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cognition stroke

Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
János Nikl
The new antiepileptic drugs have not changed the basic pharmacological treatment principles of epilepsy, but they have given greater choice in focal and in generalized epilepsies as well. The new drugs are not necessarily more effective than traditional drugs, but they have favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics, fewer interactions and better adverse effect profile in the acute and chronic phase of the treatment. They generally show a lower teratogenicity risk than the standard antiepileptics, although carbamazepine, one of the standard drugs can be used and zonisamide, a new one must be avoid in pregnancy...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Fang Yu, Hongyu Li, Chunling Tai, Ting Guo, Dong Pang
People who have had a stroke face high risks of cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. Health education for family members contributes to better outcomes in various diseases, but the effects of health education on family members of people who have had a stroke are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the family member education program (FMEP) on cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in persons who have had a stroke. In total, 144 persons who experienced a stroke were randomly allocated to the FMEP group or control group (1:1 ratio)...
August 16, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Alexander Heilinger, Rupert Ortner, Vincenzo La Bella, Zulay R Lugo, Camille Chatelle, Steven Laureys, Rossella Spataro, Christoph Guger
Patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) are typically unable to move or communicate and can be misdiagnosed as patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Behavioral assessment scales are limited in their ability to detect signs of consciousness in this population. Recent research has shown that brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could supplement behavioral scales and allows to establish communication with these severely disabled patients. In this study, we compared the vibro-tactile P300 based BCI performance in two groups of patients with LIS of different etiologies: stroke ( n = 6) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ( n = 9)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Melissa M M Andrews, Sarah Peruzzaro, Shelby Raupp, Jordin Wilks, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and currently only has one FDA approved pharmacological treatment (tissue plasminogen activator), which is only administered to a fraction of stroke patients due to contraindications. New treatments are desperately needed but most treatments fail in clinical trials, even after showing benefit in animal models of stroke. To increase the translatability of animal stroke research to humans, sensitive functional measures for both the acute and chronic stages in animal models of stroke are needed...
August 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Jiang Wu, Bingren Hu
INTRODUCTION: Neuroprotective therapeutics achieved from animal studies have not been able to translate into clinical stroke therapies. A major reason may be that the functional tests and outcomes between animal stroke studies and clinical trials are significantly different. Ultimately, functional recovery is most important for stroke patients, but it remains challenging to identify animal functional tests that reflect human stroke deficits. This study aimed to explore whether the nest-building activity can be used as a functional test of mouse stroke deficit...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Xiao-Qiao Zhang, Li Li, Jiang-Tao Huo, Min Cheng, Lin-Hong Li
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive treatment that can enhance the recovery of neurological function after stroke. Whether it can similarly promote the recovery of cognitive function after vascular dementia remains unknown. In this study, a rat model for vascular dementia was established by the two-vessel occlusion method. Two days after injury, 30 pulses of rTMS were administered to each cerebral hemisphere at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and a magnetic field intensity of 1.33 T...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Gargi Banerjee, Mary Summers, Edgar Chan, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Lisa Cipolotti, David J Werring
Cognitive deficits after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are common and result in functional impairment, but few studies have examined deficits across cognitive domains in the subacute phase. This study aims to describe the cognitive profile following acute ICH and explore how cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) may impact performance. We retrospectively reviewed 187 consecutive patients with ICH (mean age 58.9 years, 55.6% male) with available imaging and neuropsychological data (median 12 days after stroke)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Heba A Ahmed, Tauheed Ishrat, Bindu Pillai, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Mohammed A Sayed, Wael Eldahshan, Jennifer L Waller, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
BACKGROUND: With the aging population, the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular disease will continue to rise, as well as the number of individuals with vascular cognitive impairment/dementia (VCID). No specific FDA-approved treatments for VCID exist. Although clinical evidence supports that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) prevent cognitive decline in older adults, whether ARBs have a similar effect on VCID after stroke is unknown. Moreover, these agents reduce BP, which is undesirable in the acute stroke period, so we believe that giving C21 in this acute phase or delaying ARB administration would enable us to achieve the neurovascular benefits without the risk of unintended and potentially dangerous, acute BP lowering...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton pump inhibitors are amongst the most widely prescribed and overprescribed medications worldwide. Although generally considered well tolerated, epidemiologic studies mining large databases have reported a panoply of purported serious adverse effects associated with proton pump inhibitors, including chronic kidney disease, cognitive decline, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone fracture and even death...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Geoff Der, Ian J Deary
Introduction: The association of premorbid cognitive ability with all-cause mortality is now well established. However, since all-cause mortality is relatively uninformative about aetiology, evidence has been sought, and is beginning to accumulate, for associations with specific causes of mortality. Likewise, the underlying causal pathways may be illuminated by considering associations with different measures of cognitive ability. For example, critics of IQ type measures point to possible cultural or social biases and there is, consequently, a need for more culturally neutral measures such as reaction times...
July 2018: Intelligence
Min Kyoung Kang, Dae Lim Koo, Jung Hwan Shin, Hyung-Min Kwon, Hyunwoo Nam
OBJECTIVE: Periodic limb movements (PLMs) can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Small vessel disease (SVD) has been considered a precursor to symptomatic stroke. We aimed to investigate the association between PLMs and cerebral SVD. METHODS: We enrolled participants who visited our clinic for the evaluation of sleep disturbance and underwent overnight polysomnography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. The processing steps included rating and analyzing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), asymptomatic lacunar infarctions (ALIs), perivascular spaces (PVSs), and calculating the total SVD score...
