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cognition AND stroke

Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Elvira Lara, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Nathalie Swinnen, Ai Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: Despite the benefits of being active for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on cognition and the acknowledgement that MCI is a critical period for intervening to prevent dementia, little is known about the actual sedentary levels in people with MCI. This study investigates correlates of sedentary behavior (SB) in people with MCI. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed...
October 16, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A body of empirical work demonstrates that wide fluctuations in a person's blood pressure across consecutive measures, known as blood pressure variability (BPV), hold prognostic value to predict stroke and transient ischemic attack. However, the magnitude of association between BPV and other neurological outcomes remains less clear. This systematic review aims to pool together data regarding BPV with respect to incident dementia, cognitive impairment, and cognitive function...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Robyn Westmacott, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Gabrielle deVeber, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Nomazulu Dlamini, Tricia S Williams
Childhood arterial ischemic stroke often involves basal ganglia and thalamus but little is known about neuropsychological outcomes in this group. We examined intellectual ability, academics, attention, executive function, and psychological diagnoses in children and adolescents (6-20 years of age) with childhood stroke involving the basal ganglia (n = 32) or thalamus (n = 12). Intellectual ability was age-appropriate but working memory was significantly lower than expected. Compared to the normative mean, the stroke group exhibited significantly weaker performance in reading comprehension, math fluency, attention, and greater challenges with executive function...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Maria Shendyapina, Ekaterina Kuzmina, Sergey Kazymaev, Anna Petrova, Nele Demeyere, Brendan S Weekes
OBJECTIVE: The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) is a screening tool for the assessment of poststroke deficits in attention, memory, praxis, language, and number processing. The goal of the present study was to develop a Russian version of the OCS (Rus-OCS) via translation of the original battery, its cultural and linguistic adaptations, and reporting preliminary findings on its psychometric properties. METHOD: All parts of OCS were translated by native Russian-speaking neuropsychologists...
October 15, 2018: Neuropsychology
Xiaofeng Chen, Xiaofei He, Shijian Luo, Yukun Feng, Fengyin Liang, Taotao Shi, Ruxun Huang, Zhong Pei, Zhendong Li
Cerebral cortical microinfarct (CMI) is common in patients with dementia and cognitive decline. Emerging studies reported that intestinal dysfunction influenced the outcome of ischemic stroke and that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) protected against ischemic stroke. However, the effects of intestinal dysfunction and VNS on CMI are not clear. Therefore, we examined the influence of colitis and VNS on CMI and the mechanisms of VNS attenuating CMI in mice with colitis. CMI was induced using a two-photon laser. Colitis was induced using oral dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Elisabetta Ambron, Luca Piretti, Alberta Lunardelli, H Branch Coslett
Closing-in behavior (CIB) is observed in copying tasks (graphic or gestural) when the copy is performed near or on the top of the model. This symptom has been classically considered to be a manifestation of constructional apraxia and is often associated with a visuospatial impairment. More recent work emphasizes the attentional and/or executive nature of the behavior and its association with frontal lobe dysfunction. We describe three patients in whom CIB was associated with posterior parietal deficits of different etiologies (stroke in Patient 1 and dementia in Patients 2 and 3)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Korina Li, Paul Bentley, Ajoy Nair, Omid Halse, Gareth Barker, Charlotte Russell, David Soto, Paresh A Malhotra
It has recently been revealed that spatial neglect can be modulated by motivational factors including anticipated monetary reward. A number of dopaminergic agents have been evaluated as treatments for neglect, but the results have been mixed, with no clear anatomical or cognitive predictors of dopaminergic responsiveness. Given that the effects of incentive motivation are mediated by dopaminergic pathways that are variably damaged in stroke, we tested the hypothesis that the modulatory influences of reward and dopaminergic drugs on neglect are themselves related...
September 18, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Walter Staiano, Andrea Bosio, Gaia Piazza, Marco Romagnoli, Pietro L Invernizzi
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the impact of 60 min of a cognitive demanding task inducing mental fatigue (Stroop) on kayaking performance in young elite athletes. The second objective was to elucidate the effect of mental fatigue on performance in a population of young under-17 elite athletes of national. METHODS: Thirteen under-17 elite kayakers completed 60 min of an incongruent Stroop color-word test, or the equivalent time in a control condition in a cross-over study design...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Lisa Bartha-Doering, Astrid Novak, Kathrin Kollndorfer, Anna-Lisa Schuler, Gregor Kasprian, Georg Langs, Ernst Schwartz, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, Daniela Prayer, Rainer Seidl
Brain plasticity has often been quoted as a reason for the more favorable outcome in childhood stroke compared to adult stroke. We investigated the relationship between language abilities and language localization in childhood stroke. Seventeen children and adolescents with left- or right-sided ischemic stroke and 18 healthy controls were tested with a comprehensive neurolinguistic test battery, and the individual neural representation of language was measured with an fMRI language paradigm. Overall, 12 of 17 stroke patients showed language abilities below average, and five patients exhibited impaired language performance...
September 25, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Hyun Goo Kang, Hyun Young Park, Han Uk Ryu, Seung-Han Suk
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is correlated with Alzheimer's disease and its severity, but the association remains unclear in adults (≥50 years) without a history of stroke or dementia.We assessed BMD and cognitive function using the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) in 650 stroke- and dementia-free subjects (≥50 years) who were recruited for an early health check-up program between January 2009 and December 2010.The mean age was 62.9 ± 8.0 years and mean MMSE score was 27.6 ± 3.6. A total of 361 subjects had reduced BMD: 197 (30...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Teppo Särkämö, Aleksi J Sihvonen
During the last decades, there have been major advances in mapping the brain regions that underlie our ability to perceive, experience, and produce music and how musical training can shape the structure and function of the brain. This progress has fueled and renewed clinical interest towards uncovering the neural basis for the impaired or preserved processing of music in different neurological disorders and how music-based interventions can be used in their rehabilitation and care. This article reviews our contribution to and the state-of-the-art of this field...
