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gastrocnemius medialis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290039/double-quantum-filtered-23-na-mri-with-magic-angle-excitation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-the-presence-of-b-0-and-b-1-inhomogeneities
#1
Lena V Gast, Teresa Gerhalter, Bernhard Hensel, Michael Uder, Armin M Nagel
Double quantum filtered 23 Na MRI with magic angle excitation (DQF-MA) can be used to selectively detect sodium ions located within anisotropic structures such as muscle fibers. It might therefore be a promising tool to analyze the microscopic environment of sodium ions, for example in the context of osmotically neutral sodium retention. However, DQF-MA imaging is challenging due to various signal dependences, on both measurement parameters and external influences. The aim of this work was to examine how B0 in combination with B1 inhomogeneities alter the DQF-MA signal intensity...
October 5, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266928/the-potential-role-of-sciatic-nerve-stiffness-in-the-limitation-of-maximal-ankle-range-of-motion
#2
Ricardo J Andrade, Sandro R Freitas, François Hug, Guillaume Le Sant, Lilian Lacourpaille, Raphäel Gross, Peter McNair, Antoine Nordez
It is a long held belief that maximal joint range of motion (ROM) is restricted by muscle tension. However, it exists indirect evidence suggesting that this assumption may not hold true for some joint configurations where non-muscular structures, such as the peripheral nerves, are stretched. Direct evidences are lacking. This study aimed to determine whether a static stretching aiming to load the sciatic nerve without stretch within plantar flexors is effective to: (i) alter nerve stiffness; and (ii) increase the ankle's maximal ROM...
September 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30247586/impact-of-above-average-proanabolic-nutrients-is-overridden-by-high-protein-and-energy-intake-in-the-muscle-tendon-unit-characteristics-of-middle-to-older-aged-adults
#3
David J Tomlinson, Robert M Erskine, Christopher I Morse, Gladys L Onambélé
Background: The impact, within a single cohort, of independent modulators of skeletal muscle quality, including age, adiposity and obesity, habitual nutritional intake, and physical activity (PA), is unclear. Objective: We examined the bivariate associations between age, adiposity, habitual nutritional intake, and PA against 11 key intrinsic muscle-tendon unit (MTU) characteristics to identify the strongest predictors. We also compared overall profile differences between MTU categories with the use of z scores shown in radar graphs...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242912/interactions-between-fascicles-and-tendinous-tissues-in-gastrocnemius-medialis-and-vastus-lateralis-during-drop-landing
#4
Enzo Hollville, Antoine Nordez, Gaël Guilhem, Jennyfer Lecompte, Giuseppe Rabita
Animal tendons have been shown to act as shock absorbers to protect muscle fascicles from exercise-induced damage during landing tasks. Meanwhile, the contribution of tendinous tissues to damping activities such as landing has been less explored in humans. The aim of this study was to analyze in vivo fascicle-tendon interactions during drop landing to better understand their role in energy dissipation. Ultrafast ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL), lower limb electromyographic activity, 2-D kinematics, and ground reaction forces were collected from twelve participants during single- and double-leg drop landings from various heights...
September 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240850/neural-and-muscular-factors-both-contribute-to-plantar-flexor-muscle-weakness-in-older-fallers
#5
Thomas Cattagni, Jonathan Harnie, Marc Jubeau, Elyse Hucteau, Catherine Couturier, Jean-Baptiste Mignardot, Thibault Deschamps, Gilles Berrut, Christophe Cornu
Plantar-flexor muscles are key muscles in the control of postural sway. Older fallers present lower maximal plantar-flexor performance than older non-fallers; however, the mechanisms underlying this motor impairment remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to determine whether muscular and neural factors are both involved in the lower maximal plantar-flexor performance of older fallers. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, resting twitch torque, voluntary activation level (VAL), and electromyographic (EMG) activities for the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior during plantar-flexor MVCs were recorded in 23 older non-fallers (age: 83...
