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Liver fat

Giuseppe Corrias, Simone Krebs, Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Davinia Ryan, Junting Zheng, Marinela Capanu, Luca Saba, Serena Monti, Maggie Fung, Scott Reeder, Lorenzo Mannelli
INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with advanced and metastatic tumors. Since the liver plays an active role in the metabolism of chemotherapy agents, hepatic injury is a common adverse effect. The purpose of this study is to compare a novel quantitative chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) method with conventional T1-weighted In and Out of phase (T1 IOP) MR for evaluating the reproducibility of the methods in an oncologic population exposed to chemotherapy...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Falko Frenzel, Axel Oberemm, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen
2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD), 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) and their fatty acid esters have recently been identified as heat-induced contaminants in fat- and salt-containing foodstuff. Toxicity of 3-MCPD has been studied previously in some detail. Disturbance of glycolysis and cellular redox functions appear to be involved in 3-MCPD toxicity. By contrast, only very few toxicological data are available for 2-MCPD or 2-MCPD esters, especially at the molecular level. This study was therefore aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of proteomic alterations induced in rat kidney and liver by 2-MCPD and 2-MCPD dipalmitate, a representative 2-MCPD fatty acid ester...
August 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Niroshan Siva, Casey R Johnson, Vincent Richard, Elliot D Jesch, William Whiteside, Abdullah A Abood, Pushparajah Thavarajah, Susan Duckett, Dil Thavarajah
Lentil, a moderate-energy high-protein pulse crop, provides significant amounts of essential nutrients for healthy living. The objective of this study was to determine if a lentil-based diet affects food and energy intake, body weight, percent body fat, liver weight, and body plasma triacylglycerols (TGs) as well as the composition of fecal microbiota in rats. A total of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either a standard diet, a 3.5% high amylose corn starch diet, or a 70.8% red lentil diet for 6 weeks...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
E I Morrison, H Reinhardt, H Leclerc, T J Devries, S J LeBlanc
The objectives were to determine the effects of a rumen-protected blend of B vitamins and choline (RPBC) on the incidence of health disorders, milk yield, and reproduction in early lactation and the effects on gene expression and liver fat infiltration. A randomized controlled trial in 3 commercial dairy herds (n = 1,346 cows with group as the experimental unit; experiment 1) and a university research herd (n = 50 cows with cow as the experimental unit; experiment 2) evaluated the use of 100 g/cow per d of commercially available proprietary RPBC supplement (Transition VB, Jefo, St...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Laure Monteillet, Monika Gjorgjieva, Marine Silva, Vincent Verzieux, Linda Imikirene, Adeline Duchampt, Hervé Guillou, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas
OBJECTIVE: Ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver and kidneys is a hallmark of metabolic diseases leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Moreover, recent data have highlighted a strong correlation between NAFLD and CKD incidences. In this study, we use two mouse models of hepatic steatosis or CKD, each initiated independently of the other upon the suppression of glucose production specifically in the liver or kidneys, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of CKD in the context of NAFLD-like pathology...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Adriana L Carvalho, Bianca Massaro, Luciana T P E Silva, Carlos E G Salmon, Sandra Y Fukada, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Jorge Elias, Maria C F Freitas, Carlos E B Couri, Maria C Oliveira, Belinda P Simões, Clifford J Rosen, Francisco J A de Paula
Anthropomorphic measures among type 1 diabetic patients are changing as the obesity epidemic continues. Excess fat mass may impact bone density and ultimately fracture risk. We studied the interaction between bone and adipose tissue in type 1 diabetes subjects submitted to two different clinical managements: (I) conventional insulin therapy or (II) autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHST). The study comprised 3 groups matched by age, gender, height and weight: control (C = 24), type 1 diabetes (T1D = 23) and type 1 diabetes treated with AHST (T1D-AHST = 9)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Edward S Chambers, Claire S Byrne, Annette Rugyendo, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, M Catriona Tedford, Jimmy D Bell, E Louise Thomas, Arne N Akbar, Natalie E Riddell, Rohini Sharma, Mark R Thursz, Pinelopi Manousou, Gary Frost
The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) propionate, produced through fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, has been shown to alter hepatic metabolic processes that reduce lipid storage. We aimed to investigate the impact of raising colonic propionate production on hepatic steatosis in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Eighteen adults were randomised to receive 20g/day of an inulin-propionate ester (IPE), designed to deliver propionate to the colon, or an inulin-control for 42-days in a parallel design...
