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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315921/quantifying-the-importance-of-active-antimicrobial-therapy-among-patients-with-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections-cefepime-as-a-representative-agent
#1
C Miglis, N J Rhodes, J Liu, J Gener, E Hang, M Scheetz
The quantitative importance of active antibiotic treatment relative to other modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for mortality has not been well defined in the literature. Here we quantify the impact of active antibiotic treatment on mortality relative to other disease modifiers in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Patients with at least one positive blood culture who were treated with ≥24 hours of cefepime for GNBSI were included for study. To examine in-hospital survival, a full primary model and a base model with the least significant covariate from the primary model were established...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315665/a-retrospective-study-of-157-hospitalized-cats-with-pancreatitis-in-a-tertiary-care-center-clinical-imaging-and-laboratory-findings-potential-prognostic-markers-and-outcome
#2
Ran Nivy, Alina Kaplanov, Sharon Kuzi, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Einat Yas, Gilad Segev, Jennifer Ben-Oz, Eran Lavy, Itamar Aroch
BACKGROUND: Pancreatitis in cats (FP) has been increasingly diagnosed in recent years, but clinical studies of large numbers of affected cats are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To describe a large cohort of cats with FP requiring hospitalization. ANIMALS: One hundred and fifty-seven client-owned cats. METHODS: Retrospective study, including cats diagnosed with pancreatitis based on sonographic evidence, positive SNAP feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity test results, increased 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycerol-glutaric Acid-(6'-methylresorufin ester)-lipase activity, histopathology, or some combination of these...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315133/utility-of-broad-range-16s-rrna-pcr-assay-versus-conventional-methods-for-laboratory-diagnosis-of-bacterial-endophthalmitis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#3
Deepanshi Mishra, Gita Satpathy, Rohan Chawla, Pradeep Venkatesh, Nishat Hussain Ahmed, Subrat Kumar Panda
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis, a sight-threatening intraocular infection, can be of postsurgical, post-traumatic or endogenous origin. Laboratory diagnosis-based appropriate therapy can be vision-saving. Conventional culture-based laboratory diagnosis takes time and lacks sensitivity. In this study a broad-range PCR assay was assessed against conventional and automated culture methods in vitreous specimens for accurate microbiological diagnosis. AIMS: To use broad-range PCR assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) region of bacteria and to assess its performance vis-à-vis conventional and automated culture methods in the laboratory diagnosis of endophthalmitis...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315110/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-a-modified-legionaminic-acid-involved-in-glycosylation-of-a-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide
#4
Nathan D McDonald, Kristen E DeMeester, Amanda L Lewis, Catherine Leimkuhler Grimes, E Fidelma Boyd
Nonulosonic acids (NulOs) are a diverse family of α-keto acid carbohydrates present across all branches of life. Bacteria biosynthesize NulOs among which are several related prokaryotic-specific isomers and one of which N -acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid), is common among all vertebrates. Bacteria display various NulO carbohydrates on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the identities of these molecules tune host-pathogen recognition mechanisms. The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus possesses the genes for NulO biosynthesis; however, the structures and functions of the V...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315078/amentoflavone-ameliorates-streptococcus-suis-induced-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Xue Shen, Xiaodi Niu, Gen Li, Jianfeng Wang, Xuming Deng
Streptococcus suis (S.suis), an important zoonotic pathogen, has caused considerable economic losses in swine industry and severe public health issues worldwide. It is urgent to develop novel effective strategy for prevention and therapy of S.suis Here, amentoflavone, a natural biflavonoid compound isolated from Chinese herbs that has negligible anti- S.suis activity, was identified to be a potent antagonist of suilysin (SLY)-mediated hemolysis without interfering with expression of SLY. Amentoflavone effectively inhibited SLY oligomerization, which is critical for its pore-forming activity...
October 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314775/why-do-veterinarians-ask-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-a-qualitative-study-exploring-determinants-and-evaluating-the-impact-of-antibiotic-reduction-policy
#6
Clémence Bourély, Nicolas Fortané, Didier Calavas, Agnès Leblond, Émilie Gay
For public health reasons, increasing attention has focused on more rational use of antimicrobials in farm animals. Guidance concerning the prescription of antibiotics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (antibiograms in this case) are beneficial tools to help control the development of antimicrobial resistance. Nevertheless, even though there are already several qualitative studies analysing the determinants of antimicrobial prescription and use in veterinary medicine, little is known about decision-making concerning the use of antibiograms...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314475/pleural-infection-a-retrospective-study-of-clinical-outcome-and-the-correlation-to-known-etiology-co-morbidity-and-treatment-factors
#7
Christian Niels Meyer, Karin Armbruster, Michael Kemp, Trine Rolighed Thomsen, Ram Benny Dessau
BACKGROUND: We explored the hypothesized importance of early knowledge of microbiological etiology in patients with pleural infection, including comorbidity and treatment factors in the outcome analyses. METHODS: Data from the medical records of a large cohort of 437 consecutive patients in 9 hospitals in East-Denmark were included retrospectively. RESULTS: Microbiology, co-morbidity, therapy and outcome are described in detail. Patient groups with microbiology negative and known bacterial etiology had a similar 30-day and 90-day mortality...
