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antibiotic* AND intensive*

Abdellatif Daoudi, Fatiha Benaoui, Nadia El Idrissi Slitine, Nabila Soraa, Fadl Mrabih Rabou Maoulainine
Serratia marcescens ( S. marcescens ) is an Enterobacteriaceae microorganism that is widespread in the environment, which may be the source of nosocomial infections, rare in the newborn but severe, and often in the form of outbreaks. The aim of our study is to report our experience, during an outbreak of S. marcescens , to show the severity of this germ, with review of the literature. Our study was retrospective, including 8 newborns with S. marcescens nosocomial infection, collected in the neonatal intensive care unit of Mohammed VI University Medical Hospital, during the epidemic period, over a period of 2 months (July and August 2016)...
2018: Advances in Medicine
Yanshu Zhang, Jingjing Sun, Jing Zhang, Yu Liu, Litao Guo
BACKGROUND This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in critically ill patients receiving enzyme inhibitor antibiotics. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients with and without AAD admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Teaching Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from February 1, 2014, to January 31, 2016, was undertaken. Relevant clinical data underwent univariate or multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS Of 184 patients who received enzyme inhibitor antibiotic therapy, 70 patients (38...
December 4, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
A Brinkmann, A C Röhr, O R Frey, W A Krüger, T Brenner, D C Richter, K-F Bodmann, M Kresken, B Grabein
In January 2018 the recent revision of the S2k guidelines on calculated parenteral initial treatment of bacterial diseases in adults-update 2018 (Editor: Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy, PEG) was realized. It is a helpful tool for the complex infectious disease setting in an intensive care unit. The present summary of the guidelines focuses on the topics of anti-infective agents, including new substances, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as on microbiology, resistance development and recommendations for calculated drug therapy in septic patients...
December 3, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Paolo Cotogni, Cristina Barbero, Mauro Rinaldi
AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors for vancomycin concentrations less than 10 mg/L during cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this prospective study, patients undergoing cardiac surgery received a single dose of 1000 mg of vancomycin. Multiple arterial samples were drawn during surgery. Exclusion criteria were hepatic dysfunction; renal dysfunction; ongoing infectious diseases; solid or hematologic tumors; severe insulin-dependent diabetes; body mass index of < 17 or > 40 kg/m2 ; pregnancy or lactation; antibiotic, corticosteroid, or other immunosuppressive therapy; vancomycin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy in the previous 2 wk; chemotherapy or radiation therapy in the previous 6 mo; allergy to vancomycin or cefazolin; drug abuse; cardiac surgery in the previous 6 mo; previous or scheduled organ transplantation; preoperative stay in the intensive care unit for more than 24 h; emergency procedure or lack of adequate preparation for surgery; and participation in another trial...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Cardiology
Sophie Mineau, Robert Kozak, Melissa Kissoon, Aimee Paterson, Anthony Oppedisano, Firas Douri, Kate Gogan, Barbara M Willey, Allison McGeer, Susan M Poutanen
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteriaceae that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) have emerged as a serious threat, with variable rates depending on geographic region. We determined the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , K. oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis in bloodstream infections in Toronto from 2006 through 2016. METHODS: All patients with E. coli , K. pneumoniae , K. oxytoca and P. mirabilis isolated from blood in a tertiary care microbiology laboratory in Toronto between 2006 and 2016 (1 isolate per species per patient per year) were included in this retrospective cohort study...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Yili Chen, Lu Ai, Penghao Guo, Han Huang, Zhongwen Wu, Xiaoling Liang, Kang Liao
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is reported as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs). However, there is a lack of analysis focused on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) infection among patients from pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular characterization of MDRAB isolated from PICU. METHODS: In this study, 86 isolates of MDRAB were collected from PICU patients, from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University...
