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gastrocnemius medialis

Timothy Tsz Ting Yam, Shirley Siu Ming Fong
This study compared Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) performance and leg muscle kinetics between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and investigated the association between YBT-LQ performance and muscle kinetics in children with DCD. Forty-eight children with DCD and 51 children without DCD participated in the study. Leg muscle kinetics were measured using surface electromyography when performing YBT-LQ. Children with DCD exhibited an overall lower YBT-LQ scores than controls...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Vika Smerdu, Martina Perše
Skeletal muscle fibre types, whose characteristics are determined by myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, can adapt to changed physiological demands with changed MyHC isoform expression resulting in the fibre type transitions. The endurance training is known to induce fast-to-slow transitions and has beneficial effect in carcinogenesis, whereas the effect of an excessive fat intake and its interaction with the effect of swimming are less conclusive. Therefore, we studied the effect of high-fat mixed lipid (HFML) diet and long-term (21-week) swimming on fibre type transitions and their average diameters by immunohistochemical demonstration of MyHC isoforms in slow soleus (SOL), fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and mixed gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis (GM, GL) muscles, divided to deep and superficial portions (GMd, GMs, GLd, GLs), of sedentary and swimming Wistar rats with experimentally (dimethylhydrazine) induced colon tumours and fed either with HFML or low-fat corn oil (LFCO) diet...
July 25, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Andrea Roca-Dols, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, Rubén Sánchez-Gómez, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Daniel López-López, Patricia Palomo-López, David Rodríguez-Sanz, César Calvo-Lobo
Triceps surae (TS) and tibialis anterior (TA) activation patterns have not yet been studied under different types of sport shoes. We hypothesized that sports shoes may reduce the activity patterns of these muscles in relation to barefoot condition. Thus, our main aim was to evaluate the activity patterns of TS and TA muscles in healthy people during all gait phases using five types of sport shoes with respect to barefoot condition. A total sample of thirty healthy participants, mean age 36.20 ± 8.50, was recruited in a podiatry laboratory following an observational research design...
October 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Michael J Del Bel, Teresa E Flaxman, Kenneth B Smale, Tine Alkjaer, Erik B Simonsen, Michael R Krogsgaard, Daniel L Benoit
BACKGROUND: Sex-related neuromuscular differences have been linked to greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. Despite this, it remains unclear if sex-related differences are present after injury. This study sought to determine if sex differences are present in the functional roles of knee joint muscles in an anterior cruciate ligament deficient population. METHODS: An isometric, weight-bearing, force-generation protocol required injured and healthy males and females to modulate ground reaction forces...
August 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Olalla Bello, Gonzalo Márquez, Miguel Fernández Del Olmo
Treadmills are often employed as rehabilitation devices to improve gait in Parkinson's disease (PD). Kinematic differences between treadmill and overground gait have been reported. However, electromyographic (EMG) patterns during treadmill and overground walking have not been systematically compared. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of treadmill gait on the magnitude of the EMG activity of the lower limb muscles in PD. We measured EMG activity of the tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) of 9 individuals with PD and 9 healthy matched controls...
July 1, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Stephanie L Smith, Richard Allan, Sara P Marreiros, James Woodburn, Martijn Pm Steultjens
OBJECTIVE: Muscle co-activation has been shown to be elevated in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) during gait. Comparisons of muscle co-activation across different activities of daily living such as stair negotiation have yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to explore muscle co-activation across different activities of daily living in patients with KOA. METHODS: Muscle co-activation was assessed in 77 symptomatic KOA participants (age 62.5±8...
June 28, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
M Vinti, N Bayle, A Merlo, G Authier, S Pesenti, J-L Jouve, B Chabrol, J-M Gracies, C Boulay
Objectives: Muscle shortening and spastic cocontraction in ankle plantar flexors may alter gait since early childhood in cerebral palsy (CP). We evaluated gastrosoleus complex (GSC) length, and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and peroneus longus (PL) activity during swing phase, in very young hemiparetic children with equinovalgus. Methods: This was an observational, retrospective, and monocentric outpatient study in a pediatric hospital. Ten very young hemiparetic children (age 3 ± 1 yrs) were enrolled...
