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cognition AND stroke

Sébastien Foulquier, Pawel Namsolleck, Britt T Van Hagen, Irina Milanova, Mark J Post, W Matthijs Blankesteijn, Bart P Rutten, Jos Prickaerts, Robert J Van Oostenbrugge, Thomas Unger
The causal relation between hypertension and cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) remains elusive, and appropriate animal models are scarce. We aimed to assess the relevance of prolonged angiotensin II-induced hypertension in mice for the study of cSVD.Adult male C57BL/6 mice were continuously infused for 3 months with Angiotensin II (Ang II; 2 µg/kg/min, sc) or saline (control) via osmotic minipumps. Blood pressure, neurological function, locomotor activity, and working memory (Y-maze alternation task) were assessed throughout the study...
August 17, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Mary Dunbar, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke encompasses a heterogeneous group of focal neurological injuries early in brain development that probably affects more than 5 million people worldwide. Many such injuries are symptomatic in the first days of life, including neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and neonatal haemorrhagic stroke. The remaining focal neurological injuries usually present later in the first year with motor asymmetry, such as arterial presumed perinatal ischaemic stroke, periventricular venous infarction, and presumed perinatal haemorrhagic stroke...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Mustafa Balkaya, Sunghee Cho
Stroke leads to long term sensory, motor and cognitive impairments. Most patients experience some degree of spontaneous recovery which is mostly incomplete and varying greatly among individuals. The variation in recovery outcomes has been attributed to numerous factors including lesion size, corticospinal tract integrity, age, gender and race. It is well accepted that genetics play a crucial role in stroke incidence and accumulating evidence suggests that it is also a significant determinant in recovery. Among the number of genes and variations implicated in stroke recovery the val66met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene influences post-stroke plasticity in the most significant ways...
August 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Naomie Castor, Farid El Massioui
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury and stroke often lead to cognitive, neurological and psychological disorders, which can result in many difficulties. Despite the existence of various disorders, improving cognitive capacities may be possible for these two pathologies. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess cognitive recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury and stroke and compare recovery between both groups. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Forty-nine adults who had suffered from mild to severe traumatic brain injury and 42 from stroke were assessed third with a minimum of 2 months between assessments...
August 17, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Vanessa R Kay, Matthew T Ratsep, Lindsay S Cahill, Andrew F Hickman, Bruno Zavan, Margaret E Newport, Jacob Ellegood, Christine L Laliberte, James N Reynolds, Peter Carmeliet, Chandrakant Tayade, John G Sled, B Anne Croy
Preeclampsia, a hypertensive syndrome occurring in 3-5% of human pregnancies, has lifelong health consequences for the fetus. Cognitive ability throughout life is altered and adult stroke risk is increased in these offspring. One potential etiological factor for altered brain development is low concentrations of pro-angiogenic placental growth factor (PGF). Impaired PGF production may promote an anti-angiogenic fetal environment during neural and cerebrovascular development. We previously reported delayed vascularization of the hindbrain, altered retinal vascular organization and less connectivity in the circle of Willis in Pgf-/- mice...
August 17, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Rebecca Ward, John Paul Valenzuela, Weiguo Li, Guangkuo Dong, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
Diabetes increases the risk and severity of cognitive impairment, especially after ischemic stroke. Pathological remodeling of the cerebrovasculature has been postulated to contribute to poor neuronal repair and worsened cognitive deficits in diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of diabetes on the vascularization of hippocampus, a domain critical to memory and learning. Therefore we had two aims for this study: 1) to determine the impact of diabetes on hippocampal neurovascular remodeling and the resulting cognitive impairment after stroke using two models with varying disease severity, and 2) to compare the effects of ischemia on hippocampal neurovascular injury in diabetic males and females...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Suzanne Perea Burns, Martina Mueller, Gayenell Magwood, Brandi M White, Daniel Lackland, Charles Ellis
BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minorities consistently demonstrate disparate post-stroke outcomes. However, there is a paucity of literature related to whether this disparity exists specifically in post-stroke cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To determine if racial and ethnic disparities exist in post-stroke subjective cognitive decline (SCD) among non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks), American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) in the United States using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)...
August 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Felix P Bernhard, Jennifer Sartor, Kristina Bettecken, Markus A Hobert, Carina Arnold, Yvonne G Weber, Sven Poli, Nils G Margraf, Christian Schlenstedt, Clint Hansen, Walter Maetzler
BACKGROUND: Deficits in gait and balance are common among neurological inpatients. Currently, assessment of these patients is mainly subjective. New assessment options using wearables may provide complementary and more objective information. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional feasibility study performed over a four-month period, all patients referred to a normal neurology ward of a university hospital and aged between 40 and 89 years were asked to participate...
August 16, 2018: BMC Neurology
Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
János Nikl
The new antiepileptic drugs have not changed the basic pharmacological treatment principles of epilepsy, but they have given greater choice in focal and in generalized epilepsies as well. The new drugs are not necessarily more effective than traditional drugs, but they have favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics, fewer interactions and better adverse effect profile in the acute and chronic phase of the treatment. They generally show a lower teratogenicity risk than the standard antiepileptics, although carbamazepine, one of the standard drugs can be used and zonisamide, a new one must be avoid in pregnancy...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Fang Yu, Hongyu Li, Chunling Tai, Ting Guo, Dong Pang
People who have had a stroke face high risks of cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. Health education for family members contributes to better outcomes in various diseases, but the effects of health education on family members of people who have had a stroke are unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the family member education program (FMEP) on cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in persons who have had a stroke. In total, 144 persons who experienced a stroke were randomly allocated to the FMEP group or control group (1:1 ratio)...
