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(ICU OR intensive care* OR critical*) AND (antibiotic OR antiinfective OR antimicrobial)

Majid Saeedi, Masoumeh Eslamifar, Khadijeh Khezri
Skin color disorders can be caused by various factors, such as excessive exposure to sunlight, aging and hormonal imbalance during pregnancy, or taking some medications. Kojic acid (KA) is a natural metabolite produced by fungi that has the ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity in synthesis of melanin. The major applications of KA and its derivatives in medicine are based on their biocompatibility, antimicrobial and antiviral, antitumor, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-speck, anti-parasitic, and pesticidal and insecticidal properties...
December 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Leonard J Keller, Vincent J Alentado, Joseph E Tanenbaum, Bryan S Lee, Amy S Nowacki, Edward C Benzel, Thomas E Mroz, Michael P Steinmetz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: A spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a serious condition that may be managed with antibiotics alone or with decompressive surgery combined with antibiotics. PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical outcomes of SEA after surgical management and to identify the patient-level factors that are associated with outcomes following surgical decompression and removal of SEA. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective chart review analysis...
December 8, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Salam Abbara, Aurélia Pitsch, Sébastien Jochmans, Kyann Hodjat, Dr Pascale Cherrier, Mehran Monchi, Christophe Vinsonneau, Sylvain Diamantis
OBJECTIVES: To assess if the postprescription review and feedback (PPRF) of all antibiotics with restriction of carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins, along with a change of medical standard of care, impacted the consumption of antibiotics and bacterial resistance in a medical/surgical intensive care unit (MSICU). METHODS: A four years before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2014) retrospective comparative study. Antibiotics consumption was evaluated in Defined Daily Doses per 1000 patient days...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Daniel B Chastain, Anthony Davis
Osteomyelitis remains difficult to treat, typically requiring a prolonged course of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. The optimal route and duration of antibiotics remains ill-defined due to limited prospective clinical trials. Oritavancin is a long acting, semisynthetic, lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with rapid, concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against many Gram-positive organisms. Favorable pharmacokinetics makes oritavancin an appealing alternative for currently available antibiotics requiring daily infusions to decrease the risk of vascular access complications associated with outpatient antimicrobial therapy...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Giorgio Berlot, Claudio Michele Vassallo, Nicola Busetto, Margarita Nieto Yabar, Tatiana Istrati, Silvia Baronio, Giada Quarantotto, Mattia Bixio, Giulia Barbati, Roberto Dattola, Irene Longo, Antonino Chillemi, Alice Scamperle, Fulvio Iscra, Ariella Tomasini
BACKGROUND: The administration of endovenous immunoglobulins in patients with septic shock could be beneficial and preparations enriched with IgA and IgM (ivIgGAM) seem to be more effective than those containing only IgG. In a previous study Berlot et al. demonstrated that early administration of ivIgGAM was associated with lower mortality rate. We studied a larger population of similar patients aiming either to confirm or not this finding considering also the subgroup of patients with septic shock by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Cátia Marques, Juliana Menezes, Adriana Belas, Catarina Aboim, Patrícia Cavaco-Silva, Graça Trigueiro, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba
Objectives: To characterize the population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Klebsiella spp. isolated from dogs, cats and humans with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods: Klebsiella spp. from companion animals (n = 27) and humans (n = 77) with UTI were tested by the disc diffusion method against 29 antimicrobials. Resistant/intermediate isolates were tested by PCR for 16 resistance genes. Seven virulence genes were screened for by PCR...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alex M Cressman, Derek R MacFadden, Amol A Verma, Fahad Razak, Nick Daneman
Background: Physicians face competing demands of maximizing pathogen coverage, while minimizing unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics when managing sepsis. We sought to identify physicians' perceived likelihood of coverage achieved by their usual empiric antibiotic regimen, along with minimum thresholds of coverage they would be willing to accept when managing these patients. Methods: We conducted a scenario-based survey of internal medicine physicians from across Canada using a 2 x 2 factorial design, varied by infection source (undifferentiated vs...
December 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Diego F Baenas, Emanuel J Saad, Fernando A Diehl, Danilo Musso, Jacqueline G González, Victoria Russo, Mario Vilaró, Ricardo A Albertini
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomially acquired urinary tract infections (NAUTI) represent an important public health issue, but its characteristics when they are not catheter associated (CA-UTI) or when they take place outside intensive care units (ICU) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the patients' characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of NAUTI, both CA-UTI and no CA-UTI, in general ward and ICU. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analytic cross-sectional study, between 2009 and 2013, in a third level universitary hospital...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Eugene M Tan, Jennifer L St Sauver, Irene G Sia
Background: International travelers are at high risk of acquiring travelers' diarrhea. Pre-travel consultation has been associated with lower rates of malaria, hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The objective was to study the impact of pre-travel consultation on clinical management and outcomes of travelers' diarrhea. Methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 1160 patients diagnosed with travelers' diarrhea at Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN from 1994 to 2017...
2018: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
N Pourramezan, S Ohadian Moghadam, M R Pourmand
Health-care workers may serve as a reservoir for dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to patients in hospital settings. The present study aimed to screen MRSA in nasal swabs of health-care workers and clinical specimens from patients and investigate the possible relationship between these isolates at a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Additionally, we aimed to identify potential risk factors for MRSA colonization in health-care workers. Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from health-care workers and inpatients who completed a questionnaire on risk factors...
