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Liver fat

Frederico Ribeiro Deliberador, Aline Monise Sebastiani, Jennifer Gerber, Luana Bonetto, Gabriela Tórtora, Allan Fernando Giovanini, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Joao César Zielak, Rafaela Scariot
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two methods of local application of alendronate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone repair and the systemic implications. A critically sized defect (5 mm) was created in the cranial region of twenty-five male Wistar rats, and the bone removed was particulated, and grafted back to the defect with different treatments. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: A1- bone graft immersion in alendronate solution (3 mg/kg) for 5 minutes; P1- bone graft immersion in PTH solution (20 µg); A2- weekly local applications of alendronate 1 mg/kg; P2- weekly local applications of PTH (20 µg); C- no drugs were used...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Laken N Cooper, Ila Mishra, Noah T Ashley
Lack of sleep incurs physiological costs that include increased inflammation and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Specifically, sleep restriction or deprivation leads to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated glucocorticoids in rodent models, but whether birds exact similar costs is unknown. In this study, we examined whether zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), an avian model species, exhibits physiological costs of sleep loss by using a novel automated sleep fragmentation/deprivation method, wherein a horizontal wire sweeps across a test cage to disrupt sleep every 120 s...
January 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Michele Alves-Bezerra, Yingxia Li, Mariana Acuña, Anna A Ivanova, Kathleen E Corey, Eric A Ortlund, David E Cohen
In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), triglycerides accumulate within the liver because the rates of fatty acid accrual by uptake from plasma and de novo synthesis exceed elimination by mitochondrial oxidation and secretion as VLDL-triglycerides. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) is an acyl-CoA thioesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs into free fatty acids plus CoASH. Them2 is highly expressed in the liver, as well as other oxidative tissues. Mice globally lacking Them2 are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis, and exhibit improved glucose homeostasis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Brett McGettigan, Rachel McMahan, David Orlicky, Matthew Burchill, Thomas Danhorn, Prashanth Francis, Lin Ling Cheng, Lucy Golden-Mason, Claudia Jakubzick, Hugo Rosen
A crucial component of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis is lipid stress, which may contribute to hepatic inflammation and activation of innate immunity in the liver. However, little is known regarding how dietary lipids, including fat and cholesterol, may facilitate innate immune activation in vivo. We hypothesized that dietary fat and cholesterol drive NAFLD progression to steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis by altering the transcription and phenotype of hepatic macrophages METHODS: This hypothesis was tested by using RNA-seq methods to characterize and analyze sort-purified hepatic macrophage populations that were isolated from mice fed diets with varying amounts of fat and cholesterol RESULTS: The addition of cholesterol to a high fat diet triggered hepatic pathology reminiscent of advanced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans characterized by signs of cholesterol dysregulation, generation of oxidized LDL, increased recruitment of hepatic macrophages, and significant fibrosis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Noriaki Kawanishi, Tsubasa Mizokami, Koichi Yada, Katsuhiko Suzuki
Although nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an important component of the metabolic syndrome, scavenger receptor CD36 also modulates NASH development. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training suppresses CD36 expression in a mouse model of NASH. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal diet (ND) sedentary, ND exercise, high-fat diet and high-fructose water (HFF) sedentary, and HFF exercise groups. The exercise groups were trained on a motorized treadmill at running speeds of 15-20 m/min for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 16 weeks...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
Ayane A Rodrigues, Raíssa S B Andrade, Daniel F P Vasconcelos
Background: The pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to unhealthy lifestyles that combine sedentary lifestyle, hypercaloric diets, excessive saturated fats, refined carbohydrates, and high intake of fructose as a food additive to various processed products. Both the broader recognition of the disease and the additional efforts to elucidate the NAFLD pathogenesis have led to an increase in animal models in recent years . Objective. This review was performed to provide better understanding of the association between the NAFLD and animal models...
