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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30341115/prevention-of-early-ventilation-acquired-pneumonia-vap-in-comatose-brain-injured-patients-by-a-single-dose-of-ceftriaxone-prophy-vap-study-protocol-a-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Claire Dahyot-Fizelier, Denis Frasca, Sigismond Lasocki, Karim Asehnoune, Dorothée Balayn, Anne-Laure Guerin, Pierre-François Perrigault, Thomas Geeraerts, Philippe Seguin, Bertrand Rozec, Djilali Elaroussi, Vincent Cottenceau, Clément Guyonnaud, Olivier Mimoz
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the first cause of healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units (ICUs) and brain injury is one of the main risk factors for early-onset VAP. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been reported to decrease their occurrence in brain-injured patients, but a lack of controlled randomised trials and the risk of induction of bacterial resistance explain the low level of recommendations. The goal of this study is to determine whether a single dose of ceftriaxone within the 12 hours postintubation after severe brain injury can decrease the risk of early-onset VAP...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339217/linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-infection-control-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Lilian Abbo, Bhavarth S Shukla, Amber Giles, Laura Aragon, Adriana Jimenez, Jose F Camargo, Jacques Simkins, Kathleen Sposato, Truc T Tran, Lorena Diaz, Jinnethe Reyes, Rafael Rios, Lina P Carvajal, Javier Cardozo, Maribel Ruiz, Gemma Rosello, Armando Perez Cardona, Octavio Martinez, Giselle Guerra, Thiago Beduschi, Rodrigo Vianna, Cesar A Arias
Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections and are inherently resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. Linezolid is the only drug currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci, however resistance to this antibiotic appears to be increasing. Although outbreaks of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LR-VRE) in solid organ transplant recipients remain uncommon, they represent a major challenge for infection control and hospital epidemiology...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335245/drug-utilization-study-of-two-generic-antibiotics-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-bogot%C3%A3
#3
José Julián López, Yira Cortázar, Ángela Acosta, Claudia Marcela Vargas-Peláez, Francisco Rossi
Introduction: The Colombian national pharmaceutical policy establishes as a strategy the generation of greater pharmaco-epidemiological research at the national level, especially in the case of antibiotic drugs. Objective: To provide local pharmaco-epidemiological evidence regarding the effectiveness, conditions of use and safety of generic meropenem and cefepime in a tertiary hospital in Bogotá. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective drug utilization study. The data were collected from the medical histories of all the patients who had cefepime or meropenem prescribed...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326654/the-digestive-health-among-participants-of-the-woodstock-rock-festival-in-poland-a-cross-sectional-survey
#4
Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Ewa Stachowska, Dominika Maciejewska, Karina Ryterska, Joanna Palma, Maja Czerwińska-Rogowska, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Anna Gudan, Honorata Mruk, Barbara Świniarska, Justyna Kałduńska, Zofia Stachowska, Przemysław Mijal, Tomasz Mazur, Maciej Kupczyński, Wojciech Marlicz
Alterations of gut microbiota, intestinal barrier and the gut-brain axis may be involved in pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of digestive tract symptoms and identify common variables potentially disrupting the gut-brain axis among participants of the Woodstock Festival Poland, 2017. In total 428 people filled in a questionnaire assessing health of their digestive tract. The investigator collected answers on an electronic device, while the study participant responded using a paper version of the same questionnaire...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326483/significance-of-hyperbaric-oxygenation-in-the-treatment-of-fournier-s-gangrene-a-comparative-study
#5
Petra Anheuser, Sandra Mühlstädt, Jennifer Kranz, Laila Schneidewind, Joachim Steffens, Paolo Fornara
INTRODUCTION: Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO), in addition to anti-infective and surgical therapy, seems to be a key treatment point for Fournier's gangrene. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of HBO therapy on the outcome and prognosis of Fournier's gangrene. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present multicenter, retrospective observational study, we evaluated the data of approximately 62 patients diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene between 2007 and 2017...