August 16, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Alexander Heilinger, Rupert Ortner, Vincenzo La Bella, Zulay R Lugo, Camille Chatelle, Steven Laureys, Rossella Spataro, Christoph Guger
Patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) are typically unable to move or communicate and can be misdiagnosed as patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Behavioral assessment scales are limited in their ability to detect signs of consciousness in this population. Recent research has shown that brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could supplement behavioral scales and allows to establish communication with these severely disabled patients. In this study, we compared the vibro-tactile P300 based BCI performance in two groups of patients with LIS of different etiologies: stroke ( n = 6) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ( n = 9)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Melissa M M Andrews, Sarah Peruzzaro, Shelby Raupp, Jordin Wilks, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and currently only has one FDA approved pharmacological treatment (tissue plasminogen activator), which is only administered to a fraction of stroke patients due to contraindications. New treatments are desperately needed but most treatments fail in clinical trials, even after showing benefit in animal models of stroke. To increase the translatability of animal stroke research to humans, sensitive functional measures for both the acute and chronic stages in animal models of stroke are needed...
August 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Jiang Wu, Bingren Hu
INTRODUCTION: Neuroprotective therapeutics achieved from animal studies have not been able to translate into clinical stroke therapies. A major reason may be that the functional tests and outcomes between animal stroke studies and clinical trials are significantly different. Ultimately, functional recovery is most important for stroke patients, but it remains challenging to identify animal functional tests that reflect human stroke deficits. This study aimed to explore whether the nest-building activity can be used as a functional test of mouse stroke deficit...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Xiao-Qiao Zhang, Li Li, Jiang-Tao Huo, Min Cheng, Lin-Hong Li
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive treatment that can enhance the recovery of neurological function after stroke. Whether it can similarly promote the recovery of cognitive function after vascular dementia remains unknown. In this study, a rat model for vascular dementia was established by the two-vessel occlusion method. Two days after injury, 30 pulses of rTMS were administered to each cerebral hemisphere at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and a magnetic field intensity of 1.33 T...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Gargi Banerjee, Mary Summers, Edgar Chan, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Lisa Cipolotti, David J Werring
Cognitive deficits after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are common and result in functional impairment, but few studies have examined deficits across cognitive domains in the subacute phase. This study aims to describe the cognitive profile following acute ICH and explore how cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) may impact performance. We retrospectively reviewed 187 consecutive patients with ICH (mean age 58.9 years, 55.6% male) with available imaging and neuropsychological data (median 12 days after stroke)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Heba A Ahmed, Tauheed Ishrat, Bindu Pillai, Abdelrahman Y Fouda, Mohammed A Sayed, Wael Eldahshan, Jennifer L Waller, Adviye Ergul, Susan C Fagan
BACKGROUND: With the aging population, the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular disease will continue to rise, as well as the number of individuals with vascular cognitive impairment/dementia (VCID). No specific FDA-approved treatments for VCID exist. Although clinical evidence supports that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) prevent cognitive decline in older adults, whether ARBs have a similar effect on VCID after stroke is unknown. Moreover, these agents reduce BP, which is undesirable in the acute stroke period, so we believe that giving C21 in this acute phase or delaying ARB administration would enable us to achieve the neurovascular benefits without the risk of unintended and potentially dangerous, acute BP lowering...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton pump inhibitors are amongst the most widely prescribed and overprescribed medications worldwide. Although generally considered well tolerated, epidemiologic studies mining large databases have reported a panoply of purported serious adverse effects associated with proton pump inhibitors, including chronic kidney disease, cognitive decline, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone fracture and even death...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Geoff Der, Ian J Deary
Introduction: The association of premorbid cognitive ability with all-cause mortality is now well established. However, since all-cause mortality is relatively uninformative about aetiology, evidence has been sought, and is beginning to accumulate, for associations with specific causes of mortality. Likewise, the underlying causal pathways may be illuminated by considering associations with different measures of cognitive ability. For example, critics of IQ type measures point to possible cultural or social biases and there is, consequently, a need for more culturally neutral measures such as reaction times...
July 2018: Intelligence
Min Kyoung Kang, Dae Lim Koo, Jung Hwan Shin, Hyung-Min Kwon, Hyunwoo Nam
OBJECTIVE: Periodic limb movements (PLMs) can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Small vessel disease (SVD) has been considered a precursor to symptomatic stroke. We aimed to investigate the association between PLMs and cerebral SVD. METHODS: We enrolled participants who visited our clinic for the evaluation of sleep disturbance and underwent overnight polysomnography and brain magnetic resonance imaging. The processing steps included rating and analyzing white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), asymptomatic lacunar infarctions (ALIs), perivascular spaces (PVSs), and calculating the total SVD score...
July 11, 2018: Sleep Medicine
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