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cognition AND stroke

TaeHee Kim, Suresh L Mehta, Kahlilia C Morris-Blanco, Anil K Chokkalla, Bharath Chelluboina, Mary Lopez, Ruth Sullivan, Hung Tae Kim, Thomas D Cook, Joo Yong Kim, HwuiWon Kim, Chanul Kim, Raghu Vemuganti
Ischemic stroke, which is caused by a clot that blocks blood flow to the brain, can be severely disabling and sometimes fatal. We previously showed that transient focal ischemia in a rat model induces extensive temporal changes in the expression of cerebral microRNAs, with a sustained decrease in the abundance of miR-7a-5p (miR-7). Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a miR-7 mimic oligonucleotide after cerebral ischemia in rodents according to the Stroke Treatment Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) criteria...
December 11, 2018: Science Signaling
Cynthia L Holle, Mary A Turnquist, James L Rudolph
Natural disasters impact people of every age in the communities where they occur, with older adults being a vulnerable subset of the population. Most disaster shelter volunteer nurses are experienced in addressing common health needs of older adult clients such as diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease. These nurses also have the requisite training to respond to more acute medical events, including the symptoms of a heart attack or stroke. They provide care and comfort to those suffering from the distress, anxiety, and fear caused by disasters...
December 9, 2018: Nursing Forum
A J W Ter Mors, B A A Bus, M Reijbroek
Communication disorders can arise as a consequence of right hemispheric brain injury due to, for example, stroke. These disorders can comprise language comprehension, language production and pragmatic language use. If these problems are not recognised in time, treatment will probably focus on behavioural problems, which would lead to further deterioration of the patient due to an escalation in interaction. We present a patient in whom this situation occured. However, by addressing her underlying communication problem, we were able to improve her quality of life...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Limor Raz, Yi Yang, Jeffrey Thompson, Sasha Hobson, John Pesko, Shahriar Mobashery, Mayland Chang, Gary Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID) is a major cause of cognitive loss in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix in development, injury and repair. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption due to inflammation mediated by MMPs is a mechanism of white matter injury. Currently there are no treatments besides the control of vascular risk factors. We tested two MMP-9 inhibitors that improved outcome in acute stroke: DP-460 and SB-3CT...
2018: PloS One
Suvarna Ganvir, Maheshwari Harishch, Chetana Kunde
Background and Purpose: One of the most important patient-centered outcomes in patients with stroke is quality of life. Apart from physical affection, stroke affects cognitive, emotional language along with social functioning. Stroke-specific quality of life (SSQOL) is a measure to assess the quality of life in patients with stroke. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of Marathi version of SSQOL in patients with stroke. Methodology: Translation of SSQOL in Marathi language was performed in accordance with the published guidelines...
October 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Junliang Yuan, Li Feng, Wenli Hu, Yumei Zhang
Leukoaraiosis, also referred to as white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) or age-related white matter changes, is the most frequently seen lesion on brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the elderly. LA is a subject of intense research interest, and is correlated with stroke, cognitive impairment or dementia, disturbances, affective disorders, and poor prognoses. Rapid advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of LA associated with aging-related cognitive decline or dementia. Recently, the techniques of multimodal MRI, such as structural MRI (sMRI), resting-state functional MRI (rs-MRI), cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), have been used to explore the underlying mechanism of cognitive impairment in patients with LA...
December 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Silvan Licher, Maarten J G Leening, Pinar Yilmaz, Frank J Wolters, Jan Heeringa, Patrick J E Bindels, Meike W Vernooij, Blossom C M Stephan, Ewout W Steyerberg, M Kamran Ikram, M Arfan Ikram
OBJECTIVE: Identification of individuals at high risk of dementia is essential for development of prevention strategies, but reliable tools are lacking for risk stratification in the population. The authors developed and validated a prediction model to calculate the 10-year absolute risk of developing dementia in an aging population. METHODS: In a large, prospective population-based cohort, data were collected on demographic, clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, and neuroimaging parameters from 2,710 nondemented individuals age 60 or older, examined between 1995 and 2011...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Carlos E Vargas-Irwin, Jessica M Feldman, Brandon King, John D Simeral, Brittany L Sorice, Erin M Oakley, Sydney S Cash, Emad N Eskandar, Gerhard M Friehs, Leigh R Hochberg, John P Donoghue
Planning and performing volitional movement engages widespread networks in the human brain, with motor cortex considered critical to the performance of skilled limb actions. Motor cortex is also engaged when actions are observed or imagined, but the manner in which ensembles of neurons represent these volitional states (VoSs) is unknown. Here we provide direct demonstration that observing, imagining or attempting action activates shared neural ensembles in human motor cortex. Two individuals with tetraplegia (due to brainstem stroke or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS) were verbally instructed to watch, imagine, or attempt reaching actions displayed on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ana Lúcia Faria, Maria Salomé Pinho, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments after stroke are not always given sufficient attention despite the critical limitations they impose on activities of daily living (ADLs). Although there is substantial evidence on cognitive rehabilitation benefits, its implementation is limited because of time and human resource's demands. Moreover, many cognitive rehabilitation interventions lack a robust theoretical framework in the selection of paper-and-pencil tasks by the clinicians. In this endeavor, it would be useful to have a tool that could generate standardized paper-and-pencil tasks, parameterized according to patients' needs...
