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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120844/impact-of-serum-cystatin-c-based-glomerular-filtration-rate-estimates-on-drug-dose-selection-in-hospitalized-patients
#1
Bradley J Peters, Andrew D Rule, Kianoush B Kashani, John C Lieske, Kristin C Mara, Ross A Dierkhising, Erin F Barreto
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Serum creatinine concentration (SCr) is used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for medication dosing. Serum cystatin C concentration (CysC) has been proposed as an adjunct or alternative to SCr. This study sought to evaluate the impact that using CysC in eGFR equations could have on drug dose recommendations in hospitalized patients with infections. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Large academic tertiary care medical center...
August 18, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120718/infectious-disease-services-a-survey-from-four-university-hospitals-in-germany
#2
Siegbert Rieg, Florian Hitzenbichler, Stefan Hagel, Isabelle Suarez, Florian Kron, Bernd Salzberger, Mathias Pletz, Winfried V Kern, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Norma Jung
PURPOSE: Involvement of infectious disease (ID) specialists in the care of hospitalized patients with infections through consultation services improves the quality of care and the outcome of patients. This survey aimed to describe activities and utilization of ID consultations at four German tertiary care hospitals. METHODS: A 1-month (March 2016) retrospective cross-sectional study at four university hospitals (Freiburg, Jena, Cologne and Regensburg) was performed...
August 17, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120657/new-insights-into-the-selective-inhibition-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrases-of-pathogenic-bacteria-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-francisella-tularensis-a-proteochemometrics-study
#3
Behnam Rasti, Sargol Mazraedoost, Hanieh Panahi, Mojtaba Falahati, Farnoosh Attar
Nowadays, antibiotic resistance has turned into one of the most important worldwide health problems. Biological end point of critical enzymes induced by potent inhibitors is recently being considered as a highly effective and popular strategy to defeat antibiotic-resistant pathogens. For instance, the simple but critical β-carbonic anhydrase has recently been in the center of attention for anti-pathogen drug discoveries. However, no β-carbonic anhydrase selective inhibitor has yet been developed. Available β-carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are also highly potent with regard to human carbonic anhydrases, leading to severe inevitable side effects in case of usage...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120647/an-evaluation-of-risk-factors-to-predict-target-concentration-non-attainment-in-critically-ill-patients-prior-to-empiric-%C3%AE-lactam-therapy
#4
Sahand Imani, Hergen Buscher, Richard Day, Sheridan Gentili, Graham R D Jones, Debbie Marriott, Ross Norris, Indy Sandaradura
To determine whether target concentration non-attainment can be anticipated in critically ill patients prior to initiating empiric β-lactam antibiotic therapy based on readily available clinical factors. Retrospective review of consecutive patients treated with piperacillin or meropenem and who underwent therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) at St Vincent's Hospital (Sydney, Australia) between January 2013 and December 2015 was performed. Predefined subgroups were patients who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and those who did not (non-CRRT)...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120332/expression-profiling-in-a-mammalian-host-reveals-the-strong-induction-of-genes-encoding-lysm-domain-containing-proteins-in-enterococcus-faecium
#5
Margherita Cacaci, Caroline Giraud, Loic Leger, Riccardo Torelli, Cecilia Martini, Brunella Posteraro, Valentina Palmieri, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Francesca Bugli, Axel Hartke
Enterococcus faecium is an important health care-associated pathogen that is difficult to treat due to the high level of antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates. The identification of new potential therapeutic targets or vaccination strategies is therefore urgently needed. In this regard, we carried out a transcriptomic analysis of the E. faecium vancomycin-resistant strain AUS0004, comparing the gene expression of bacteria grown under laboratory conditions and bacteria isolated from an infection site. This analysis highlighted more than 360 genes potentially induced under infection conditions...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119612/the-lipid-membrane-interactions-of-the-cationic-antimicrobial-peptide-chimeras-melimine-and-cys-melimine
#6
Thomas Berry, Debarun Dutta, Renxun Chen, Andrea Leong, Huixin Wang, William Alexander Donald, Maryam Parviz, Bruce Cornell, Mark Willcox, Naresh Kumar, Charles G Cranfield
Melimine and its derivatives are synthetic chimeric antimicrobial agents based on protamine and melittin. The binding of solubilised melimine, and its derivative with a cysteine on N-terminus (cys-melimine), on tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) was examined using AC electrical impedance spectroscopy. Addition of melimine and cys-melimine initially increased membrane conduction, which subsequently falls over time. Results were obtained for tBLMs comprising zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, anionic phosphatidylglycerol or tBLMs made using purified lipids from Escherichia coli...