2018: International Journal of Hepatology
Hee-Jeong Kim, Bohkyung Kim, Eun-Gyung Mun, Soon-Yeon Jeong, Youn-Soo Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ginger, a root vegetable, is known to have antioxidant and antiobesity effects. Preparation, such as by steaming, can affect the chemical composition of prepared root vegetables or herbs and can change their functional activities. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of steamed ginger against oxidative stress and steatosis in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids in two different extracts of steamed ginger, i...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Ozlem Ozer Cakir, Siddika Findik
Aim: We determined the effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide, and their combination on extrapancreatic organ injuries in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Methods: A total of 58 BALB-C male mice (25 g) were divided into seven groups and used to create a caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis model. Diclofenac sodium, octreotide, and their combination were given for treatment of caerulin-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. At the end of the experiment, the lung, liver, kidney, and stomach were removed for histopathologic assessment...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Lesław Bernard Lahuta, Magdalena Ligor, Waldemar Placek, Ryszard Józef Górecki, Bogusław Buszewski
INTRODUCTION: Myo -inositol and its derivatives cyclitols play an important role in the processes of cell regulation, signal transduction, osmoregulation, and ion channel physiology, and are a component of the cell membrane. Free cyclitols present in food or released during the degradation of galactosyl cyclitols by bacteria (in digestive tract) show some physiological benefits. AIM: The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the documented data about curative and healing properties of cyclitols...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Roy Chris Skinner, Derek C Warren, Soofia N Lateef, Vagner A Benedito, Janet C Tou
Apple pomace, which is a waste byproduct of processing, is rich in several nutrients, particularly dietary fiber, indicating potential benefits for diseases that are attributed to poor diets, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD affects over 25% of United States population and is increasing in children. Increasing fruit consumption can influence NAFLD. The study objective was to replace calories in standard or Western diets with apple pomace to determine the effects on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and on risk of NAFLD...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Simona Terzo, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Roberto Puleio, Giovanni Cassata, Flavia Mulè, Antonella Amato
Pistachios contain beneficial substances such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated if pistachio consumption is able to prevent or to revert hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue morphological alterations caused by high fat diet (HFD) in the mouse. Moreover, the impact of pistachio intake on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ( PPAR-γ ), fatty acid transport proteins ( FAT-P ), fatty acid synthase ( FAS ), stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD1 ), and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c ( SREBP-1c ) in liver and adipose tissue was also analyzed...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Elizabeth A Babawale, Peter Jh Jones, Kelly E Mercer, Haixia Lin, Laxmi Yeruva, Fabiana Bar Yoseph, Shane M Rutherfurd
Formula-fed infants present higher cholesterol synthesis rates and lower circulating cholesterol during the postnatal feeding period compared to breast-fed infants, though the mechanisms underlying this phenotype are not fully understood. Typical infant formulas contain vegetable-based fats, inherently including phytosterols (PS), which are structurally similar to cholesterol and may interfere with their absorption. A seven-day old piglets model was used to test the inhibitory effects of PS on cholesterol absorption during postnatal feeding...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Richard C Kolanczyk, Jeffrey S Denny, Barbara R Sheedy, Patricia K Schmieder, Mark A Tapper
A representative group of multicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHC) which can be further classified as bridged-ring (bridged-MAHC) or fused-ring (fused-MAHC) were examined for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor of rainbow trout (rtER) in a hepatic cytosolic estrogen receptor competitive binding assay (cyto rtERαβ) and the vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA gene activation liver slice assay. All five fused-MAHCs; naphthalene (NAFT), fluorene (FE), Fluoranthene (FAT), pyrene (PY), and 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DAC) had no estrogenic activity in the in vitro assays used...
