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Clinical Severity Score Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335135/diarrheal-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-on-rotavirus-vaccine-efficacy-estimates-in-a-clinical-trial-of-a-monovalent-human-bovine-116e-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-rotavac-india
#1
Ira Praharaj, James A Platts-Mills, Sunita Taneja, Kalpana Antony, Krista Yuhas, Jorge Flores, Iksung Cho, Nita Bhandari, R Revathy, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Timothy McMurry, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Background: Rotavirus vaccine (RV) efficacy estimates in low-resource settings are lower than in developed countries. We detected co-infections in cases of severe rotavirus diarrhea in a RV efficacy trial to determine whether these negatively impacted RV efficacy estimates. Methods: We performed TaqMan Array Card assays for enteropathogens on stools from rotavirus EIA positive diarrhea episodes and all severe episodes (Vesikari score >= 11), from a phase III vaccine efficacy trial of Rotavac®, a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine, carried out across three sites in India...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332410/construct-validation-of-a-frailty-index-an-hiv-index-and-a-protective-index-from-a-clinical-hiv-database
#2
Iacopo Franconi, Olga Theou, Lindsay Wallace, Andrea Malagoli, Cristina Mussini, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Standard care for HIV clinical practice has started focusing on age-related problems, but despite this recent change physicians involved in HIV care do not often screen HIV patients for frailty. Our aim was to construct three indexes from an HIV clinical database (i.e. Frailty Index, (FI), HIV Index, (HIVI), and Protective Index (PI)) and to assess levels of frailty, HIV severity and demographic and protective lifestyle factors among HIV patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included data from 1612 patients who attended an Italian HIV clinic between September 2016 and December2017 (mean±SD age: 53...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324775/acute-infection-in-ventilated-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-association-between-resting-energy-expenditure-and-c-reactive-protein
#3
David Dahan, Gali Epstein Shochet, Ester Fizitsky, Miriam Almagor, David Shitrit
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a common cause of hospitalization, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the absence of characteristic clinical signs (e.g., fever and leukocytosis); therefore, additional markers, in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count, are needed. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively link resting energy expenditure (REE) with CRP, WBC count, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores in ICU patients...
October 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324005/the-daniel-k-inouye-college-of-pharmacy-scripts-the-effects-of-vancomycin-use-and-de-escalation-in-patients-hospitalized-with-pneumonia
#4
Aryn S You, Bryce T Fukunaga, Alexandra L Hanlon, Alicia J Lozano, Roy A Goo
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes about 80,000 severe infections each year. Compared to Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), MRSA is associated with higher mortality and increased hospital length of stay (LOS). Vancomycin hydrochloride, an antibiotic with activity against MRSA is often used as empiric therapy for pneumonia. However, current pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend against the routine use of MRSA coverage since MRSA prevalence rates are low. In this retrospective, observational study, 38...
October 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322746/invasive-mold-infections-in-acute-leukemia-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Sheng-Hsuan Chien, Yao-Chung Liu, Chia-Jen Liu, Po-Shen Ko, Hao-Yuan Wang, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jin-Hwang Liu, Jyh-Pyng Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Patients with acute leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are exposed to high risk of developing invasive fungal infections, and the invasive mold infections (IMIs) are becoming more and more common after transplantation. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to analyze demographics, microbiology, and risk factors for IMIs development in adult acute leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT. METHODS: We reviewed 245 adult acute leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT from January 2003 to December 2014...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319294/expert-opinion-on-the-management-of-hepatitis-c-infection-in-kuwait
#6
EDITORIAL
Motaz Fathy Saad, Saleh Alenezi, Haifaa Asker
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of death, especially in immunocompromised patients. The lack of clear prevalence data in the Middle East makes it difficult to estimate the true morbidity and mortality burden of HCV. In Kuwait, estimating the burden of disease is complicated by the constant flow of expatriates, many of whom are from HCV-endemic areas. The development of new and revolutionary treatments for HCV necessitates the standardization of clinical practice across all healthcare institutions...
2018: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316103/ambient-urban-dust-particulate-matter-reduces-pathologic-t-cells-in-the-cns-and-severity-of-eae
#7
Chelsea A O'Driscoll, Leah A Owens, Erica J Hoffmann, Madeline E Gallo, Amin Afrazi, Mei Han, John H Fechner, James J Schauer, Christopher A Bradfield, Joshua D Mezrich
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune diseases have increased in incidence and prevalence worldwide. While genetic predispositions play a role, environmental factors are a major contributor. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture composed of metals, nitrates, sulfates and diverse adsorbed organic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Exposure to atmospheric PM aggravates autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, among others...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312819/diabetes-comorbidity-increases-risk-of-postoperative-complications-in-traumatic-thoracic-vertebral-fracture-repair-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#8
Joshua Loewenstern, Remi A Kessler, John Caridi
PURPOSE: Thoracic vertebral fracture repair after a traumatic injury can be associated with significant risk for postoperative complications. Surgical outcomes are further complicated by patient comorbidity, particularly diabetes mellitus. The present study compared outcomes and complication rates for traumatic thoracic vertebral fracture repair in a matched sample of diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls. METHODS: Patients with a surgical repair of a trauma-induced thoracic vertebral fracture treated from 2010-2015 were identified from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database yielding 5,557 cases...