December 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
David D Leedahl, Heather A Personett, Avish Nagpal, Erin F Barreto
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remain high across intensive care units in the United States despite national efforts to decrease this escalating health care burden. Most published literature and guidelines address treatment rather than prevention, yet this approach may be too downstream to limit morbidity and mortality from the disease and its complications. Mechanisms to successfully prevent CDI include reducing modifiable risk factors and minimizing horizontal transmission of C...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Brittany M Reid, Ruth Eisenberg, Katie Forman, Mariam Susan LaTuga
OBJECTIVE:  To characterize the relationship between the duration of antibiotic administration during the first week of life and subsequent growth velocity during hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN:  This was a retrospective study comparing the inhospital growth of infants born between 30 and 326/7 weeks' gestational age (GA) admitted to the Montefiore Weiler and Wakefield neonatal intensive care units between January 2009 and December 2015. Antibiotic duration during the first week of life was classified as no antibiotics, <5 days of antibiotics, or ≥5 days of antibiotics...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Gary Duclos, Bruno Pastene, Fanny Depeyre, Zoé Meresse, Nadim Cassir, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Sharon Einav, Laurent Zieleskiewicz, Marc Leone
Background: Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is supported by evidence-based guidelines. Nevertheless, SAP guidelines do not cover all clinical scenarios. To our knowledge, no information is available regarding SAP in the critically ill patients. We designed a retrospective, observational and preliminary study which the objective was to describe our professional practices in intensive care unit (ICU) patients requiring SAP. Methods: All patients admitted for more than 48 h in the ICU and requiring surgery were retrospectively included from January 1st to December 31, 2016...
October 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Marlot C Kallen, Marie-Jose Roos-Blom, Dave A Dongelmans, Jeroen A Schouten, Wouter T Gude, Evert de Jonge, Jan M Prins, Nicolette F de Keizer
INTRODUCTION: Extensive antibiotic use makes the intensive care unit (ICU) an important focus for antibiotic stewardship programs. The aim of this study was to develop a set of actionable quality indicators for appropriate antibiotic use at ICUs and an implementation toolbox, which can be used to assess and improve the appropriateness of antibiotic use in the treatment of adult patients at an ICU. METHODS: A four round modified-RAND Delphi procedure was used. Potential indicators were identified by a multidisciplinary panel of 15 Dutch experts, from international literature and guidelines...
2018: PloS One
Jessica K Creedon, Sigella Vargas, Lisa A Asaro, David Wypij, Raina Paul, Elliot Melendez
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic administration within 1 hour of hypotension has been shown to reduce mortality. It is unknown whether antibiotics before hypotension in children who eventually meet criteria for septic shock improves outcomes. This study assesses whether antibiotic timing from the time of meeting criteria for sepsis in children with septic shock impacts morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of children 18 years or younger presenting to a tertiary free-standing children's hospital emergency department with sepsis that subsequently progressed to septic shock and were admitted to an intensive care unit from 2008 to 2012...
November 26, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Todd Karsies, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Mark Hall
Background: Risk-based guidelines aid empiric antibiotic selection for critically ill adults with suspected infection with Gram-negative bacilli with high potential for antibiotic resistance (termed high-risk GNRs). Neither evidence-based guidelines for empiric antibiotic selection nor validated risk factors predicting high-risk GNR growth exist for critically ill children. We developed and validated a model for predicting high-risk GNR growth in critically ill children with suspected infection...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Hiroki Ando
Bacteria are closely related with human health and diseases. For example, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is a serious problem in the world. Studying the human microbiome shows its important role for our health. But we have very limited tools to edit bacterial population. Antibiotics are generally broad-spectrum and unable to kill only bad bacteria. The natural enemies of bacteria, called bacteriophage (phage), have highly specific host range, and thus promising candidates for targeted bacterial population editing...
2018: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
Delia Muntean, Florin-George Horhat, Luminița Bădițoiu, Victor Dumitrașcu, Iulia-Cristina Bagiu, Delia-Ioana Horhat, Dan A Coșniță, Anca Krasta, Dorina Dugăeşescu, Monica Licker
Background and objective: Bacterial multidrug resistance is particularly common in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), with important clinical consequences regarding their spread and treatment options. The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of multidrug-resistant GNB (MDR-GNB) in high-risk hospital departments, between 2000⁻2015, in intervals of five years, with the intention of improving antibiotic therapy policies and optimising preventive and control practices. Materials and methods: This is an observational, retrospective study performed in three departments of the most important tertiary healthcare unit in the southwestern part of Romania: the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the General Surgery Department (GSD), and the Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases Department (NMDD)...