December 6, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
David R Colelli, Maneesha Kamra, Phavalan Rajendram, Brian J Murray, Mark I Boulos
OBJECTIVE: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to improve functional, motor and cognitive outcomes in post-stroke obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, rates of CPAP adherence are often low and factors impacting CPAP adherence remain under-explored. Our objective was to determine predictors of CPAP adherence in patients who had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: We screened 313 stroke/TIA patients for OSA using in-hospital polysomnography or the ApneaLink home sleep apnea test...
October 24, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Jem Bhatt, Holly Walton, Charlotte R Stoner, Katrina Scior, Georgina Charlesworth
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this systematic review were to: 1) understand how people living with dementia are involved in making decisions; 2) explore the different decisional styles and domains of decision-making that people living with dementia experience and 3) identify what influences the level of decisional involvement of people living with dementia. METHODS: A systematic review of literature identified studies from Medline, PsycINFO, HAPI and CINAHL databases...
December 6, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Stefanie J Rodenbeck, Devin D Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The funduscopic examination can be a technically difficult, and often omitted, portion of the neurologic examination, despite its great potential to influence patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical practitioners are often first taught to examine the ocular fundus using a direct ophthalmoscope, however, this skill requires frequent practice. Nonmydriatic tabletop and portable fundus photography and even smartphone-based photography offer alternative and practical means for approaching examination of the ocular fundus...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Luis Ruano, Natália Araújo, Mariana Branco, Rui Barreto, Sandra Moreira, Ricardo Pais, Vítor Tedim Cruz, Nuno Lunet, Henrique Barros
BACKGROUND: Vascular disease may play an important role in the epidemiology of dementia in countries with high stroke incidence, such as Portugal. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and etiology of cognitive impairment in a population-based cohort from Portugal. METHODS: Individuals ≥55 years (n = 730) from the EPIPorto cohort were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Those scoring below the age-/education-adjusted cutoff points were further evaluated to identify dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to define its most common causes...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Shohei Okamoto, Tomonori Okamura, Kohei Komamura
Objective: To estimate the average treatment effect of working past the current retirement age on the health of Japanese men. Methods: We used publicly available data from the National Survey of Japanese Elderly, extracting a sample of 1288 men who were 60 years or older. Survey respondents were followed-up for at most 15 years for the onset of four health outcomes: death, cognitive decline, stroke and diabetes. By using the propensity score method, we adjusted for the healthy worker effect by incorporating economic, sociodemographic and health data in the form of independent variables...
December 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Mélanie Barbay, Momar Diouf, Martine Roussel, Olivier Godefroy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Post-stroke neurocognitive disorders (post-stroke NCD) have been reported with a very variable prevalence. METHODS: Based on a systematic literature search, hospital-based studies published between January 1990 and September 2015 were selected when they reported the prevalence of total, mild, and major post-stroke NCD diagnosed by using specified criteria. Factors affecting prevalence were assessed using meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 7,440 references evaluated, 16 hospital-based studies were selected, corresponding to a total of 3,087 patients...
November 30, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Elodie Zürcher, Benjamin Richoz, Mohamed Faouzi, Patrik Michel
BACKGROUND: There are limited data comparing posterior (PC) and anterior (AC) circulation acute ischemic strokes (AIS). We aimed to identify specific features of PC and AC strokes regarding clinical, etiological, radiological, and outcome factors. METHODS: Patients from the Acute STroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne, a prospective cohort of consecutive AIS, from years 2003 to 2008 were included. The stroke territory was determined by a combination of neuroimaging and clinical symptoms...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Sherifa A Hamed
Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine myelinosis, stroke, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropathies and myopathy...
December 2, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
L I Pyshkina, A R Abieva, A N Yasamanova, N A Darvish, P R Kamchatnov, A A Kabanov, A A Tyazhelnikov, E V Silina, S N Shurygin, Z H Osmaeva
AIM: To study the state of cerebral hemodynamics and platelet hemostasis in patients with carotid stenosis (CS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prospective study included 123 patients with atherosclerotic CS. The 1st group included 53 patients (mean age 52±12.5 yrs) who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA); the 2nd group - 70 patients who were treated conservatively (mean age 58.5±15.9 yrs). The state of blood flow through the main arteries of the head (Doppler flowmetry), platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline, the frequency of acute cardiovascular events that occurred during 12 months were evaluated...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
N F Miryutova, V A Vorobyev, I M Samoilova, A A Zaitsev, S V Alaitseva, O V Dostovalova, N N Minchenco
BACKGROUND: When choosing the algorithm of rehabilitative measures, the localization of the stroke, brain reserve, and neuroplasticity as well as clinical characteristics (motor, postural, speech, cognitive impairments), etc. are taken into consideration. Monitoring the health status of the patients is an integral component of and an important condition for the successful post-stroke rehabilitation. AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical, functional and psychological status of the patients with stroke during the early and late restorative periods...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Koji Sakai, Kei Yamada
In the recent 5 years (2014-2018), there has been growing interest in the use of machine learning (ML) techniques to explore image diagnosis and prognosis of therapeutic lesion changes within the area of neuroradiology. However, to date, the majority of research trend and current status have not been clearly illuminated in the neuroradiology field. More than 1000 papers have been published during the past 5 years on subject classification and prediction focused on multiple brain disorders. We provide a survey of 209 papers in this field with a focus on top ten active areas of research; i...
November 29, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
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