August 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119147/antibiotic-treatment-outcomes-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
Aykut Çilli, Abdullah Sayıner, Burcu Çelenk, Ayşın Şakar Coşkun, Oğuz Kılınç, Armağan Hazar, Anıl Aktaş Samur, Sezai Taşbakan, Grant W. Waterer, Yavuz Havlucu, Öznur Kılıç, Fatma Tokgöz, Uğur Bilge
Background/aim: The optimal empiric antibiotic regimen for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical cure rate, mortality, and length of stay among patients hospitalized with community- acquired pneumonia in nonintensive care unit (ICU) wards and treated with a β-lactam, β-lactam and macrolide combination, or a fluoroquinolone. Materials and methods: This prospective cohort study was performed using standardized web-based database sheets from January 2009 to September 2013 in nine tertiary care hospitals in Turkey...
August 16, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118963/acute-dacryocystitis-complicated-by-orbital-cellulitis-and-loss-of-vision-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Abrar K Alsalamah, Hind M Alkatan, Yasser H Al-Faky
INTRODUCTION: Acute dacryocystitis usually presents as a pre-septal cellulitis since the lacrimal sac lies anterior to the orbital septum. Orbital cellulitis secondary to acute dacryocystitis is very rare due to a variety of anatomic barriers to the orbit but can occur and result in abscess formation with risk of visual compromise. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a case of otherwise healthy adult who presented with complete visual loss following orbital cellulitis and abscess formation secondary to acute dacryocystitis...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118753/correlation-of-antimicrobial-effects-of-phenoxyethanol-with-its-free-concentration-in-the-water-phase-of-o-w-emulsion-gels
#9
Julia Puschmann, Michael E Herbig, Christel C Müller-Goymann
Antimicrobial testing is a time consuming and cost-intensive but essential method for evaluation of newly developed pharmaceutical formulations for topical use. In this study the correlation between free preservative concentration in emulsion gels measured by equilibrium dialysis and the successful preservative effectiveness testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis (analyzed according to Ph. Eur. and USP) was investigated. The higher the lipophilicity of the oil phase and the lower the content of the aqueous phase with regard to dissolved ingredients the more preferably distributed is phenoxyethanol to the water phase and, consequently, the higher was the efficacy against the microbes...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118692/guidelines-for-intraoperative-care-in-cesarean-delivery-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras%C3%A2-society-recommendations
#10
Aaron B Caughey, Stephen L Wood, George A Macones, Ian J Wrench, Jeffrey Huang, Mikael Norman, Karin Pettersson, William J Fawcett, Medhat M Shalabi, Amy Metcalfe, Leah Gramlich, Gregg Nelson, R Douglas Wilson
OBJECTIVE: This ERAS Guideline for intraoperative care in Cesarean Delivery (CD) will provide best practice, evidenced-based, recommendations for intra-operative care with primarily, a maternal focus. The 'focused' pathway process for scheduled and unscheduled CD, for this ERAS CD guideline will consider, from decision to operate (starting with the 30 - 60 minutes prior to skin incision) through the conduct of the surgery. METHODS: The literature search (1966-2017) used Embase and PubMed to search medical subject headings including "Cesarean Section", "Cesarean Section", "Cesarean Section Delivery" and all pre- and intra-operative ERAS® items...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118674/beta-lactam-carryover-in-arterial-and-central-venous-catheters-is-negligible
#11
Emily Marsh, Sylvia M Verhoven, Joseph J Groszek, William H Fissell, Guohua An, Pratish Patel, Buddy Creech, Matthew Shotwell
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring is used for aminoglycosides and vancomycin, and has been proposed for β-lactam antibiotics. Clinical blood samples in the ICU are often obtained via an existing vascular catheter rather than fresh needle phlebotomy. If antibiotics had previously been infused through a vascular catheter then used for blood sampling, carryover of antibiotic from the infusion to the sample might result in misleading assessments of target attainment. To address this concern we conducted a series of in vitro measurements of carryover for three commonly used antibiotics...
August 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118563/co-administration-of-probiotics-with-prescribed-antibiotics-for-preventing-clostridium-difficile-diarrhea
#12
Ahmed S I Hamed, Andrew C Miller
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) colitis is an opportunistic infection that occurs in individuals whose normal gut microbiota has been disrupted. Antibiotics can disturb the normal intestinal microflora, thereby reducing pathogen resistance to the gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus. When a person takes antibiotics, good germs that protect against infection are destroyed for several months.1 During this time, patients can get sick from C. difficile, a gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacillus picked up from contaminated surfaces or spread from a health care provider's hands...
August 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118377/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-current-management-and-future-therapeutic-alternatives
#13
Jose Garnacho-Montero, Irene Barrero-García, Maria de Gracia Gómez-Prieto, Ignacio Martín-Loeches
Despite advances in modern medicine, severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be a potentially deadly disease. Mortality rate reaches up to the 50% in patients requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) when developing septic shock. Areas covered: We aim to describe the optimal management of severe CAP including antibiotic therapy, future antimicrobial options, and non-antibiotic (so-called adjunctive) therapies. A literature search was performed to identify all clinical trials, observational studies, meta-analysis, and reviews about this topic from PubMed...