October 16, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325851/use-of-chlorhexidine-to-prevent-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-long-term-care-setting-a-retrospective-medical-record-review
#6
Margaret K McCue, Glen A Palmer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the use of the oral decontamination solution chlorhexidine (CHX) to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a long-term ventilator care setting over time. Most of the research in this area has been conducted in acute and intensive care settings. METHODS: This study was a retrospective medical record review conducted in a long-term care facility with a dedicated ventilator unit. Veterans records (N = 12) were accessed for this study...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325092/intensive-allochthonous-inputs-along-the-ganges-river-and-their-effect-on-microbial-community-composition-and-dynamics
#7
Si-Yu Zhang, Despina Tsementzi, Janet K Hatt, Aaron Bivins, Nikunj Khelurkar, Joe Brown, Sachchida Nand Tripathi, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis
Little is known about microbial communities in the Ganges River, India and how they respond to intensive anthropogenic inputs. Here we applied shotgun metagenomics sequencing to study microbial community dynamics and function in planktonic samples collected along a ~700 km river transect, including urban cities and rural settings in upstream waters, before and after the monsoon rainy season. Our results showed that 11-32% of the microbes represented terrestrial, sewage and human inputs (allochthonous). Sewage inputs significantly contributed to the higher abundance, by 13-fold of human gut microbiome (HG) associated sequences and 2-fold of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Ganges relative to other riverine ecosystems in Europe, North and South America...
October 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324540/factors-associated-with-unfavorable-outcome-in-a-multicenter-audit-of-100-infective-endocarditis
#8
David Chirio, Marion Le Marechal, Pamela Moceri, Arnaud de la Chapelle, Sylvie Chaillou-Optiz, Anaïs Mothes, Cédric Foucault, Laurence Maulin, Chirine Parsaï, Pierre-Marie Roger, Elisa Demonchy
We aimed to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcome in patients treated for infective endocarditis (IE), with a focus on departure from European guidelines. We conducted a retrospective audit of all adult patients treated for endocarditis during a 1-year period across a regional network of nine care centers in the south-east of France. Medical records were reviewed regarding patient and infection characteristics, antibiotic therapy, outcome, and compliance to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324151/catheter-related-candidemia-and-identification-of-causative-candida-species-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disorder
#9
Shirinsadat Hashemi Fesharaki, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Ali Boroumand
Background and Purpose: Catheter-related blood circulation infection is the most dangerous and serious side-effects of vascular catheters, which leads to the enhancement of the costs, mortality, and hospital stay duration, especially in the Intensive Care Unit. Regarding this, the aim of the current study was to identify the prevalence of catheter-induced candidemia in the Tehran Heart Center, a heart hospital in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center for a minimum of 7 days during 18 months...
June 2018: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318786/development-of-pediatric-oncology-supportive-care-indicators-evaluation-of-febrile-neutropenia-care-in-the-north-of-the-netherlands
#10
Sanne Ten Berg, Erik A H Loeffen, Marianne D van de Wetering, Daniëlle H J Martens, Carla M van Ede, Leontien C M Kremer, Wim J E Tissing
INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication of the intensive treatment strategies used in pediatric oncology. By close adherence to high-quality guidelines, which can be evaluated by indicators, the burden of FN can potentially be reduced. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were tripartite-(1) to develop structure, process, and outcome indicators, (2) to evaluate the implementation of the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) guideline on FN, and (3) to produce baseline measures on local quality of FN care (in the north of the Netherlands)...
October 14, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318465/management-of-urethritis-is-it-still-the-time-for-empirical-antibiotic-treatments
#11
REVIEW
Riccardo Bartoletti, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen, Bela Köves, Tommaso Cai, Zafer Tandogdu, Gernot Bonkat
CONTEXT: Urethritis prevalence in Europe changed in the last years due to both the increase of migratory streams from North Africa and the more frequent exposition of males to relevant risk factors. Owing to these reasons, urethritis treatment should be optimized by accurate microbiological investigations to avoid the risk of persistence, recurrence, or reinfection. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to optimize the treatments for urethritis and investigate the applicability of nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) as the primary microbiological investigation...