January 2019: New Microbes and New Infections
Kay Currie, Caroline King, Kareena McAloney-Kocaman, Nicola J Roberts, Jennifer MacDonald, Adele Dickson, Shona Cairns, Nitish Khanna, Paul Flowers, Jacqui Reilly, Lesley Price
Background: Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has spread rapidly and presents a growing challenge in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) management internationally. Screening for CPE may involve a rectal swab, there are limited treatment options for affected patients, and colonised patients are cared for in isolation to protect others. These measures are sound infection prevention precautions; however, the acceptability of CPE screening and its consequences are currently unknown...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Manali Mukherjee, Paige Lacy, Shigeharu Ueki
Eosinophils are an enigmatic white blood cell, whose immune functions are still under intense investigation. Classically, the eosinophil was considered to fulfill a protective role against parasitic infections, primarily large multicellular helminths. Although eosinophils are predominantly associated with parasite infections, evidence of a role for eosinophils in mediating immunity against bacterial, viral, and fungal infections has been recently reported. Among the mechanisms by which eosinophils are proposed to exert their protective effects is the production of DNA-based extracellular traps (ETs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Clay S Crippen, Steven Huynh, William G Miller, Craig T Parker, Christine M Szymanski
Antimicrobial resistance is a major problem worldwide. Understanding the interplay between drug-resistant pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and related species, potentially acting as environmental reservoirs is critical for preventing the spread of resistance determinants. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant bacteriophage-propagating strain of Acinetobacter radioresistens.
August 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
George Taiaroa, Ørjan Samuelsen, Tom Kristensen, Ole Andreas Løchen Økstad, Adam Heikal
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is defined as a "critical" priority pathogen for the development of new antibiotics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of an extensively drug-resistant, Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase-expressing isolate belonging to the high-risk sequence type 233.
August 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Charmaine Ng, Xiaoqiong Gu, Shin Giek Goh, Hongjie Chen, Laurence Haller, Boonfei Tan, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
Four multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were cultured from intensive care unit wastewater. All isolates exhibited resistance to carbapenem and extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. Genome characterization revealed the presence of beta-lactamase resistance genes ( bla PAO and bla OXA ), and three out of the four isolates carried the bla NDM-1 gene encoding resistance against carbapenems.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Feng Cao, Cari Orth, Maureen J Donlin, Patrick Adegboyega, Marvin J Meyers, Ryan P Murelli, Mohamed Elagawany, Bahaa Elgendy, John E Tavis
Novel antibiotics are urgently needed. The troponoids [tropones, tropolones, and α-hydroxytropolones (α-HT)] can have anti-bacterial activity. We synthesized or purchased 92 troponoids and evaluated their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Preliminary hits were assessed for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC80 ) and cytotoxicity (CC50 ) against human hepatoma cells. Sixteen troponoids inhibited S. aureus / E...
November 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Jiangang Zhang, Chunjiang Zhao, Hongbin Chen, Henan Li, Qi Wang, Zhanwei Wang, Feifei Zhang, Hui Wang
Objective: This study aimed to determine the risk factors for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), assess the clinical outcomes of IAIs, and investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens causing IAIs. Patients and methods: This prospective observational study enrolled patients from the Chinese Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections (CARES) program between 2007 and 2016. Data on the clinicopathological factors and causative pathogens were collected...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Emmanuel C Eze, Hafizah Y Chenia, Mohamed E El Zowalaty
Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading cause of nosocomial infections due to its increased antibiotic resistance and virulence. The ability of A. baumannii to form biofilms contributes to its survival in adverse environmental conditions including hospital environments and medical devices. A. baumannii has undoubtedly propelled the interest of biomedical researchers due to its broad range of associated infections especially in hospital intensive care units. The interplay among microbial physicochemistry, alterations in the phenotype and genotypic determinants, and the impact of existing ecological niche and the chemistry of antimicrobial agents has led to enhanced biofilm formation resulting in limited access of drugs to their specific targets...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Mojtaba Moosavian, Hosein Ghadri, Zahra Samli
Objective: Nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are known as a source of spreading these bacteria. The aim of this prospective study was molecular detection of vanA and vanB genes among VRE isolated from patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in Ahvaz in southwest of Iran. Materials and methods: Overall, 243 non-duplicate rectal swab specimens were collected from ICU-hospitalized patients in teaching hospitals affiliated to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Iran...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Joseph Y Ting, Vanessa Paquette, Karen Ng, Sarka Lisonkova, Valoria Hait, Sandesh Shivanada, Peter Tilley, Horacio Osiovich, Ashley Roberts
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in the neonatal intensive care unit using standardized criteria and determine the effects of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on patterns of antibiotic usage. METHODS: A retrospective audit of antibiotic use from July 2010 to June 2013 was conducted, focusing on prescriptions of vancomycin, cefotaxime, meropenem and linezolid for >3 calendar-days. We evaluated the appropriateness of each course of antibiotic treatment based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 12-Step Guidelines to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance (steps 4, 6 and 9)...
January 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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