July 11, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Mark H Pitcher, Michael Von Korff, M Catherine Bushnell, Linda Porter
The multidimensional nature of chronic pain is not reflected by definitions based solely on pain duration, resulting in high prevalence estimates limiting effective policy development. The newly proposed concept of High Impact Chronic Pain (HICP) incorporates both disability and pain duration to identify a more severely impacted portion of the chronic pain population, yet remains uncharacterized at the population level. As such, we used the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS; n=15,670) to (i) assess the likelihood of disability in the overall chronic pain population, (ii) to estimate the prevalence of HICP, and (iii) to characterize the disability, health status and health care use profile of this population in the United States...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Chen Luo, Li-Hong Fan, Hua Zhang, Jing Zhao, Lei Li, Lian Zhang, Hai-Xiao Zhang, Ming-Ming Ma
Hemorrhagic stroke is a major risk factor for cognitive impairment. Our study aimed to measure the effect of ginkgo biloba extract (EGB761) on the cognitive ability and inflammatory expression in hemorrhagic stroke model SD rats and to analyze their relationship. Forty SD rats were divided randomly into an SD group (normal control SD rats), an SD+EGB761 group (normal control SD rats supplemented with 45 mg/kg EGB761), a CO group (hemorrhagic stroke model SD rats using collagenase), and a CO+EGB761 group (hemorrhagic stroke model SD rats supplemented with 45 mg/kg EGB761) consisting of 10 rats, respectively...
August 9, 2018: Neuroreport
Leila Simani, Fari Ryan, Shadab Hashemifard, Etrat Hooshmandi, Maryam Madahi, Zahra Sahraei, Omidvar Rezaei, Kamran Heydari, Mahtab Ramezani
Disruption of prooxidant-antioxidant balance may lead to oxidative stress which is known as a mechanism contributing to ischemic stroke. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an endogenous antioxidant that could be effective in preventing oxidative stress. However, the contribution of serum levels of CoQ10 in clinical neurological outcomes following ischemic stroke has not been clearly established. This study aims at measuring serum concentration of CoQ10 along with major indicators of antioxidant and oxidant among patients within 24 h after onset of the stroke symptoms, and investigating their relation with the clinical status of patients...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ibrar Anjum, Syeda S Jaffery, Muniba Fayyaz, Abdullah Wajid, Armghan H Ans
Sugar-sweetened beverages containing caffeine are widely used among humans nowadays and can have negative consequences on the overall health. Our study aims to discuss the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and how they can impact the health in different ways particularly on the brain. Some of the mechanisms by which soft drinks can exert adverse effects include an increase in glutathione-6-dehydrogenase level, increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and dopamine alteration in brain waves on electroencephalography (EEG) eventually leading to stroke and dementia...
June 7, 2018: Curēus
Nico Milantoni, Natale Di Bella, Kariné Chahbazian
BACKGROUND Although rehabilitation for balance disorders is commonly undertaken following a stroke, hearing dysfunction is rarely investigated, even though hearing loss affects the ability to maintain balance. This report presents a case of restoration of balance and unilateral hearing using an alternating and filtering auditory training (AFAT) protocol in a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and shunt-treated hydrocephalus. CASE REPORT A 54-year-old woman with a five-month history of SAH due to a ruptured aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery and hydrocephalus treated with a shunt was admitted to our unit for neurorehabilitation...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Patrick J Smith, James A Blumenthal, Alan L Hinderliter, Lana L Watkins, Benson M Hoffman, Andrew Sherwood
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and endothelial dysfunction have been associated independently with poorer neurocognition in middle-aged adults, particularly on tests of frontal lobe function. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined markers of microvascular dysfunction on neurocognition or the potential interaction between macro- and microvascular biomarkers on neurocognition in middle-aged and older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Participants included 202 adults with MDD who were not receiving mental health treatment...
June 28, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Wei Liu, Yanan Wu, Lingling Bai, Jingxian Ni, Jun Tu, Jie Liu, Quanjun Deng, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
BACKGROUND: At the global level, dementia is the leading cause of dependence and disability among the elderly. Although the preponderant prevalence in women has been identified, the sex differences in risk factors were unclear. We aimed to evaluate the sex differences in the prevalence of nonvascular cognitive impairment and the risk factors among the elderly in rural China screened with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). METHODS: Between 2014 and 2015, a population-based cross-section study was conducted to collect basic information among the elderly aged 60 years and over...
August 9, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Priyanka Prakash, Manju Dhandapani, Sandhya Ghai, Neena V Singh, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani
Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is the most common neurosurgical treatment for hydrocephalus. In spite of significant developments in the technology and design of shunt systems, shunt surgery is still associated with morbidity. Aim: To identify the problems faced by children on VP shunt and assess their quality of life (QOL). Setting and Design: A cross-sectional exploratory study. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 children on VP shunt were selected through consecutive sampling technique, and hydrocephalus outcome questionnaire was used to collect the data, with the converted metric score ranging from 0 to 1...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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