August 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sabrina Dorn, Shuqing Chen, Stefan Sawall, Joscha Maier, Michael Knaup, Monika Uhrig, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Andreas Maier, Michael Lell, Marc Kachelrieß
PURPOSE: To establish a novel paradigm to facilitate radiologists' workow: combining mutually exclusive CT image properties that emerge from different reconstructions, display settings and organ-dependent spectral evaluation methods into a single context-sensitive imaging by exploiting prior anatomical information. METHODS: The CT dataset is segmented and classified into different organs, e.g. the liver, left and right kidney, spleen, aorta and left and right lung, as well as into the tissue types bone, fat, soft tissue and vessels using a cascaded 3D fully convolutional neural network (CNN) consisting of two successive 3D U-nets...
August 11, 2018: Medical Physics
Marzieh Zeinvand-Lorestani, Heibatullah Kalantari, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Teimoori, Najmaldin Saki, Akram Ahangarpour, Fakher Rahim, Soheila Alboghobeish
The key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) caused by high fat diet (HFD) in combination with arsenic (As) exposure (pronounced glucose intolerance despite a significant decrease in insulin resistance) are different from those expected for T2DM. Autophagy has been considered as a possible link between insulin resistance and obesity. Therefore in this study, we utilized autophagy gene expression profiling via real-time RT-PCR array analysis in livers of NMRI mice exposed to an environmentally relevant and minimally cytotoxic concentration of arsenite (50 ppm) in drinking water while being fed with a HFD for 20 weeks...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Muhammad Asif, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Zahurin Mohamed, Mariam Ahmad, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Gurjeet Kaur, Dhamraa Waleed Al-Dualimi, Mun Fei Yam
The growth of adipose tissues is considered angiogenesis-dependent during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We have recently reported that our standardized 50% methanolic extract (ME) of Phyllanthus niruri (50% ME of P. niruri ) has alleviated NAFLD in Sprague⁻Dawley rats. This study aimed to assess the molecular mechanisms of action, and to further evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of this extract . NAFLD was induced by eight weeks of high-fat diet, and treatment was applied for four weeks. Antiangiogenic activity was assessed by aortic ring assay and by in vitro tests...
August 9, 2018: Nutrients
Chunwei Cheng, Jun Tan, Wei Qian, Lei Zhang, Xiaohua Hou
AIMS: Gut inflammation has been put forward to be associated with hepatic injury in the clinical practice. The dismantled intestinal barrier was highly concerned, however, largely unknown about the role of gut-vascular barrier (GVB) in this process. This study aimed to investigate if inflamed gut directly contributes to the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), especially attention to the GVB dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: Male C57bl/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and 1% DSS for 12 weeks...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Suzanne A B M Aarts, Myrthe E Reiche, Myrthe den Toom, Linda Beckers, Marion J J Gijbels, Norbert Gerdes, Menno P J de Winther, Esther Lutgens
Obesity is a low-grade inflammatory disease that increases the risk for metabolic disorders. CD40-CD40L signaling plays a central role in obesity-induced inflammation. Genetic deficiency of CD40L in diet-induced obesity (DIO) ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis and increases insulin sensitivity. Unexpectedly, absence of CD40 worsened insulin resistance and caused excessive adipose tissue inflammation and hepatosteatosis. To investigate whether deficiency of macrophage CD40 is responsible for the phenotype observed in the CD40-/- mice, we generated CD40flflLysMcre and fed them a standard (SFD) and 54% high fat obesogenic diet (HFD) for 13 weeks...