November 26, 2018: Medicina
Zeyad Aljeboori, Alexandra Gorelik, Emily Jenkins, Thomas McFarlane, Jai Darvall
OBJECTIVES: There is an increasing incidence of invasive candidal infections in critically ill patients worldwide, which has prompted development of various risk prediction rules, both clinical and microbiological. To date, however, there is a lack of research into how cumulative risk factors over time affect transition to candidaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of risk factor accumulation over time with candidaemia in a cohort of critically ill, non-neutropenic adult patients...
December 2018: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Matthew Ziegler, Daniel Landsburg, David Pegues, Warren Bilker, Cheryl Gilmar, Colleen Kucharczuk, Theresa Gorman, Kristen Bink, Amy Moore, Rebecca Fitzpatrick, Edward A Stadtmauer, Patricia Mangan, Kelly Kraus, Jennifer H Han
OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing stem cell transplant (SCT) for the treatment of hematologic malignancy are at increased risk for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent CLABSIs in the setting of autologous SCT is of unclear benefit. We aimed to evaluate the impact of levofloxacin prophylaxis on reducing CLABSIs in this high-risk population. METHODS: Patients undergoing autologous SCT at a tertiary-care hospital received levofloxacin prophylaxis from January 13, 2016 to January 12, 2017...
November 24, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Florian Salm, Frank Schwab, Michael Behnke, Frank M Brunkhorst, André Scherag, Christine Geffers, Petra Gastmeier
Background: Blood cultures (BCs) are the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis and are prerequisite for a targeted antibiotic treatment and essential for patient outcomes. Aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of BCs, the rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and to study the association between both parameters on intensive care units in Germany over time. Methods: Cross-sectional studies at two points in time (2006, 2015) on ICUs participating in the German hospital infection surveillance system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Hyemin Oh, Sejeong Kim, Soomin Lee, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Jeeyeon Lee, Yukyung Choi, Kyoung-Hee Choi, Yohan Yoon
This study investigated the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in slaughterhouses, and determined serovars and genotypes, and antibiotic resistance of the isolates obtained from slaughterhouses and humans in Korea. Two hundred ninety samples were collected from feces (n=136), carcasses [n=140 (cattle: n=61, swine: n=79)], and washing water (n=14) in nine slaughterhouses. Eleven human isolates were obtained from hospitals and the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Listeria monocytogenes was enriched and identified, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA sequencing...
October 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Pascaline M Alix, Flora Brunner, Anne Jolivot, Muriel Doret, Laurent Juillard
Pregnancy in women with end-stage renal disease is rare. Multiple pregnancies carry a high risk of complications even in healthy individuals. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who had four pregnancies while she was on dialysis, including one twin pregnancy. The last pregnancy occurred while in the 14th year of hemodialysis. At 8 weeks of gestation (WG), ultrasonography diagnosed a dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy. The frequency of dialysis was increased from 3 to 6 times a week and each session lasted 4 h...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Kevin J Downes, Julie C Fitzgerald, Emily Schriver, Craig L K Boge, Michael E Russo, Scott L Weiss, Fran Balamuth, Sherri E Kubis, Pam Tolomeo, Warren B Bilker, Jennifer H Han, Ebbing Lautenbach, Susan E Coffin, Jeffrey S Gerber
Background: Biomarkers can facilitate safe antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients without bacterial infection. Methods: We tested the ability of a biomarker-based algorithm to reduce excess antibiotic administration in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without bacterial infections (uninfected) in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The algorithm suggested that PICU clinicians stop antibiotics if (1) C-reactive protein <4 mg/dL and procalcitonin <1 ng/mL at SIRS onset and (2) no evidence of bacterial infection by exam/testing by 48 hours...
November 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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