2018: BioMed Research International
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Takafumi Maeda, Masahiro Horiuchi
BACKGROUND: Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) against speed shows U-shaped fashion in walking and linear fashion in running, indicating that there exists a specific walking speed minimizing the CoT, being defined as economical speed (ES). Another specific gait speed is the intersection speed between both fashions, being called energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS). We measured the ES, EOTS, and muscle activities during walking and running at the EOTS under hyperoxia (40% fraction of inspired oxygen) on the level and uphill gradients (+ 5%)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Robin Hager, Sylvain Dorel, Antoine Nordez, Giuseppe Rabita, Antoine Couturier, Hugo Hauraix, Jacques Duchateau, Gaël Guilhem
The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (VF ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Michael E Hales, John D Johnson
PURPOSE: The study investigated different sport field properties influence on muscular recruitment patterns and metabolic response during a series of running and agility drills. METHODS: Eleven male athletes were fitted with a standard multi-purpose training shoe. The test protocol consisting of four high-intensity trials with 60 seconds rest between trials performed on two fields with different properties. Time-dependent field properties were recorded using ASTM protocol (F-1936)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Sylvana Weiland, Ineke H Smit, Heleen Reinders-Messelink, Lucas H V van der Woude, Klaske van Kammen, Rob den Otter
BACKGROUND: To accommodate training for unilaterally affected patients (e.g. stroke), the Lokomat (a popular robotic exoskeleton-based gait trainer) provides the possibility to set the amount of movement guidance for each leg independently. Given the interlimb couplings, such asymmetrical settings may result in complex effects, in which ipsilateral activity co-depends on the amount of guidance offered to the contralateral leg. To test this idea, the effect of asymmetrical guidance on muscle activity was explored...
2018: PloS One
Hosein Kouhzad Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehravar, Khosro Khademi Kalantari, Sedighe Sadat Naimi, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Farshad Okhovatian, Asghar Rezasoltani, Mohammad Ali Mohseni Bandpei, Navid Taheri
BACKGROUND: Pronated of the foot is one of the important factors contributing to musculoskeletal problems affecting the lower extremities. It is known that in a pronated foot, excessive mechanical load is applied to the lower limb structures which may result in altered biomechanics and muscle activation patterns. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the muscle activation pattern of the lower extremities in individuals with pronated, compared to normal, feet, using the voluntary response index (VRI)...
April 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
E Traverse, F Lebon, A Martin
Motor imagery (MI), the mental simulation of an action, influences the cortical, corticospinal, and spinal levels, despite the lack of somatosensory afferent feedbacks. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of MI associated with somatosensory stimulation (SS) on the corticospinal and spinal excitabilities. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation to induce motor-evoked potentials (MEP) and H-reflexes, respectively, in soleus and medialis gastrocnemius (MG) muscles of the right leg...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Alicja Rutkowska-Kucharska, Agnieszka Szpala, Sebastian Jaroszczuk, Małgorzata Sobera
Balance exercises in rhythmic gymnastics are performed on tiptoes, which causes overload of foot joints. This study aimed to evaluate the engagement of muscles stabilizing ankle and knee joints in balance exercises and determine exercises which may lead to ankle and knee joint injuries. It was hypothesized that long-term training has an influence on balance control and efficient use of muscles in their stabilizing function. Two rhythmic gymnasts (8 and 21 years old) performed balances on tiptoes (side split with hand support, ring with hand support) and on a flat foot (back split without hand support exercise)...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Filiz Ateş, Can A Yucesoy
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) effects on the mechanics of non-injected antagonistic muscles are unknown. The aim was to test the following hypotheses in a rat model: BTX-A injected into gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL) (1) decreases forces of the antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), (2) reduces length range of force exertion and (3) increases passive forces of the TA, and (4) changes inter-antagonistic and inter-synergistic epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT)...
