille, Raphäel Gross, Peter McNair, Antoine Nordez
It is a long held belief that maximal joint range of motion (ROM) is restricted by muscle tension. However, it exists indirect evidence suggesting that this assumption may not hold true for some joint configurations where non-muscular structures, such as the peripheral nerves, are stretched. Direct evidences are lacking. This study aimed to determine whether a static stretching aiming to load the sciatic nerve without stretch within plantar flexors is effective to: (i) alter nerve stiffness; and (ii) increase the ankle's maximal ROM...
September 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
David J Tomlinson, Robert M Erskine, Christopher I Morse, Gladys L Onambélé
Background: The impact, within a single cohort, of independent modulators of skeletal muscle quality, including age, adiposity and obesity, habitual nutritional intake, and physical activity (PA), is unclear. Objective: We examined the bivariate associations between age, adiposity, habitual nutritional intake, and PA against 11 key intrinsic muscle-tendon unit (MTU) characteristics to identify the strongest predictors. We also compared overall profile differences between MTU categories with the use of z scores shown in radar graphs...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Enzo Hollville, Antoine Nordez, Gaël Guilhem, Jennyfer Lecompte, Giuseppe Rabita
Animal tendons have been shown to act as shock absorbers to protect muscle fascicles from exercise-induced damage during landing tasks. Meanwhile, the contribution of tendinous tissues to damping activities such as landing has been less explored in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze in vivo fascicle-tendon interactions during drop landing to better understand their role in energy dissipation. Ultrafast ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL), lower limb electromyographic activity, 2-D kinematics, and ground reaction forces were collected from twelve participants during single- and double-leg drop landings from various heights...
September 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Thomas Cattagni, Jonathan Harnie, Marc Jubeau, Elyse Hucteau, Catherine Couturier, Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Thibault Deschamps, Gilles Berrut, Christophe Cornu
Plantar-flexor muscles are key muscles in the control of postural sway. Older fallers present lower maximal plantar-flexor performance than older non-fallers; however, the mechanisms underlying this motor impairment remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether muscular and neural factors are both involved in the lower maximal plantar-flexor performance of older fallers. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, resting twitch torque, voluntary activation level (VAL), and electromyographic (EMG) activities for the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior during plantar-flexor MVCs were recorded in 23 older non-fallers (age: 83...
October 2, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Marion Crouzier, Lilian Lacourpaille, Antoine Nordez, Kylie Tucker, François Hug
Little is known about the factors that influence the coordination of synergist muscles that act across the same joint, even during single-joint isometric tasks. The overall aim of this study was to determine the nature of the relationship between the distribution of activation and the distribution of force-generating capacity among the three heads of the triceps surae ( soleus [SOL], gastrocnemius medialis [GM] and lateralis [GL]). Twenty volunteers performed isometric plantarflexions during which the activation of GM, GL and SOL was estimated using electromyography (EMG)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Guillaume Le Sant, Antoine Nordez, François Hug, Ricardo Andrade, Thomas Lecharte, Peter McNair, Raphael Gross
Contractures are common complications of a stroke. The spatial location of the increased stiffness among plantar flexors and its variability among survivors remain unknown. This study assessed the mechanical properties of the lower leg muscles in stroke survivors during passive dorsiflexions. Stiffness was estimated through the measurement of the shear modulus. Two experiments were independently conducted where participants laid supine: with the knee extended (experiment 1, n=13 stroke survivors and n=13 controls), or with the knee flexed at 90° (experiment 2, n=14 stroke survivors and n=14 controls)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hiroki Monjo, Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Tsuyoshi Asai, Hisato Shuntoh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study compared the muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) of the abdominal, thigh, and lower leg muscles between the paretic and nonparetic sides in chronic stroke survivors. METHODS: Thirty-two stroke survivors living in the community participated in this study. The MT and EI, which are indicators of muscle mass and intramuscular fat or connective tissue, were assessed in the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus via transverse ultrasound imaging...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Minsoo Jeon, Kyojun Youn, Shinseung Yang
AIMS: To investigate the feasibility of quantitative analysis of muscle stiffness by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging, to obtain the reference values at relaxing and contraction position of gastrocnemius medialis (GCM) and to evaluate the inter-observer and intra-observer reliabilities of shear wave velocities measurements in healthy skeletal muscles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The stiffness of the left GCM muscle of 15 healthy volunteers was measured by ARFI elastography in transverse scan while the ankle was in the relaxed position and in 30 degrees of plantar flexion with the submaximal isometric contraction...
August 30, 2018: Medical Ultrasonography
Krzysztof Miazga, Hanna Fabczak, Ewa Joachimiak, Małgorzata Zawadzka, Łucja Krzemień-Ojak, Marek Bekisz, Anna Bejrowska, Larry M Jordan, Urszula Sławińska
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) plays an important role in control of locomotion, partly through direct effects on motoneurons. Spinal cord complete transection (SCI) results in changes in 5-HT receptors on motoneurons that influence functional recovery. Activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors improves locomotor hindlimb movements in paraplegic rats. Here, we analyzed the mRNA of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors (encoded by Htr2a and Htr7 genes, resp.) in motoneurons innervating tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GM) hindlimb muscles and the tail extensor caudae medialis (ECM) muscle in intact as well as spinal rats...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Gabriel Moisan, Martin Descarreaux, Vincent Cantin
The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of foot orthoses (FOs) with and without a lateral bar on muscle activity of participants with cavus feet. Fifteen participants were recruited from the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières students and podiatry clinic. The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis, vastus medialis and lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus medius were recorded during fast walking under two experimental conditions (FOs with and without a lateral bar) and a control condition (shoes)...
December 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Sabata Gervasio, Sara Finocchietti, Andrew J T Stevenson, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
PURPOSE: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) has been shown to induce changes in muscle activity during walking. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether DOMS also affects interlimb communication during walking by investigating its effect on short-latency crossed responses (SLCRs). METHODS: SLCRs were elicited in two recording sessions by electrically stimulating the tibial nerve of the ipsilateral leg, and quantified in the contralateral gastrocnemius muscle...
November 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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