October 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310100/comparative-safety-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-versus-sulfonylureas-and-other-glucose-lowering-therapies-for-three-acute-outcomes
#9
John-Michael Gamble, Jennifer R Donnan, Eugene Chibrikov, Laurie K Twells, William K Midodzi, Sumit R Majumdar
Although the glucose lowering effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors is well established, several potential serious acute safety concerns have been raised including acute kidney injury, respiratory tract infections, and acute pancreatitis. Using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), we identified initiators (365-day washout period) of DPP4 inhibitors and relevant comparators including initiators of sulfonylureas, metformin, thiazolidinediones, and insulin between January 2007 and January 2016 to quantify the association between DPP4 inhibitors and three acute health events - acute kidney injury, respiratory tract infections, and acute pancreatitis...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309343/prevalence-of-rotavirus-infection-among-children-with-acute-diarrhoea-after-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-kenya-a-hospital-cross-sectional-study
#10
Catherine Muendo, Ahmed Laving, Rashmi Kumar, Boniface Osano, Thaddaeus Egondi, Pamela Njuguna
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis globally in children under 5 years of age and is responsible for approximately 5% of all child deaths yearly. Rotavirus vaccination is considered an effective public health strategy to prevent infection and reduce the severity of disease. Multi-centre country trials on rotavirus vaccines demonstrated efficacy rates of more than 85% in developed countries but only about 65% in developing nations. Rotavirus vaccination was introduced into the Kenya Expanded Programme on Immunization (KEPI) in 2014...
October 11, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309044/differences-in-hypotensive-vs-non-hypotensive-sepsis-management-in-the-emergency-department-door-to-antibiotic-time-impact-on-sepsis-survival
#11
Leonor Ballester, Rafael Martínez, Juan Méndez, Gloria Miró, Manel Solsona, Elisabeth Palomera, Josep Anton Capdevila, Alejandro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Yébenes
BACKGROUND: Sepsis diagnosis can be incorrectly associated with the presence of hypotension during an infection, so the detection and management of non-hypotensive sepsis can be delayed. We aimed to evaluate how the presence or absence of hypotension, on admission at the emergency department, affects the initial management and outcomes of patients with community-onset severe sepsis. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, process of care, and outcome variables were recorded for all patients, at the emergency department of our university hospital, who presented with community-onset severe sepsis, between 1 March and 31 August in three consecutive years...
October 10, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308319/h-pylori-and-parkinson-s-disease-meta-analyses-including-clinical-severity
#12
REVIEW
Efthimios Dardiotis, Zisis Tsouris, Alexios-Fotios A Mentis, Vasileios Siokas, Amalia Michalopoulou, Maria Sokratous, Metaxia Dastamani, Dimitrios P Bogdanos, Georgia Deretzi, Jannis Kountouras
The exact etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. Some evidence supports Helicobacter pylori infection as a trigger or driving event, but detection and eradication of H. pylori are not part of PD management. The aims of this case-control study and meta-analysis were to determine (i) the prevalence of H. pylori infection in PD patients, (ii) associations between H. pylori infection and clinical status, and (iii) differences in motor status in PD patients before and after H. pylori eradication. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308215/microbiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-bacteremia-implications-of-sequence-type-for-prognosis
#13
Yu-Chung Chuang, Aristine Cheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Jann-Tay Wang, Yee-Chun Chen, Wang-Huei Sheng, Shan-Chwen Chang
OBJECTIVES: Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) is an important cause of healthcare-associated infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) provides a highly discriminative typing method. We aimed to determine the clinical impact of Ab sequence types (ST) in patients with bloodstream infection (BSI). METHODS: Patients with Ab-BSI were followed prospectively from 2009 through 2014. We randomly selected one-third of non-duplicate bacteremic isolates for MLST and correlated the Ab ST with the clinical course...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307356/long-term-clinical-experience-with-laparoscopic-ventral-hernia-repair-using-a-parietextm-composite-mesh-in-severely-obese-and-non-severe-obese-patients-a-single-center-cohort-study
#14
Hilbert S de Vries, Diederik Smeeing, Harm Lourens, Philip M Kruyt, Roland M H G Mollen
BACKGROUND: The treatment of incisional and ventral hernias is associated with significant complications and recurrences, especially in severely obese patients. Recent studies have shown a reduced rate of surgical site infections and length of hospital stay in severely obese patients undergoing a laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. AIM: This study aims to describe the clinical experience in terms of efficacy and safety with laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using the ParietexTM Composite mesh (Covidien Sofradim Production, Trevoux, France) in severely obese patients (body mass index ≥35) compared with non-severe obese patients in a seven-year single-center cohort...