September 19, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Aakash V Sathappan, Bruce M Luber, Sarah H Lisanby
Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS)1 each show efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders; however, more efficacious interventions are needed as reflected by an overall unmet need in mental health care. While each modality has typically been studied and developed as a monotherapy, in practice they are typically used in combination. Research has begun to emerge studying the potential synergistic actions of multi-modal, combination therapies. For example, NIBS combined with rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated some success for speech and motor rehabilitation in stroke patients...
October 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Tia Powell
In writing these essays, we were asked to consider, "What makes a good life in late life?" I thought instantly, perhaps like many people, of photos and stories of older people taking up new careers and new hobbies-running marathons and soup kitchens, starting organic farms. This response is right and proper. Older people can leverage wisdom and creativity to make wonderful contributions to their communities and should be celebrated for doing so. But this happy picture is incomplete. We live longer than ever before, and with that long life, many of us can expect disability...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Regina von Rennenberg, Bob Siegerink, Ramanan Ganeshan, Kersten Villringer, Wolfram Doehner, Heinrich J Audebert, Matthias Endres, Christian H Nolte, Jan F Scheitz
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT) is a sensitive marker of myocardial injury and has been linked to incident dementia. The underlying mechanism of that observation is still unknown. Given that severity of cerebral small vessel disease is a predictor of cognitive decline, we aimed to explore whether there is an association between hs-cTnT and severity of white matter lesions (WML) as a marker of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to Charité-University Hospital, Berlin from 2011 to 2013...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology
DeAnnah R Byrd, Gilbert C Gee, Wassim Tarraf
Objectives: Studies of older U.S. adults have consistently found that African Americans perform worse on cognitive measures than whites, but there are inconsistencies as to whether these findings hold over time. Moreover, studies have focused on adults 51 and older, without considering younger ages; thus it is unclear the age at which these disparities surface. The present study examines black-white disparities in mental status trajectories among adults as young as 25 years over a 25-year period...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Pratistha Dwivedi, Sanjiv Sharma, Angel Ois Santiago, Jaume Roquer Gonzalez, Mercedes Balcells, John Laird, Monika Turk, Harman S Suri, Andrew Nicolaides, Luca Saba, Narendra N Khanna, Jasjit S Suri
Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) has a crucial role in lacunar stroke and brain hemorrhages and is a leading cause of cognitive decline and functional loss in elderly patients. Based on underlying pathophysiology, cSVD can be subdivided into amyloidal and non-amyloidal subtypes. Genetic factors of cSVD play a pivotal role in terms of unraveling molecular mechanism. An important pathophysiological mechanism of cSVD is blood-brain barrier leakage and endothelium dysfunction which gives a clue in identification of the disease through circulating biological markers...
September 2018: Journal of Stroke
Daan Meester, Emad Al-Yahya, Andrea Dennis, Johnny Collett, Derick T Wade, Martin Ovington, Francesca Liu, Meaney Andy, Cockburn Janet, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Helen Dawes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability of, adherence to and efficacy of a community walking training programme with simultaneous cognitive demand (dual-task) compared to a control walking training programme without cognitive distraction. METHODS: Adult stroke survivors, at least 6 months after stroke with a visibly obvious gait abnormality or reduced two-minute walk distance were included into a 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of complex intervention with blinded assessments...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Mozhu Ding, Laura Fratiglioni, Kristina Johnell, Giola Santoni, Johan Fastbom, Petter Ljungman, Alessandra Marengoni, Chengxuan Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with cognitive decline and dementia in old age, and to explore the cognitive benefit of antithrombotic treatment in patients with AF. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included 2,685 dementia-free participants from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, who were regularly examined from 2001-2004 to 2010-2013. AF was ascertained from clinical examination, ECG, and patient registry...
October 10, 2018: Neurology
Hyejin Joo, Jinhyun Bae, Jun-Seon Lee, Yumi Bang, Beom-Joon Lee, Jae-Woo Park, Kyungjin Lee, Jae-Heung Cho, Youngmin Bu
Epimedii Herba (EH) has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat hemiplegia following stroke. Icariin, its major active component, is used as a quality-control marker and for its various pharmacological effects. We hypothesized that icariin would show protective effects following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The TBI mouse model was induced using a controlled cortical impact method. Body weight, brain damage, motor function, and cognitive function were evaluated. Synaptogenesis markers were analyzed to investigate potential mechanisms of action...
October 9, 2018: Planta Medica
Vladimir Hachinski, Detlev Ganten, Daniel Lackland, Reinhold Kreutz, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Werner Hacke
Brain health plays a central role in well-being and in the management of chronic diseases. Stroke and dementia pose the two greatest threats to brain health, but recent developments suggest the possibility that preventing stroke may also prevent some dementias: (a) A large population study showed a 32% decrease in the incidence of stroke and a concomitant 7% reduction in the incidence of dementia; (b) the treatment of atrial fibrillation resulted not only in stroke reduction, but also a 48% decrease in dementia; (c) the hypothesis-free analyses have shown that the first phase of Alzheimer disease involves vascular dysregulation, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches; (d) cognitive impairment, often treatable and reversible, accompanies heart and kidney failure...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
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