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antibiotic* AND intensive*

Desi M Newberry, Tracey Robertson Bell
BACKGROUND: Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare in the United States. Recent immigration patterns to the United States have made the diagnosis of congenital TB an important public health issue. PURPOSE: To explore the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis for congenital TB. The implications for exposed healthcare professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting are also explored. METHODS/SEARCH STRATEGY: Relevant articles were accessed via PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
H Ciesielczuk, M Wilks, S Castelain, M Choquet, M Morotti, E Pluquet, V Sambri, M Tassinari, S Zannoli, L Cavalié, H Dupont, H Guet-Revillet
Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are one of the most common type of infections in patients with sepsis and an important cause of death in intensive care units. Early detection and treatment are necessary to reduce patient complications and improve outcomes. The Unyvero IAI Application (Curetis GmbH) is the first automated assay to rapidly and simultaneously identify a large panel of bacteria, fungi, toxins, and antibiotic resistance markers directly from IAI-related samples. The assay was evaluated in four European clinical laboratories in comparison to routine microbiological practices...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Joseph Philip, Christian Kegg, Dalia Lopez-Colon, Brian J Kelly, Robert M Lawrence, Matthew A Robinson, Ravi S Samraj, Mark S Bleiweis
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus for the length of prophylactic antibiotics after delayed chest closure (DCC) postcardiac surgery in pediatrics. In September 2014, our institution's pediatric cardiac intensive care unit changed the policy on length of prophylactic antibiotics after DCC from 5 days (control) to 2 days (study group). The objective of the study was to determine whether a 2-day course of antibiotics is as effective as a 5-day course in preventing blood stream and sternal wound infections in pediatric DCC...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Marion Houard, Anahita Rouzé, Geoffrey Ledoux, Sophie Six, Emmanuelle Jaillette, Julien Poissy, Sébastien Préau, Frédéric Wallet, Julien Labreuche, Saad Nseir, Benoit Voisin
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common ICU-acquired infection. Recently, the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) has substantially increased in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk for VAP related to ESBLE could be helpful to improve the rate of appropriate initial antibiotic treatment, and to reduce unnecessary exposure to carbapenems. The primary objective was to identify risk factors for VAP related to ESBLE...
2018: PloS One
C Scarano, F Piras, S Virdis, G Ziino, R Nuvoloni, A Dalmasso, E P L De Santis, C Spanu
Selective pressure in the aquatic environment of intensive fish farms leads to acquired antibiotic resistance. This study used the broth microdilution method to measure minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 15 antibiotics against 104 Aeromonas spp. strains randomly selected among bacteria isolated from Sparus aurata reared in six Italian mariculture farms. The antimicrobial agents chosen were representative of those primarily used in aquaculture and human therapy and included oxolinic acid (OXA), ampicillin (AM), amoxicillin (AMX), cephalothin (CF), cloramphenicol (CL), erythromycin (E), florfenicol (FF), flumequine (FM), gentamicin (GM), kanamycin (K), oxytetracycline (OT), streptomycin (S), sulfadiazine (SZ), tetracycline (TE) and trimethoprim (TMP)...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Charles Feldman, Guy Richards
Lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of infectious disease deaths worldwide and are the fifth leading cause of death overall. This is despite conditions such as pneumococcal infections and influenza being largely preventable with the use of appropriate vaccines. The mainstay of treatment for the most important bacterial lower respiratory tract infections, namely acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), is the use of antibiotics...
2018: F1000Research
Asifa Nazir, Talat Masoodi
BACKGROUND: Candidal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Neonatal candidiasis is increasing in frequency, mainly because of increase in the survival of babies with low-birth weight, preterm births, advancement in medical field, life support systems, relative immunodeficiency, and extensive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Over the past few decades, there has been a progressive shift from the predominance of Candida albicans to nonalbicans Candida species...