October 11, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318373/screening-and-serial-neutrophil-counts-do-not-contribute-to-the-recognition-or-diagnosis-of-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#12
Charles R Rosenfeld, Grant Shafer, Lisa M Scheid, L Steven Brown
OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of screening and serial neutrophil counts in predicting the absence/presence of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in infants with central venous catheters. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (2009-2013) at Parkland Hospital with a central venous catheter and ≥1 LOS evaluations. Infants were categorized as proven or suspect LOS or uninfected based on results of blood cultures, clinical illness, and duration of antibiotics...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317199/toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-the-red-eye-and-red-herrings-in-casualty
#13
Robert J Barry, Ulises Zanetto, Sai Kolli, Rupal Morjaria
A 38-year-old woman presented to casualty with bilateral red eyes associated with a recent upper respiratory tract infection. This was initially diagnosed as conjunctivitis, however systemic review revealed an erythematous facial and skin rash, mildly swollen lips and mild swallowing difficulties. The patient was referred for an urgent medical assessment, by which time she was found to have erythema affecting 54% of her body surface area and diagnosed with suspected toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). She rapidly deteriorated over 24 hours with a spreading blistering skin rash and airway compromise requiring urgent intubation and admission to the intensive treatment unit (ITU)...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317197/management-of-giant-fornix-syndrome-with-irrigation-with-povidone-iodine
#14
Rushmia Karim, Niraj Mandal, Steve Tuft
Giant fornix syndrome (GFS) was first described as a cause for a relapsing mucopurulent conjunctivitis. Predominantly elderly patients have enlarged superior fornices from superior aponeurosis dehiscence that permits the accumulation of protein coagulum that is colonised by bacteria. Established treatment includes the use of intensive topical antibiotic and corticosteroid. We describe a case of a 98-year-old woman with GFS who did not respond to several weeks of intensive (two hourly) treatment with topical prednisolone 1% drops and chloramphenicol...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309044/differences-in-hypotensive-vs-non-hypotensive-sepsis-management-in-the-emergency-department-door-to-antibiotic-time-impact-on-sepsis-survival
#15
Leonor Ballester, Rafael Martínez, Juan Méndez, Gloria Miró, Manel Solsona, Elisabeth Palomera, Josep Anton Capdevila, Alejandro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Yébenes
BACKGROUND: Sepsis diagnosis can be incorrectly associated with the presence of hypotension during an infection, so the detection and management of non-hypotensive sepsis can be delayed. We aimed to evaluate how the presence or absence of hypotension, on admission at the emergency department, affects the initial management and outcomes of patients with community-onset severe sepsis. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, process of care, and outcome variables were recorded for all patients, at the emergency department of our university hospital, who presented with community-onset severe sepsis, between 1 March and 31 August in three consecutive years...
October 10, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306354/acinetobacter-infections-in-neonates
#16
REVIEW
Raffaele Zarrilli, Maria Bagattini, Eliana Pia Esposito, Maria Triassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible for many infections in neonates and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); also, outbreaks caused by other Acinetobacter species have been reported. The aim of this review is to document the epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. infections in neonates and risk factors for acquisition of Acinetobacter spp...
October 10, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305967/successful-antimicrobial-treatment-of-phlegmonous-gastritis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Madiha Iqbal, Rabia Saleem, Salman Ahmed, Prachi Jani, Salvador Alvarez, Han W Tun
Phlegmonous gastritis is an uncommon acute bacterial infection of the stomach that carries a fatal prognosis in spite of the advent of antibiotics. A high index of suspicion is required in patients with risk factors. An immunocompromised state is identified as one of the most important risk factors. We hereby report a case of successful antimicrobial treatment of phlegmonous gastritis in a patient who was receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. We have also carried out a review of literature over the past ten years...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304200/incidence-of-infiltration-extravasation-in-newborns-using-peripheral-venous-catheter-and-affecting-factors
#18
Selma Atay, Selcen Sen, Dilek Cukurlu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of infiltration and extravasation in newborns using peripheral venous catheter, and affecting factors. METHOD: This observational study examined catheters inserted into newborns who received inpatient care in the neonatal intensive care unit of a state hospital located in the west of Turkey. A total of 452 peripheral venous catheters inserted into 152 newborns were observed. The forms were completed by the researchers based on their observations at each shift...
October 4, 2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302247/management-of-severe-acute-exacerbations-of-copd-an-updated-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Ernesto Crisafulli, Enric Barbeta, Antonella Ielpo, Antoni Torres
Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may experience an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms that results in additional therapy; this event is defined as a COPD exacerbation (AECOPD). Hospitalization for AECOPD is accompanied by a rapid decline in health status with a high risk of mortality or other negative outcomes such as need for endotracheal intubation or intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatments for AECOPD aim to minimize the negative impact of the current exacerbation and to prevent subsequent events, such as relapse or readmission to hospital...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300553/early-emergency-general-surgery-is-associated-with-a-higher-incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Adrian A Coleoglou Centeno, Christopher B Horn, Rohit K Rasane, Jose A Aldana, Qiao Zhang, Kelly M Bochicchio, Grant V Bochicchio, Obeid N Ilahi
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important surgical complication. Emergency general surgery (EGS) is a developing area of the acute care surgical practice. Few studies evaluating the incidence and risk factors of CDI in this patient population are available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery registry spanning from 2008 to 2015 was queried for cases of operative EGS with clinical suspicion of CDI post-operatively...
October 9, 2018: Surgical Infections
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