2018: PloS One
Ahmed Abdel-Razik, Nasser Mousa, Walaa Shabana, Mohamed Refaey, Rasha Elzehery, Rania Elhelaly, Khaled Zalata, Mostafa Abdelsalam, Ahmed A Eldeeb, Mahmoud Awad, Ayman Elgamal, Ahmed Attia, Niveen El-Wakeel, Waleed Eldars
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may include increased insulin resistance, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and BMI. Rifaximin is a minimally absorbable antibiotic that might act against a broad spectrum of gut bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rifaximin on NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty participants with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were registered in this multicentric, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Amit Kumar, Julie R Melotti, Thomas M Cooley, Scott D Fitzgerald
Three separate mortality events affecting wild eastern fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger) were investigated in suburban areas within southeastern Michigan over a 3-yr period from the summer of 2015 through the winter of 2017. A total of seven squirrels were submitted for investigation. The squirrels were generally in fair to good body condition with moderate fat deposits. The tissues that most commonly exhibited gross or histologic lesions included the lungs, liver, and heart, whereas spleen and brain exhibited lesions less frequently...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Lino Arisqueta, Hiart Navarro-Imaz, Ibone Labiano, Yuri Rueda, Olatz Fresnedo
High fat diet (HFD) feeding or leptin deficient mice are extensively used as models resembling features of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The concurrence of experimental factors as fat content and source or total caloric intake leads to prominent differences in the development of the hepatic steatosis and related disturbances. In this work, we characterized the hepatic lipid accumulation induced by HFD in wild type (Wt) and ob/ob mice with the purpose of differentiating adaptations to HFD from those specific of increased overfeeding due to leptin deficiency-associated hyperphagia...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Michał Byra, Grzegorz Styczynski, Cezary Szmigielski, Piotr Kalinowski, Łukasz Michałowski, Rafał Paluszkiewicz, Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Piotr Sobieraj, Andrzej Nowicki
PURPOSE: The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver abnormality. Up to date, liver biopsy is the reference standard for direct liver steatosis quantification in hepatic tissue samples. In this paper we propose a neural network-based approach for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease assessment in ultrasound. METHODS: We used the Inception-ResNet-v2 deep convolutional neural network pre-trained on the ImageNet dataset to extract high-level features in liver B-mode ultrasound image sequences...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Julie K Bray, Gabriel S Chiu, Leslie K McNeil, Morgan L Moon, Robyn Wall, Albert E Towers, Gregory G Freund
Background: Reducing caloric intake is a proven intervention for mitigating and modulating morbidities associated with overnutrition. Caloric restriction is difficult to affect clinically, therefore, dietary interventions that ameliorate the adverse consequences of overnutrition in the presence of a high-calorie diet would be of value. Methods: Mice were fed an obesogenic diet containing 60% fat + 10% cellulose (HFC), or a control diet containing 10% fat + 10% cellulose (LFC) for 12 wks...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Guo-Guang Sui, Hong-Bo Xiao, Xiang-Yang Lu, Zhi-Liang Sun
Previous investigations have shown a molecular crosstalk among activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) may be an innovative pharmacologic objective for treating obesity. We scrutinized the beneficial effect of naringin, a flavanone-7-O-glycoside, on obesity and the mechanisms in the present study. We arbitrarily divided fifty mice into five groups (n =10): 25 or 50 or 100 mg/kg/day naringin-treated obese mice (gavage for 8 weeks), untreated obese mice, and C57BL/6J control...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Stanley Dumeus, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Wan-Teng Lin, Ming-Fu Wang, Chao-Hung Lai, Chia-Yao Shen, Yueh-Min Lin, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses therapeutic challenges in elderly subjects. Due to lack of efficient drug therapy, plant-based bioactive peptides have been studied as alternative strategy in NAFLD and for less toxicity in elderly. To mimic fatty liver in aging conditions, researchers highly commended the genetically engineered strains SAMP8 (senescence-accelerated mice prone 8). However, there is a paucity of reports about the anti-steatosis effects of bioactive peptides against fatty liver development under a combined action of high-fat diet exposure and aging process...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yuhui Wang, Jinyang Shen, Xiaolin Yang, Ye Jin, Zhonglin Yang, Rufeng Wang, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid hormones are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other diseases including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and osteoporosis. Akebia saponin D (ASD) possesses numerous pharmacological activities, including as an anti-AD, anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-diabetes, and anti-osteoporosis agent. The anti-AD effect of ASD is possibly through its regulation of glucocorticoid levels. PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ASD on Aβ25-35 -induced cognitive deficits and to elucidate its underlying mechanism of action...
August 6, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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