October 12, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314303/massive-gene-expansion-and-sequence-diversification-is-associated-with-diverse-tissue-distribution-regulation-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-anti-lipopolysaccharide-factors-in-shrimp
#8
Gabriel Machado Matos, Paulina Schmitt, Cairé Barreto, Natanael Dantas Farias, Guilherme Toledo-Silva, Fanny Guzmán, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón, Luciane Maria Perazzolo, Rafael Diego Rosa
Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are antimicrobial peptides with a central β-hairpin structure able to bind to microbial components. Mining sequence databases for ALFs allowed us to show the remarkable diversity of ALF sequences in shrimp. We found at least seven members of the ALF family (Groups A to G), including two novel Groups (F and G), all of which are encoded by different loci with conserved gene organization. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that gene expansion and subsequent diversification of the ALF family occurred in crustaceans before shrimp speciation occurred...
October 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313028/effect-of-led-therapy-for-the-treatment-nipple-fissures-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Thalita Molinos Campos, Maria Aparecida Dos Santos Traverzim, Ana Paula Taboada Sobral, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Kristianne Santos Porta Fernandes, Lara Jansiski Motta, Sergio Makabe
INTRODUCTION: Poor positioning of the child in relation to the breast and improper suckling are the main causes of nipple fissure. Treatment options for nipple fissures include drug therapy with antifungal and antibiotics, topical applications of lanolin, glycerin gel, creams and lotions, the milk itself, hot compresses, and silicone nipple shields. Studies involving light-emitting diode (LED) therapy have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, the enhancement of the wound repair process, and the control of pain...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312971/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillus-fumigatus-wound-infection-following-subtotal-colectomy-for-perforated-toxic-megacolon-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient
#10
Bryce French, Katherine Mandell, Ryan Martinez
INTRODUCTION: Aspergillus is a rare cause of surgical site infection most often seen in immunocompromised patients undergoing cardiac, transplant, ophthalmologic, or burn operations; an unusual case following a colon resection is presented here. CASE REPORT: The authors report a case of an invasive Aspergillus fumigatus infection following a subtotal colectomy for toxic megacolon. The patient was on antibiotics following the operation and chronic immunosuppression with steroids and infliximab...
October 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312654/non-prescription-sales-of-antimicrobial-agents-at-community-pharmacies-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
M H F Sakeena, Alexandra A Bennett, Andrew J McLachlan
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge. Developing countries are more vulnerable to the consequences of AMR than developed nations because of complex issues pertaining to the nature their health care systems. Inappropriate antimicrobial drug use and the unrestricted availability of antimicrobial agents in community pharmacies in developing countries can contribute to emergence of resistant microbes. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the availability of antimicrobial agents without a doctor's prescription in developing countries and to investigate factors that contribute to inappropriate antimicrobial supply in developing countries...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312401/results-from-the-canadian-nosocomial-infection-surveillance-program-for-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-acinetobacter-spp-in-canadian-hospitals-2010-16
#12
David A Boyd, Laura F Mataseje, Linda Pelude, Robyn Mitchell, Elizabeth Bryce, Diane Roscoe, Joanne Embree, Kevin Katz, Pamela Kibsey, Christian Lavallee, Andrew E Simor, Geoffrey Taylor, Nathalie Turgeon, Joanne M Langley, Kanchana Amaratunga, Michael R Mulvey
Objectives: Globally there is an increased prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (CRAs) and carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. (CPAs) in the hospital setting. This increase prompted the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) to conduct surveillance of CRA colonizations and infections identified from patients in CNISP-participating hospitals between 2010 and 2016. Methods: Participating acute care facilities across Canada submitted CRAs from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311778/vulnerability-of-long-term-care-facility-residents-to-clostridium-difficile-infection-due-to-microbiome-disruptions
#13
Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Aging presents a significant risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A disproportionate number of CDIs affect individuals in long-term care facilities compared with the general population, likely due to the vulnerable nature of the residents and shared environment. Review of the literature cites a number of underlying medical conditions such as the use of antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, chemotherapy, renal disease and feeding tubes as risk factors. These conditions alter the intestinal environment through direct bacterial killing, changes to pH that influence bacterial stabilities or growth, or influence nutrient availability that direct population profiles...
