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Liver fat

Kim B Pedersen, Casey F Pulliam, Aarshvi Patel, Fabio Del Piero, Tatiane T N Watanabe, Umesh D Wankhade, Kartik Shankar, Chindo Hicks, Martin J Ronis
Liver cancer results in a high degree of mortality, especially among men. Since fatty liver disease is a risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, we investigated the role of dietary fat type in tumor promotion by high fat diets in mice after initiation with the chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine. Tumor incidence and multiplicity was significantly greater in males than in females. In males, fat type had complex effects on tumorigenesis. Preneoplastic foci were most prevalent in mice fed a polyunsaturated fat diet enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), while carcinomas and large visible liver tumors were significantly greater in mice fed a saturated fat diet made with cocoa butter relative to mice fed mono- or polyunsaturated fats...
October 16, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Hezhongrong Nie, Xiaohong Yu, Haihong He, Lintao Zhou, Qing Li, Chunli Song, Damin Wang, Tingyu Ren, Zeyan Chen, Hanlian Huang, Xiaoyan Dai, Yiwen Zhou
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for metabolic haemostasis of liver tissues. Among them, miR-33a is supposed to modulate the cholesterol export and fatty acid oxidation, but whether miR-33a involves in the process of fatty liver disease is unclear. To disclose the hypothesis, we utilized miR-33a mimic and antisense to explore their effects in primary hepatocytes or high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Treatment with palmitic acid (PA) or HFD significantly increased the expression of miR-33a in hepatocytes or liver tissues...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Soo Im Chung, Sang Chul Lee, Seong Joon Yi, Mi Young Kang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress is a major cause of cancer. This study investigated the effects of the ethanol extracts from germinated and non-germinated Keunnunjami rice, a blackish-purple pigmented cultivar with giant embryo, on selected human cancer cell lines and on the antioxidant defense system of mice fed with a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: High fat-fed mice were orally administered with either distilled water (HF) or extracts (0.25%, w/w) from brown (B), germinated brown (GB), Keunnunjami (K), and germinated Keunnunjami (GK) rice...
October 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Guozhen Cui, Robert C Martin, Xingkai Liu, Qianqian Zheng, Harshul Pandit, Ping Zhang, Wei Li, Yan Li
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a spectrum of lesions ranging from steatosis to a complex pattern, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Ultrasonography provides important information on hepatic architecture for steatosis. NASH patients have an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early detection of NASH is critical for clinicians to advise on necessary treatments to prevent the onset of HCC. Methods: We established a NASH-HCC mouse model using diethylnitrosamine as a carcinogen to induce HCC and a high-fat diet to induce metabolic disorders...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Rafał Filip, Radosław P Radzki, Marek Bieńko
Excess fat deposition and insulin resistance are considered the main risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and therefore, not surprisingly, the global prevalence of NAFLD increases in parallel with both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although deterioration of bone homeostasis in patients with NAFLD is commonly observed, its etiology has not been fully elucidated yet. It was shown in several studies that bone tissue seems to be independently associated with NAFLD. A mechanistic perspective puts the liver at the center of mutual interdependencies obviously involving adipose tissue and muscles and also the bone matrix and bone cells, which are relatively novel...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Mitchell Bijnen, Nicky Beelen, Suzan Wetzels, José van de Gaar, Maria Vroomen, Erwin Wijnands, Jean L Scheijen, Marjo P H van de Waarenburg, Marion J Gijbels, Jack P Cleutjens, Erik A L Biessen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk, Kristiaan Wouters
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from steatosis only to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The latter is characterized by hepatic inflammation, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is poorly understood which factors contribute to the onset of hepatic inflammation characterizing the progression from steatosis to NASH. Previously, we demonstrated increased advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in the livers of NASH patients. We hypothesise that AGEs play a key role in NASH development by activating their proinflammatory receptor, RAGE...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anja Bosy-Westphal, Wiebke Braun, Viktoria Albrecht, Manfred J Müller
Common obesity-associated hepatic steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) and insulin resistance are mainly caused by dysfunctional adipose tissue. This adipose tissue dysfunction leads to increased delivery of NEFA and glycerol to the liver that (i) drives hepatic gluconeogenesis and (ii) facilitates the accumulation of lipids and insulin signaling inhibiting lipid intermediates. Dysfunctional adipose tissue can be caused by impaired lipid storage (overflow hypothesis, characterized by large visceral adipocytes) or increased lipolysis (due to impaired postprandial suppression of lipolysis in inflamed, insulin-resistant adipocytes)...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Manfred J Müller, Corinna Geisler, Mark Hübers, Maryam Pourhassan, Anja Bosy-Westphal