October 2, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30237240/neuromechanical-coupling-within-the-human-triceps-surae-and-its-consequence-on-individual-force-sharing-strategies
#6
Marion Crouzier, Lilian Lacourpaille, Antoine Nordez, Kylie Tucker, François Hug
Little is known about the factors that influence the coordination of synergist muscles that act across the same joint, even during single-joint isometric tasks. The overall aim of this study was to determine the nature of the relationship between the distribution of activation and the distribution of force-generating capacity among the three heads of the triceps surae ( soleus [SOL], gastrocnemius medialis [GM] and lateralis [GL]). Twenty volunteers performed isometric plantarflexions during which the activation of GM, GL and SOL was estimated using electromyography (EMG)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236050/effects-of-stroke-injury-on-the-shear-modulus-of-the-lower-leg-muscle-during-passive-dorsiflexion
#7
Guillaume Le Sant, Antoine Nordez, François Hug, Ricardo Andrade, Thomas Lecharte, Peter McNair, Raphael Gross
Contractures are common complications of a stroke. The spatial location of the increased stiffness among plantar flexors and its variability among survivors remain unknown. This study assessed the mechanical properties of the lower leg muscles in stroke survivors during passive dorsiflexions. Stiffness was estimated through the measurement of the shear modulus. Two experiments were independently conducted where participants laid supine: with the knee extended (experiment 1, n=13 stroke survivors and n=13 controls), or with the knee flexed at 90° (experiment 2, n=14 stroke survivors and n=14 controls)...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198230/muscle-thickness-and-echo-intensity-of-the-abdominal-and-lower-extremity-muscles-in-stroke-survivors
#8
Hiroki Monjo, Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Tsuyoshi Asai, Hisato Shuntoh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study compared the muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) of the abdominal, thigh, and lower leg muscles between the paretic and nonparetic sides in chronic stroke survivors. METHODS: Thirty-two stroke survivors living in the community participated in this study. The MT and EI, which are indicators of muscle mass and intramuscular fat or connective tissue, were assessed in the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus via transverse ultrasound imaging...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167588/reliability-and-quantification-of-gastrocnemius-elasticity-at-relaxing-and-at-submaximal-contracted-condition
#9
Minsoo Jeon, Kyojun Youn, Shinseung Yang
AIMS: To investigate the feasibility of quantitative analysis of muscle stiffness by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging, to obtain the reference values at relaxing and contraction position of gastrocnemius medialis (GCM) and to evaluate the inter-observer and intra-observer reliabilities of shear wave velocities measurements in healthy skeletal muscles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The stiffness of the left GCM muscle of 15 healthy volunteers was measured by ARFI elastography in transverse scan while the ankle was in the relaxed position and in 30 degrees of plantar flexion with the submaximal isometric contraction...
August 30, 2018: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147717/intraspinal-grafting-of-serotonergic-neurons-modifies-expression-of-genes-important-for-functional-recovery-in-paraplegic-rats
#10
Krzysztof Miazga, Hanna Fabczak, Ewa Joachimiak, Małgorzata Zawadzka, Łucja Krzemień-Ojak, Marek Bekisz, Anna Bejrowska, Larry M Jordan, Urszula Sławińska
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) plays an important role in control of locomotion, partly through direct effects on motoneurons. Spinal cord complete transection (SCI) results in changes in 5-HT receptors on motoneurons that influence functional recovery. Activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors improves locomotor hindlimb movements in paraplegic rats. Here, we analyzed the mRNA of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors (encoded by Htr2a and Htr7 genes, resp.) in motoneurons innervating tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GM) hindlimb muscles and the tail extensor caudae medialis (ECM) muscle in intact as well as spinal rats...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145319/muscle-activation-during-fast-walking-with-two-types-of-foot-orthoses-in-participants-with-cavus-feet
#11
Gabriel Moisan, Martin Descarreaux, Vincent Cantin
The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of foot orthoses (FOs) with and without a lateral bar on muscle activity of participants with cavus feet. Fifteen participants were recruited from the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières students and podiatry clinic. The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior, fibularis longus, gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis, vastus medialis and lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus medius were recorded during fast walking under two experimental conditions (FOs with and without a lateral bar) and a control condition (shoes)...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132112/delayed-muscle-onset-soreness-in-the-gastrocnemius-muscle-attenuates-the-spinal-contribution-to-interlimb-communication
#12
Sabata Gervasio, Sara Finocchietti, Andrew J T Stevenson, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
PURPOSE: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) has been shown to induce changes in muscle activity during walking. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether DOMS also affects interlimb communication during walking by investigating its effect on short-latency crossed responses (SLCRs). METHODS: SLCRs were elicited in two recording sessions by electrically stimulating the tibial nerve of the ipsilateral leg, and quantified in the contralateral gastrocnemius muscle...