October 12, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311481/anticariogenic-activities-of-i-derris-reticulata-i-ethanolic-stem-extract-against-i-streptococcus-mutans-i
#14
Pawitra Pulbutr, Sakulrat Rattanakiat, Natnicha Phetsaardeiam, Patcharapa Modtaku, Rattazart Denchai, Achida Jaruchotikamol, Wanwisa Khunawattanakul
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus mutans is a dominant causative pathogen of dental caries, which is a major oral health problem affecting million people worldwide. Derris reticulata is a medicinal plant possessing antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. None the less, its effects on growth and cariogenic properties of S. mutans has not been clearly established. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and anti cariogenic activities of the D...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311206/when-societal-structural-issues-become-patient-problems-the-role-of-clinical-ethics-consultation
#15
Aimee Milliken, Martha Jurchak, Nicholas Sadovnikoff
The debate about health insurance coverage and the related issue of unequal access to health care turn on fundamental questions of justice, but for an individual patient like DM, the abstract question about who is deserving of health insurance becomes a very concrete problem that has a profound impact on care and livelihood. DM's circumstances left him stuck in the hospital. A satisfactory discharge plan remained elusive; his insurance coverage severely limited the number and type of facilities that would accept him; and his inadequate engagement in his own rehabilitation process limited discharge options even further...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310656/effect-of-the-calcination-process-on-cdo-zno-nanocomposites-by-a-honey-assisted-combustion-method-for-antimicrobial-performance
#16
Gopi Somasundaram, Jayaprakash Rajan, Justin Paul
This work reports on honey as a combustion agent of CdO : ZnO nanocomposites and the effects of further annealing (100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C and 400 °C) on their structural, optical, morphological, elemental, electrical and antimicrobial properties are investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra confirm the cubic and hexagonal structure of CdO : ZnO nanocomposites at 400 °C. When the calcination temperature was increased, the crystallinity, absorbance, bandgap, luminescence intensity, morphological dispersion and mean particle size were also increased...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309410/-effectiveness-of-xuebijing-in-treatment-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-a-meta-analysis
#17
Ruixia Song, Chenming Dong, Cuiting Wang, Hong Zhang, Zhaohui Yang
OBJECTIVE: To systematical evaluate the effect of Xuebijing injection in the treatment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). METHODS: With the keywords including Xuebijing, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction and multiple organ failure, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine (CBM), VIP and Wanfang Data from the database start until March 4th, 2018 were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to Xuebijing injection combined conventional treatment versus conventional treatment alone for MODS...
September 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309044/differences-in-hypotensive-vs-non-hypotensive-sepsis-management-in-the-emergency-department-door-to-antibiotic-time-impact-on-sepsis-survival
#18
Leonor Ballester, Rafael Martínez, Juan Méndez, Gloria Miró, Manel Solsona, Elisabeth Palomera, Josep Anton Capdevila, Alejandro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Yébenes
BACKGROUND: Sepsis diagnosis can be incorrectly associated with the presence of hypotension during an infection, so the detection and management of non-hypotensive sepsis can be delayed. We aimed to evaluate how the presence or absence of hypotension, on admission at the emergency department, affects the initial management and outcomes of patients with community-onset severe sepsis. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, process of care, and outcome variables were recorded for all patients, at the emergency department of our university hospital, who presented with community-onset severe sepsis, between 1 March and 31 August in three consecutive years...
October 10, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308890/effectiveness-of-zinc-oxide-assisted-photocatalysis-for-concerned-constituents-in-reclaimed-wastewater-1-4-dioxane-trihalomethanes-antibiotics-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-arb-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-args
#19
Myung Hwangbo, Everett Caleb Claycomb, Yina Liu, Theodore E G Alivio, Sarbajit Banerjee, Kung-Hui Chu
Microbial and emerging chemical contaminants are unwanted constituents in reclaimed wastewater, due to the health concerns of using the water for agricultural irrigation, aquifer recharges, and potable water. Removal of these contaminants is required but it is currently challenging, given that there is no simple treatment technology to effectively remove the mixture of these contaminants. This study examined the effectiveness of ZnO-assisted photocatalytic degradation of several constituents, including 1,4-dioxane, trihalomethanes (THMs), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs), under low intensity of UV exposure...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308206/laboratory-results-epidemiological-features-and-outcome-analyses-of-microbial-keratitis-a-15-year-review-from-saint-louis
#20
Hugo Y Hsu, Benjamin Ernst, Eric J Schmidt, Rohit Parihar, Chelsea Horwood, Sean L Edelstein
PURPOSE: To evaluate the laboratory results and prognostic factors of poor clinical outcomes in microbial keratitis cases over 15 years at Saint Louis University. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and trend study. METHODS: Microbiological and clinical information from culture-positive cases seen at Saint Louis University from 1999-2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Statistical analyses were used to determine microbiological and antibiotic susceptibility trends...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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