August 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
E E Sigmund, S H Baete, K Patel, D Wang, D Stoffel, R Otazo, P Parasoglou, J Bencardino
OBJECTIVES: We describe measurement of skeletal muscle kinetics with multiple echo diffusion tensor imaging (MEDITI). This approach allows characterization of the microstructural dynamics in healthy and pathologic muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a Siemens 3-T Skyra scanner, MEDITI was used to collect dynamic DTI with a combination of rapid diffusion encoding, radial imaging, and compressed sensing reconstruction in a multi-compartment agarose gel rotation phantom and within in vivo calf muscle...
May 14, 2018: Magma
Maiki Moriguchi, Noriaki Maeshige, Mizuki Ueno, Yoshiyuki Yoshikawa, Hiroto Terashi, Hidemi Fujino
High plantar flexor moment during the stance phase is known to cause high plantar pressure under the forefoot; however, the effects on plantar pressure due to a change of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) activity during gait, have not been investigated to date. Reciprocal inhibition is one of the effects of electrical stimulation (ES), and is the automatic antagonist alpha motor neuron inhibition which is evoked by excitation of the agonist muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of ES of the tibialis anterior (TA) on plantar pressure and the GM activity during gait in healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
Annika Kruse, Christian Schranz, Markus Tilp, Martin Svehlik
BACKGROUND: Early detection of changes at the muscular level before a contracture develops is important to gain knowledge about the development of deformities in individuals with spasticity. However, little information is available about muscle morphology in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) without contracture or equinus gait. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and Achilles tendon architecture of children and adolescents with spastic CP without contracture or equinus gait to that of typically developing (TD) children...
May 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jordi Diaz-Manera, Roberto Fernandez-Torron, Jaume LLauger, Meredith K James, Anna Mayhew, Fiona E Smith, Ursula R Moore, Andrew M Blamire, Pierre G Carlier, Laura Rufibach, Plavi Mittal, Michelle Eagle, Marni Jacobs, Tim Hodgson, Dorothy Wallace, Louise Ward, Mark Smith, Roberto Stramare, Alessandro Rampado, Noriko Sato, Takeshi Tamaru, Bruce Harwick, Susana Rico Gala, Suna Turk, Eva M Coppenrath, Glenn Foster, David Bendahan, Yann Le Fur, Stanley T Fricke, Hansel Otero, Sheryl L Foster, Anthony Peduto, Anne Marie Sawyer, Heather Hilsden, Hanns Lochmuller, Ulrike Grieben, Simone Spuler, Carolina Tesi Rocha, John W Day, Kristi J Jones, Diana X Bharucha-Goebel, Emmanuelle Salort-Campana, Matthew Harms, Alan Pestronk, Sabine Krause, Olivia Schreiber-Katz, Maggie C Walter, Carmen Paradas, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Tanya Stojkovic, Shin'ichi Takeda, Madoka Mori-Yoshimura, Elena Bravver, Susan Sparks, Luca Bello, Claudio Semplicini, Elena Pegoraro, Jerry R Mendell, Kate Bushby, Volker Straub
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dysferlinopathies are a group of muscle disorders caused by mutations in the DYSF gene. Previous muscle imaging studies describe a selective pattern of muscle involvement in smaller patient cohorts, but a large imaging study across the entire spectrum of the dysferlinopathies had not been performed and previous imaging findings were not correlated with functional tests. METHODS: We present cross-sectional T1-weighted muscle MRI data from 182 patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathies...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Cédric Y M Morio, Alexis Herbaut
Although shoe friction has been widely studied in occupational ergonomics, information was lacking about friction in sport shoes. The purpose of the study was to examine the neuromechanical adaptations to different shoe-surface interface in an aerobic-gym specific movement. Sixteen females performed 10 change of direction movements in two shoe conditions differing by their outsoles (ethyl-vinyl-acetate: EVA and rubber: RB) to ensure significant differences in mechanical coefficients of friction (EVA = 0...
June 2018: Human Movement Science
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