November 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095371/y-balance-test-performance-and-leg-muscle-activations-of-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#13
Timothy Tsz Ting Yam, Shirley Siu Ming Fong
This study compared Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) performance and leg muscle kinetics between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and investigated the association between YBT-LQ performance and muscle kinetics in children with DCD. Forty-eight children with DCD and 51 children without DCD participated in the study. Leg muscle kinetics were measured using surface electromyography when performing YBT-LQ. Children with DCD exhibited an overall lower YBT-LQ scores than controls...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043597/effect-of-high-fat-mixed-lipid-diet-and-swimming-on-fibre-types-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats-with-colon-tumours
#14
Vika Smerdu, Martina Perše
Skeletal muscle fibre types, whose characteristics are determined by myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, can adapt to changed physiological demands with changed MyHC isoform expression resulting in the fibre type transitions. The endurance training is known to induce fast-to-slow transitions and has beneficial effect in carcinogenesis, whereas the effect of an excessive fat intake and its interaction with the effect of swimming are less conclusive. Therefore, we studied the effect of high-fat mixed lipid (HFML) diet and long-term (21-week) swimming on fibre type transitions and their average diameters by immunohistochemical demonstration of MyHC isoforms in slow soleus (SOL), fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and mixed gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis (GM, GL) muscles, divided to deep and superficial portions (GMd, GMs, GLd, GLs), of sedentary and swimming Wistar rats with experimentally (dimethylhydrazine) induced colon tumours and fed either with HFML or low-fat corn oil (LFCO) diet...
July 25, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986290/electromyography-activity-of-triceps-surae-and-tibialis-anterior-muscles-related-to-various-sports-shoes
#15
Andrea Roca-Dols, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, Rubén Sánchez-Gómez, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Daniel López-López, Patricia Palomo-López, David Rodríguez-Sanz, César Calvo-Lobo
Triceps surae (TS) and tibialis anterior (TA) activation patterns have not yet been studied under different types of sport shoes. We hypothesized that sports shoes may reduce the activity patterns of these muscles in relation to barefoot condition. Thus, our main aim was to evaluate the activity patterns of TS and TA muscles in healthy people during all gait phases using five types of sport shoes with respect to barefoot condition. A total sample of thirty healthy participants, mean age 36.20 ± 8.50, was recruited in a podiatry laboratory following an observational research design...
October 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986275/a-hierarchy-in-functional-muscle-roles-at-the-knee-is-influenced-by-sex-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency
#16
Michael J Del Bel, Teresa E Flaxman, Kenneth B Smale, Tine Alkjaer, Erik B Simonsen, Michael R Krogsgaard, Daniel L Benoit
BACKGROUND: Sex-related neuromuscular differences have been linked to greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. Despite this, it remains unclear if sex-related differences are present after injury. This study sought to determine if sex differences are present in the functional roles of knee joint muscles in an anterior cruciate ligament deficient population. METHODS: An isometric, weight-bearing, force-generation protocol required injured and healthy males and females to modulate ground reaction forces...
August 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962320/effect-of-treadmill-walking-on-leg-muscle-activation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Olalla Bello, Gonzalo Marquez, Miguel Fernandez-Del-Olmo
Treadmills are often used as rehabilitation devices to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD). Kinematic differences between treadmill and overground gait have been reported. However, electromyographic (EMG) patterns during treadmill and overground walking have not been systematically compared. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of treadmill gait on the magnitude of the EMG activity of the lower limb muscles in PD. We measured EMG activity of the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius medialis, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of nine individuals with PD and nine healthy matched controls...
August 21, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953745/muscle-co-activation-across-activities-of-daily-living-in-individuals-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#18
Stephanie L Smith, Richard Allan, Sara P Marreiros, James Woodburn, Martijn Pm Steultjens
OBJECTIVE: Muscle co-activation has been shown to be elevated in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) during gait. Comparisons of muscle co-activation across different activities of daily living such as stair negotiation have yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to explore muscle co-activation across different activities of daily living in patients with KOA. METHODS: Muscle co-activation was assessed in 77 symptomatic KOA participants (age 62.5±8...
June 28, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951529/muscle-shortening-and-spastic-cocontraction-in-gastrocnemius-medialis-and-peroneus-longus-in-very-young-hemiparetic-children
#19
M Vinti, N Bayle, A Merlo, G Authier, S Pesenti, J-L Jouve, B Chabrol, J-M Gracies, C Boulay
Objectives: Muscle shortening and spastic cocontraction in ankle plantar flexors may alter gait since early childhood in cerebral palsy (CP). We evaluated gastrosoleus complex (GSC) length, and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and peroneus longus (PL) activity during swing phase, in very young hemiparetic children with equinovalgus. Methods: This was an observational, retrospective, and monocentric outpatient study in a pediatric hospital. Ten very young hemiparetic children (age 3 ± 1 yrs) were enrolled...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914562/energy-cost-and-lower-leg-muscle-activities-during-erect-bipedal-locomotion-under-hyperoxia
#20
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Takafumi Maeda, Masahiro Horiuchi
BACKGROUND: Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) against speed shows U-shaped fashion in walking and linear fashion in running, indicating that there exists a specific walking speed minimizing the CoT, being defined as economical speed (ES). Another specific gait speed is the intersection speed between both fashions, being called energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS). We measured the ES, EOTS, and muscle activities during walking and running at the EOTS under hyperoxia (40% fraction of inspired oxygen) on the level and uphill gradients (+ 5%)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
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