October 11, 2018: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300912/spontaneous-septic-arthritis-of-canine-elbows-twenty-one-cases
#15
Ben Mielke, Eithne Comerford, Kate English, Richard Meeson
OBJECTIVE:  This study provides information on clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and associated risk factors of spontaneous septic elbow arthritis in the dog. METHODS: Medical records between March 2007 and June 2015 were searched for cases of spontaneous septic elbow arthritis with a diagnosis based on clinical signs, arthrocentesis, cytological and microbiological analysis of elbow joint synovial fluid, radiography and outcome following treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-one cases of septic arthritis were identified...
October 9, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292891/does-the-use-of-adjunct-urine-lam-in-hiv-infected-hospitalized-patients-reduce-the-utilization-of-health-care-resources-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-lam-multi-country-randomized-control-trial
#16
Poobalan Naidoo, Aliasgar Esmail, Jonathan G Peter, Malika Davids, Mohammed Fadul, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the use of adjunctive urine lipopolysaccharide lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing in hospitalized HIV-infected persons with suspected tuberculosis (TB) and a CD4 count <100 cells/ml. However, the recommendation is conditional and uptake by individual treatment programs depends on perceived additional benefit. The aim of this study was to determine if adjunctive LAM testing had additional clinical benefits including reduction in health care-related use of resources...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292605/long-term-outcomes-after-pediatric-peripheral-revascularization-secondary-to-trauma-at-an-urban-level-i-center
#17
S Keisin Wang, Natalie A Drucker, Jodi L Raymond, Thomas M Rouse, Andres Fajardo, Gary W Lemmon, Michael C Dalsing, Brian W Gray
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine our limb-related contemporary pediatric revascularization perioperative and follow-up outcomes after major blunt and penetrating trauma. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of a prospectively maintained pediatric trauma database spanning January 2010 to December 2017 to capture all level I trauma activations that resulted in a peripheral arterial revascularization procedure. All preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative continuous variables are reported as a mean ± standard deviation; categorical variables are reported as a percentage of the population of interest...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281832/short-and-long-term-effectiveness-and-safety-of-vedolizumab-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-results-from-the-eneida-registry
#18
María Chaparro, Ana Garre, Elena Ricart, Marisa Iborra, Francisco Mesonero, Isabel Vera, Sabino Riestra, Valle García-Sánchez, M Luisa De Castro, Albert Martin-Cardona, Xavier Aldeguer, Miguel Mínguez, Manuel Barreiro de-Acosta, Montserrat Rivero, Fernando Muñoz, Montserrat Andreu, Ana Bargalló, Carlos González-Muñoza, Jose L Pérez Calle, Mariana Fe García-Sepulcre, Fernando Bermejo, Jose Maria Huguet, José L Cabriada, Ana Gutiérrez, Míriam Mañosa, Albert Villoria, Ana Y Carbajo, Rufo Lorente, Santiago García-López, Marta Piqueras, Esther Hinojosa, Clàudia Arajol, Beatriz Sicilia, Ana Macho Conesa, Empar Sainz, Pedro Almela, Jordina Llaó, Oscar Roncero, Patricia Camo, Carlos Taxonera, Manuel Van Domselaar, Ramón Pajares, Jesús Legido, Rosa Madrigal, Alfredo J Lucendo, Guillermo Alcaín, Eugeni Doménech, Javier P Gisbert
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of vedolizumab in real world clinical practice is unknown. AIM: To evaluate the short and long-term effectiveness of vedolizumab in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Patients who received at least 1 induction dose of vedolizumab were included. Effectiveness was defined based on Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) in Crohn's disease (CD) and Partial Mayo Score (PMS) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Short-term response was assessed at week 14...
October 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276068/endoscopic-transforaminal-and-lateral-recess-decompression-after-previous-spinal-surgery
#19
Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski
Background: Leg pain and back pain after lumbar laminectomy and spinal decompression fusion surgery are common and often related to persistent lumbar foraminal or lateral recess stenosis. Although persistent symptoms often stem from incomplete decompression during the primary index surgery, recurrent symptoms may also be the result of intervertebral cage subsidence due to loss of intervertebral and neuroforaminal height. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the outpatient transforaminal decompression procedure as an alternative to inpatient open procedure in revision decompression surgery, with the intent of minimizing the incidence of perioperative and postoperative surgical complications while reducing both direct and indirect costs of surgical treatment, shortening time to patient postoperative narcotic independence, and shortening time of patient return to daily activities...
April 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269586/causes-clinical-presentation-management-and-outcomes-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-at-mbarara-regional-referral-hospital
#20
David Kitya, Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Derek Harborne, Michael M Haglund
OBJECTIVE: Causes, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in low- and middle-income countries are not well characterized in the literature. Knowledge regarding these factors would be beneficial in the development and implementation of effective preventive and management measures for affected patients. The authors conducted a study to gain a better understanding of these factors in a low-income setting. METHODS: This prospective study was performed at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) in Uganda between January 2014 and June 2017...
October 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
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