July 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Neal Bhutiani, Seth A Quinn, Jordan M Jones, Megan K Mercer, Prejesh Philips, Kelly M McMasters, Charles R Scoggins, Robert C G Martin
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery after surgery protocols have been increasingly adopted to standardize patient care and decrease overall costs. This study evaluated the impact of a prospectively implemented enhanced recovery after surgery protocol for patients undergoing surgery for gastroesophageal and hepatopancreatobiliary disease at an academic institution. METHODS: Patients undergoing either hepatopancreatobiliary or gastroesophageal procedures between January 2013 and May 2017 were classified according to whether or not they were placed on an enhanced recovery after surgery protocol...
July 30, 2018: Surgery
L Amas Gómez, F Zubia Olaskoaga
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the implementation of a protocol for the management of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) improves the clinical outcomes. DESIGN: A retrospective, before-after observational case series study was carried out. STUDY PERIOD: 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2016, divided in 2 periods (pre-protocol 2001-2007, post-protocol 2008-2016). SCOPE: An ICU with 48 beds and a recruitment population of 700,000 inhabitants...
July 30, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Ruchir Chavada, Deborah Tong, Michael Maley
There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDR GN), which cause increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, recent studies have focused on risk factors of acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. However, there is limited data on risk factors for BSI caused by AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (AmpC EC), especially in low prevalence settings such as Australia...
August 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Brian T Veach, Thilak K Mudalige, Paula J Barnes, Chris A Baker
Background : Antibiotic resistance and other adverse health issues related to the presence of drug residues in honey are of great concern to the United States, United Kingdom, and many other countries. The majority of quantitative testing methods using mass spectrometry are not capable of performing high-throughput analysis. Furthermore, the methods that are available are labor intensive and time consuming. Objective : There is a need for a rapid quantitative screening method to detect veterinary drug residues in honey for laboratories performing regulatory analysis...
July 31, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Martin Langer, Gina Portella, Stefano Finazzi, Liliane Chatenoud, Simone Lanini, Francesco Vairo, Robert Fowler, Rossella Miccio, Giuseppe Ippolito, Guido Bertolini, Gino Strada
PURPOSE: We investigate the impact on outcome of different levels of supportive treatment in Ebola virus disease (EVD). The NGO EMERGENCY delivered care sequentially at two Ebola Treatment Centres (ETC) in Sierra Leone: first at Lakka (fluids, symptomatic, antibiotic, antimalaria treatment, and hospital level medical care), and thereafter in Goderich, adding organ support in the only African ETC with an equipped and staffed intensive care unit (ETC-ICU). METHODS: The primary outcome in this retrospective cohort study was in-ETC mortality...
July 30, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Stefan Kluge, Geraldine de Heer, Dominik Jarczak, Axel Nierhaus, Valentin Fuhrmann
Severe hyperlactaemia in intensive care patients is most often due to underlying sepsis or septic, cardiogenic or haemorrhagic shock. Hyperlactaemia is an independent predictor of death in various groups of critically ill patients. With serum lactate values > 10 mmol/l 80 % of the patients die in intensive care, and if the severe lactic acidosis persists for 48 hours, all patients die. Increased lactate levels require immediate diagnostic work-up and classification. The new sepsis definition requires a serum lactate > 2 mmol/l for septic shock with adequate volume substitution and vasopressor administration in order to achieve a mean arterial pressure in persistent hypotension ≥ 65 mmHg...