August 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117675/appropriate-use-of-dressings-containing-nanocrystalline-silver-to-support-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-wounds
#14
Emma J Woodmansey, Christopher D Roberts
Antimicrobial resistance is an ever-increasing global concern, with the era of untreatable infection becoming a reality. Wound care is no exception, with increasing issues of antibiotic-resistant infections across different wound types and care settings. Antibiotic resistance and stewardship have been the priority for most strategic interventions so far; however, in wound care, alternative or supplementary strategies using antiseptics should be considered. Antiseptics such as silver can provide effective cidal activity across a broad range of wound pathogens, assuming they are used at the correct level for an appropriate duration...
August 17, 2018: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117388/emphysematous-pyelonephritis-case-report-and-literature-overview
#15
Brigitte Katharina Ziegelmüller, Bernadett Szabados, Annabel Spek, Jozefina Casuscelli, Christian Stief, Michael Staehler
INTRODUCTION: Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare necrotizing infection of the kidney with a poor prognosis. If it occurs in patients with a reduced general condition, this infection is life threatening. Early diagnosis is made by computed tomography. Treatment options are drainage and intensive care or immediate nephrectomy in severe cases. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 73-year-old woman in a poor general condition presented with a fulminant urosepsis. Computed tomography revealed an impressive abscess formation of the right kidney with free air retro and intraperitoneal...
August 2018: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117274/nanosilver-enabled-food-storage-container-tradeoffs-environmental-impacts-versus-food-savings-benefit-informed-by-literature
#16
Edward I Westerband, Andrea L Hicks
Globally, thousands of tons of food are lost each year around the world due to spoilage and degraded quality. This is a current critical issue that must be addressed to ensure adequate food supply for the growing world population, with the use of technology and regulatory practices as one avenue to a solution. One considered approach is the reduction of the microorganism population on the surface of food products to delay spoilage through the use of antimicrobials. One current method is the use of the antimicrobial properties of nano-scale silver (nAg) particles in order to prolong the freshness of stored food by reducing the bacteria present...
August 17, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117235/phagocytic-and-oxidative-burst-activity-of-phagocytic-cells-in-peripheral-blood-and-uterine-washings-in-cows-with-clinical-endometritis-before-and-after-intrauterine-use-of-cephapirin-and-methisoprinol
#17
Piotr Brodzki, Urszula Lisiecka, Adam Brodzki, Renata Pyz-Łukasik, Leszek Krakowski
The aim of the study was to evaluate phagocytic and killing activity of phagocytic cells in blood and uterine flush of cows with endometritis before and after intrauterine (i.u.) administration of cephapirin and methisoprinol. The research was carried out on 28 cows with clinical endometritis. Animals were divided into four groups, each composed of seven cows, depending on the i.u. treatment used: Group A-cephapirin; Group B-methisoprinol; Group C-cephapirin and methisoprinol at the same time; and a control group-without medication...
August 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117112/cyst-masquerading-as-inadvertent-bleb-after-a-scleral-fixated-intraocular-lens-in-marfan-syndrome-a-case-report
#18
Nirmal R Gosalia, Mark S Dikopf, Jennifer I Lim, Amy Y Lin, Elmer Y Tu, Ahmad A Aref
INTRODUCTION: To present a case of an epithelial inclusion cyst masquerading as an inadvertent bleb in a patient with Marfan syndrome. CASE REPORT: A woman with Marfan syndrome presented with a subluxed crystalline lens in her right eye, which progressively subluxed over the following 2 years. A lensectomy was performed with placement of an anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL); however, the patient experienced blurred vision and photopsias and preferred IOL explantation...
August 16, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117080/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-low-versus-high-dose-colistin-in-the-treatment-of-multi-drug-resistant-pneumonia-in-saudi-arabia
#19
Abdul Karim Suleman Cara, Syed Tabish Razi Zaidi, Fatima Suleman
Background Gram negative pathogens are increasingly resistant to commonly used first line antibiotics and colistin is in most cases the only medicine available. There is very limited information available comparing the effectiveness and costs of low versus high dose colistin with studies showing efficacy with both doses and with variable levels of adverse effects. The absence of a definite dosing strategy makes a model to compare low dose and high dose colistin invaluable in making decisions regarding the appropriate use of colistin...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117073/rapid-antibiotic-susceptibility-determination-for-yersinia-pestis-using-flow-cytometry-spectral-intensity-ratio-sir-fluorescence-analysis
#20
Eran Zahavy, Shahar Rotem, David Gur, Ronit Aloni-Grinstein, Moshe Aftalion, Raphael Ber
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) are essential tool for proper treatment of patients infected by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), the causative agent of plague, or for post-exposure prophylaxis of a population exposed to a naturally acquired or deliberately prepared resistant variant. The standard AST of Y. pestis is based on bacterial growth and requires 24-48 h of incubation in addition to the time required for prior isolation of a bacterial culture from the clinical or environmental sample, which may take an additional 24-48 h...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
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