AIM: The objective of this study is to generate metabolic phenotypes based on structure-function relationships. METHODS: In 459 healthy adults (54% females, 18 and 40 years old), we analyzed body composition by air-displacement densitometry (to assess fat mass, (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (to assess skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and masses of brain, heart, liver, kidneys, and subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)), resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry, and plasma concentrations of insulin (Ins) and leptin (Lep)...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sergei V Fedorovich, Polina P Voronina, Tatyana V Waseem
Glucose is the main energy substrate for neurons, however, at certain conditions, e.g. in starvation, these cells could also use ketone bodies. This approach is used in clinical conditions as the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet is actually a biochemical model of fasting. It includes replacing carbohydrates by fats in daily meal. Synthesis of ketone bodies β-hydroxubutirate, acetoacetate and acetone begins once glycogen stores have depleted in the liver. The ketogenic diet can be used to treat clinical conditions, primarily epilepsy...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Dharendra Thapa, Kaiyuan Wu, Michael W Stoner, Bingxian Xie, Manling Zhang, Janet R Manning, Zhongping Lu, Jian H Li, Yong Chen, Marjan Gucek, Martin P Playford, Nehal N Mehta, Daniel Harmon, Robert M O'Doherty, Michael J Jurczak, Michael N Sack, Iain Scott
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) deacetylates and activates several mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes in the liver. Here, we investigated whether the protein acetylase GCN5 general control of amino-acid synthesis 5-like 1 (GCN5L1), previously shown to oppose SIRT3 activity, is involved in the regulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. We show that GCN5L1 abundance is significantly up-regulated in response to an acute high-fat diet (HFD). Transgenic GCN5L1 overexpression in the mouse liver increased protein acetylation levels, and proteomic detection of specific lysine residues identified numerous sites that are co- regulated by GCN5L1 and SIRT3...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Daniela Caetano Gonçalves, Fábio Santos Lira, Alex Shimura Yamashita, Luiz Carlos Carnevali Junior, Robson Eder, Alessandro Laviano, Marília Cerqueira Leite Seelaender
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The liver is the main organ regulating metabolism. In spite of that, few studies examine liver metabolism in cachexia, a wasting syndrome associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cancer. Cachexia induces major metabolic disruption, inflammation and fat and lean mass loss. We have previously shown impairment of hepatic lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia that contributes to the aggravation of the symptoms. The present study addresses the effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid supplementation upon liver lipid metabolism in cachectic rats...
September 25, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, María Correa-Rodríguez, Jacqueline Schmidt Rio-Valle, Emilio González-Jiménez, Katherine González-Ruíz
Paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common early driver of chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether grip strength moderates the association between anthropometric and body composition parameters and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), an indicator of fat deposits in the liver, in children and adolescents with excess of adiposity. A total of 127 adolescents (67% girls) aged between 11 and 17, attending two public schools in Bogotá (Colombia), who had an axiological evaluation of obesity were included in this study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Qin Wang, Yue Yin, Weizhen Zhang
Obese mice demonstrate disruption of the circadian clock and feeding cycle. Circulating ghrelin, a hormone secreted mainly by gastric X/Alike cells, is significantly reduced in obese humans and animals. Here, we examined whether ghrelin improves the disruption of the circadian rhythm in steatotic hepatocytes and liver. The effects of ghrelin on hepatic circadian clock genes were studied in steatotic hepatocytes and liver of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The circadian clock of cultured hepatocytes was synchronized by treatment with 100 nM dexamethasone for 1 h...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sherry Zhang, Chunxia Lu, Arun K Das, Anil K Pasupulati, Ram K Menon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GH signaling on Kupffer cells and the resulting changes in lipid homeostasis and their underlying mechanism(s) in the livers of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DESIGN: Male macrophage specific-growth hormone receptor knockout mice (MacGHR KO) and their litter mate controls were fed a high fat diet containing 60% calories from fat for 26 weeks. Lipid content and lipid profiles in the liver and circulation were analyzed. Expression levels of CD36 in the liver were quantified by RT-PCR and Western Blot...