August 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Giulia la Martire, Christine Robin, Nadia Oubaya, Raphaël Lepeule, Florence Beckerich, Mathieu Leclerc, Walid Barhoumi, Andréa Toma, Cécile Pautas, Sébastien Maury, Wiem Akrout, Catherine Cordonnier-Jourdin, Vincent Fihman, Mario Venditti, Catherine Cordonnier
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main reason for antibiotic prescription in hematology wards where, on the other hand, antibiotic stewardship (AS) is poorly explored. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate (1) the impact of an AS intervention on antibiotic consumption and (2) the applicability and acceptance rate of the intervention and its clinical impact. A persuasive AS intervention based on European Conference on Infection in Leukaemia (ECIL) guidelines for FN was implemented in a high-risk hematology ward in a tertiary referral public university hospital...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Xiaoling Qi, Hongping Qu, Dandan Yang, Lian Zhou, Ya-Wen He, Yuetian Yu, Jieming Qu, Jialin Liu
BACKGROUND: Probiotics could prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in lower respiratory tract (LRT) and reduced P. aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate. Recent studies also suggested that probiotics could improve lung inflammation in mice infected with P. aeruginosa. It seems that microbiota regulation may be a potential therapy for P. aeruginosa VAP patients. However, we know less about the LRT microbial composition and its correlation with prognosis in P. aeruginosa VAP patients...
July 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Elena Barilli, Cristina Bacci, Zulena StellaVilla, Giuseppe Merialdi, Mario D'Incau, Franco Brindani, Alice Vismarra
Salmonella is the second cause of food-borne infection in humans in the USA and Europe. Pigs represent the second most important reservoir for the pathogen and the consumption of pork meat is a major risk factor for human salmonellosis. Here, we evaluated the virulence patterns of eleven Salmonella isolated from pigs (carcasses and faces) bred in intensive farms in the north of Italy. The two serotypes identified were S . Typhimurium and its monophasic variant 1,4,5,12:i:-. None of the isolates was an ESBL producer, as confirmed also by PCR...
July 3, 2018: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Patrícia Antunes, Joana Campos, Joana Mourão, Joana Pereira, Carla Novais, Luísa Peixe
The impact of European aquaculture, namely trout farms, in the spread of antibiotic resistance and/or zoonotic pathogens has been scarcely addressed. Moreover, aquaculture contamination sources and bacterial dissemination routes have been barely explored. In this study, we assessed the contribution of Portuguese land-based intensive rainbow trout farms and retailed market trout to the spread of Salmonella and bacteria carrying clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as well as inflow water and feed as possible sources of those contaminants...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Idris V R Evans, Gary S Phillips, Elizabeth R Alpern, Derek C Angus, Marcus E Friedrich, Niranjan Kissoon, Stanley Lemeshow, Mitchell M Levy, Margaret M Parker, Kathleen M Terry, R Scott Watson, Scott L Weiss, Jerry Zimmerman, Christopher W Seymour
Importance: The death of a pediatric patient with sepsis motivated New York to mandate statewide sepsis treatment in 2013. The mandate included a 1-hour bundle of blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and a 20-mL/kg intravenous fluid bolus. Whether completing the bundle elements within 1 hour improves outcomes is unclear. Objective: To determine the risk-adjusted association between completing the 1-hour pediatric sepsis bundle and individual bundle elements with in-hospital mortality...
July 24, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
S Das, G Rai, R A Tigga, S Srivastava, P K Singh, R Sharma, S Datt, N P Singh, S A Dar
Candida auris has emerged as the multi-drug resistant non-albican candida species in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) causing bloodstream and other infections. It has often been misidentified as Candida famata, Candida sake, Rhodotorula glutinis, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida haemulonii by automated identification systems. We, in this study, discuss three patients who acquired Candida auris infection after 15 to 20days of their stay in medical ICU. Medical equipment, use of multiple antibiotics, and poor hand hygiene are the most probable predisposing factors attributing to its colonization at multiple anatomical sites leading to bloodstream infection...
July 2, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Boris Khodorkovsky, Elias Youssef, Frosso Adamakos, Tiffany Cina, Amanda Falco, Lauren LaMura, Anthony Marion, Samuel Nathan, Barry Hahn
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Prompt recognition and early treatment has been shown to improve mortality. Both low and high temperature are among the four elements of systemic inflammatory response required for the diagnosis of sepsis. We hypothesized that initial temperature has an effect on the identification, treatment, and outcomes of septic patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the prognostic and diagnostic utility of the initial recorded body temperature in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with sepsis...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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