November 26, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Nathan C Winn, Thomas J Jurrissen, Zachary I Grunewald, Rory P Cunningham, Makenzie L Woodford, Jill A Kanaley, Dennis B Lubahn, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, R Scott Rector, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in immunometabolic function is established in females. However, its necessity in males, while appreciated, requires further study. Accordingly, we first determined whether lower metabolic function in male mice compared to females is related to reduced ERα expression. ERα protein expression in metabolically active tissues was lower in males than females and this lower expression was associated with worse glucose tolerance. Second, we determined if ERα is required for optimal immunometabolic function in male mice consuming chow diet...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Guoqing Wu, Yanan Wang, Yuhui Yang, Yonghui Shi, Jin Sun, Yunchong Xu, Tingyu Luo, Guowei Le
SCOPE: Dietary methionine restriction (MR) promotes multi-faceted health benefits. Moreover, lower rate of protein synthesis by dietary MR is associated with life span extension. The goal of this work is to explore how dietary MR would affect protein metabolism in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO). METHODS AND RESULTS: DIO mice (male C57BL/6) were subjected to dietary MR for 22 weeks. High-throughput sequencing technology, qRT-PCR analysis, and the dual luciferase reporter assay were performed to verify that MiR-328-3p directly targets cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) to modulate endogenous H2 S production...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Natally Horvat, Serena Monti, Brunna Clemente Oliveira, Camila Carlos Tavares Rocha, Romina Grazia Giancipoli, Lorenzo Mannelli
Background Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer mortality. Chronic liver disease caused by viral infection, alcohol abuse, or other factors can lead to cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the most important clinical risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) whereby the normal hepatic architecture is replaced by fibrous septa and a spectrum of nodules ranging from benign regenerative nodules to HCC, each one of them with different imaging features. Conclusions Furthermore, advanced techniques including the quantification of hepatic and intralesional fat and iron, magnetic resonance elastography, radiomics, radiogenomics, and positron emission tomography (PET)-MRI are highly promising for the extraction of new imaging biomarkers that reflect the tumor microenvironment and, in the future, may add decision-making value in the management of patients with HCC...
November 26, 2018: Radiology and Oncology
William A Curtis, Tyler J Fraum, Hongyu An, Yasheng Chen, Anup S Shetty, Kathryn J Fowler
As radiologic technology advances, quantitative imaging is becoming more prevalent in clinical practice. This article reviews quantitative hepatic MRI, specifically involving fat and iron deposition, by demonstrating how they were iteratively improved. These iterative improvements involved incorporating more knowledge about the physiology of liver disease and MRI physics to reduce the adverse effects caused by confounding factors. The relevant foundations of MRI physics and liver pathophysiology are briefly reviewed, followed by the various improvements made by expanding on this foundational knowledge...
December 4, 2018: Radiology
Lauren E Mellor-Crummey, Jordan E Lake, Holly Wilhalme, Chi-Hong Tseng, Philip M Grant, Kristine M Erlandson, Jennifer C Price, Frank J Palella, Larry A Kingsley, Matthew Budoff, Wendy S Post, Todd T Brown
Background and Aim: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common among HIV-infected (HIV+) adults. The Liver Fat Score (LFS) is a non-invasive, rapid, inexpensive diagnostic tool that uses routine clinical data and is validated against biopsy in HIV-uninfected (HIV-) persons. CT liver-to-spleen (L/S) attenuation ratio is another validated method to diagnose NAFLD. We compared NAFLD prevalence using the LFS versus L/S ratio among Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study participants to assess the LFS's performance in HIV+vs...
2018: Journal of clinical gastroenterology and hepatology
Jean Mboma, Nadine Leblanc, Sereana Wan, René L Jacobs, André Tchernof, Pascal Dubé, Paul Angers, Hélène Jacques
Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) generated through domestic or industrial heating of vegetable oils may alter liver enzymes and induce hepatomegaly and steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of CFAM on liver and plasma lipids and to determine whether these effects are modulated by dietary lipids. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were fed either of the four isoenergetic diets consisting of canola oil or soybean oil with/without 500 mg/100 g CFAM of total fat for 28 days...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Da Zhou, Yuan-Wen Chen, Ze-Hua Zhao, Rui-Xu Yang, Feng-Zhi Xin, Xiao-Lin Liu, Qin Pan, Huiping Zhou, Jian-Gao Fan
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has a broad spectrum of biological activity by regulating metabolic processes via both the direct activation of the class B family of G protein-coupled receptors and indirect nonreceptor-mediated pathways. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have significant therapeutic effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH) in animal models. However, clinical studies indicated that GLP-1 treatment had little effect on hepatic steatosis in some NAFLD patients, suggesting that GLP-1 resistance may occur in these patients...
December 3, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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