October 4, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
F Echeverría, R Valenzuela, A Espinosa, A Bustamante, D Álvarez, D Gonzalez-Mañan, M Ortiz, S A Soto-Alarcon, L A Videla
High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice show obesity with development of liver steatosis and a proinflammatory state without establishing an inflammatory reaction. The aim of this work was to assess the hypothesis that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) supplementation prevents the inflammatory reaction through enhancement in the hepatic resolvin content in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD or a control diet and supplemented with EPA (50 mg/kg/day) and HT (5 mg/kg/day) or their respective vehicles for 12 weeks...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Lisa L Koorneef, José K van den Heuvel, Jan Kroon, Mariëtte R Boon, Peter A C 't Hoen, Kristina M Hettne, Nienke M van de Velde, Kelsey B Kolenbrander, Trea C M Streefland, Isabel M Mol, Hetty C M Sips, Szymon M Kielbasa, Hailiang Mei, Joseph K Belanoff, Alberto M Pereira, Maaike H Oosterveer, Hazel Hunt, Patrick C N Rensen, Onno C Meijer
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) medication is an unmet need. Glucocorticoid stress hormones (GC) drive fat metabolism in the liver, but both full blockade and full stimulation of GC signaling aggravate NAFLD pathology. We investigated the efficacy of selective glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulator CORT118335, that recapitulates only a subset of GC actions, in reducing liver lipid accumulation in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice received low-fat diet, or high-fat diet mixed with vehicle or CORT118335. Livers were analyzed histologically and for genome-wide mRNA expression...
October 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Samir A El-Shazly, Mohamed M Ahmed, Mohammad S Al-Harbi, Mohamed E Alkafafy, Hanan B El-Sawy, Sayed A M Amer
The present study was performed to assess anti-obesity effects of raw pineapple juice in high fat diet (HFD)-induced fatness. Based on food type, rats were divided into normal diet and HFD groups. When animals of HFD group become obese, they were given pineapple juice along with either HFD or normal diet. Blood biochemistry, liver and muscle gene expressions were analyzed. HFD induced significant elevations in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat accumulation, liver fat deposition and blood lipids while juice restored these parameters near to their normal values...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Muhammad Umair Ijaz, Muhammad Ijaz Ahmed, Xiaoyou Zou, Muzahir Hussain, Min Zhang, Fan Zhao, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou, Chunbao Li
Consumption of dietary protein at recommended levels is considered a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management, but how protein from different dietary sources effect the obesity development, lipid metabolism, and gut microbiota is not known. This study focused on the effects of beef, casein, and soy protein diet on lipid metabolism, triglycerides accumulation, and microbial diversity in colon of C57BL/6J mice, which were given either low-fat diets (LFD, 12% Kcal) or high-fat diets (HFD, 60% Kcal) for 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ziye Xu, Wenjing You, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues, function as energy metabolism and endocrine organ, are closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism and cell growth in adipose tissue. Our recent study generated an adipocyte-specific Lkb1 and mTOR double knockout (DKO) mouse model and found that DKO of Lkb1 and mTOR caused reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) mass but increase of liver mass...
October 14, 2018: Adipocyte
Fatemeh Kalaki-Jouybari, Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Maryam Delfan, Sattar Gorgani-Firouzjae, Soheyla Khakdan
BACKGROUND: Exercise intervention is strongly recommended to manage metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigate, whether HIIT and CET can induce hepatic miR-122 expression, NAFLD rats with diabetes. METHODS: 40 Wistar rats divided into 2 groups, non-diabetic (NDC) and diabetic .Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat high-fructose diet (HFHFD). Then diabetic rats were subdivided into three groups: diabetic control (HFHFD + DC), CET (HFHFD + CET), and HIIT (HFHFD + HIIT)...
October 13, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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