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Pathology of esophagus

Suhair Al Salihi, Vanya Jaitly, David M Saulino, Andrew W DuPont, Atilla Ertan, Jamie M Everett, Mamoun Younes
CONTEXT.—: The cause of pancreatic acinar metaplasia (PAM) at the distal esophagus/esophagogastric junction is still controversial. Whereas some authors believe it is congenital, others believe it is acquired because of inflammation of the gastric cardia, and more recently it was proposed to be due to chronic proton pump inhibitor use based on a study in rats. OBJECTIVE.—: To determine whether there is correlation between chronic proton pump inhibitor use and PAM in humans...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Shou-Wu Lee, Han-Chung Lien, Chi-Sen Chang, Ming-Xian Lin, Chung-Hsin Chang, Chung-Wang Ko
AIM: To investigate the benefits of the Seattle protocol in the diagnosis of Chinese individuals with Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: Subjects enrolled were patients from one center with endoscopically-suspected esophageal metaplasia. These patients first received narrow-band imaging-targeted biopsy, and later, the Seattle protocol-guided biopsy, within a period from October 2012 to December 2014. Those cases without initial pathologic patterns of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and then appearance or loss of IM tissue were designated as Group A or B, respectively...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Tao Liu, Zhi Wang, Riqiang Zhou, Wulin Liang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a family of noncoding RNA transcripts with a length of <200 nucleotides (nts), have been associated with the pathological development of various types of carcinogenesis. Focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1 (FAL1) is a recently identified lncRNA. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the physiological function of FAL1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Our findings demonstrate that FAL1 was associated with esophageal cancer cell survival by regulating mitochondrial fission...
November 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
Shou-Wu Lee, Han-Chung Lien, Yen-Chun Peng, Ming-Xian Lin, Chung-Wang Ko, Chi-Sen Chang
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of dysplastic transformation of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in a Chinese population. Method: Data from nondysplastic BE patients at Taichung Veterans General Hospital were collected from May 2008 to June 2017. The enrolled individuals received regular upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy during follow up. The pathological transformations, including low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), were collected prospectively until June 2017...
October 2018: JGH open: an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Y X Feng, S Zhang, X J Xin
Objective: To investigate the ultrasonographic features of synchronous and heterochronic liver metastasis in patients with stromal tumors, and to elucidate the value of ultrasonic examination in follow-up surgery. Methods: A total of 1 516 patients with pathologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) were enrolled. The ultrasonographic features of primary lesions and liver metastases in a total of 46 cases with 95 liver metastases were analyzed...
November 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Nivedita Patni, Frank Vuitch, Abhimanyu Garg
Context: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, type 4 (CGL4) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by CAVIN1 mutations. Patients with CGL4 also have myopathy and cardiomyopathy with a predisposition for sudden death due to ventricular arrhythmias. However, underlying pathology for these morbidities remains unknown. Therefore, we report the first autopsy of a Hispanic boy with CGL4. Case description: Our patient had early onset generalized lipodystrophy, feeding difficulties, myopathy, atlanto-axial dislocation and learning disabilities...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Flaminia Campo, Raffaella Carletti, Massimo Fusconi, Clelia Pellicano, Francesco E Pontieri, Cira R Di Gioia, Marco de Vincentiis
Estimates of the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) range between 46% and 90%, the accuracy of diagnosis dependent on prolonged clinical observation and clinical response to levodopa. For this reason, we need reliable diagnostic biomarkers. The cardinal hallmark of PD is alpha-synuclein aggregation in the brain. Demonstrating pathological alpha-synuclein in live patients would be useful for identifying and monitoring PD patients. By autopsy studies and in vivo studies, the presence of alpha-synuclein has been demonstrated even outside the central nervous system and the gastro-enteric tract appears to be the most promising candidate tissue for biopsy-taking and the esophagus and salivary glands appear to be the area with the highest concentration of alpha-synuclein...
November 24, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Xiao-Han Zhao, Duo Wang, Fang Wang, Shu-Chai Zhu
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of postoperative radiotherapy for patients having esophagus squamous cell carcinoma after radical surgery. METHODS: A comprehensive research was performed in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library electronic databases from inception until December 10, 2017. We collected all published full articles about comparison of surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy with surgery alone. RESULTS: Four randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) with 1050 participants and 8 non-randomized-controlled trials with 3248 participants were included and evaluated separately...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ernesto Aitella, Fabio De Bartolomeis, Alfonso Savoia, Massimo Fabiani, Marco Romano, Corrado Astarita
BACKGROUND: One-quarter of systemic symptoms associated with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) are related to gastrointestinal complaints (GICs). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and features of urticaria-overlapping GICs. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional survey, 1426 consecutive outpatients were observed at our University Department. Only patients suffering from urticaria or GICs with a complete diagnostic work-up including serum total IgE level (Tot-IgE), differential blood count and urticaria activity score (UAS), were evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Yoko M Ambrosini, Kelsey A Johnson, Morgan Matthews, Amy F Sato
Case summary: An 11-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was referred to the Foster Hospital for Small Animals, USA for suspected dysautonomia based on weight loss, vomiting and referral radiographs that showed severe dilation of the esophagus, stomach and entire gastrointestinal tract. After recheck radiographs revealed a decrease in gas compared with the referral images, persistently reduced gastrointestinal motility was deemed less likely; however, cardiomegaly and a soft tissue opacity overlying the esophagus were noted...
July 2018: JFMS open reports
Hiroki Sato, Shunzo Ikarashi, Shuji Terai
A 17-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with an inability to belch, while experiencing chest gurgling noises, and severe abdominal bloating. She reported having these symptoms all her life. A timed barium esophagogram revealed a moderate amount of bubbles in the esophagus and gastric fundus, which significantly increased after the examination. High resolution manometry revealed that the basal upper esophageal sphincter pressure increased with a rise in the cervical esophageal pressure. A pathological inability to belch is rare; at present, no specific name exists to describe the disorder...
November 19, 2018: Internal Medicine
Hassan A Siddiki, Dora M Lam-Himlin, Allon Kahn, M Veronica Bandres, George E Burdick, Michael D Crowell, Rahul Pannala, Francisco C Ramirez, Marcelo F Vela, David E Fleischer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is controversy about finding intestinal metaplasia (IM) of the gastric cardia on biopsy. The most recent American GI society guideline comments that IM cardia is not more common in patients with Barrett's. It provides limited guidance on whether the cardia should be treated when patients with Barrett's undergo endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) and whether the cardia should be biopsied after ablation. The aims of our study were to determine the frequency in the proximal stomach of (1) histologic gastric cardia mucosa and (2) IM cardia...
November 14, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Tomoyuki Okumura, Yasuyuki Seto, Susumu Aikou, Makoto Moriyama, Shinich Sekine, Isaya Hashimoto, Kazuto Shibuya, Shozo Hojo, Isaku Yoshioka, Takuya Nagata, Tsutomu Fujii
We herein report a case of mediastinoscopic salvage esophagectomy for recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after definitive chemoradiotherapy in a previously pneumonectomized patient. A 66-year-old man with a medical history of left-sided pneumonectomy for lung cancer was diagnosed with local recurrence of lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (cT3N0M0 cStage II) 9 years after definitive chemoradiotherapy. The mediastinoscopic cervical approach and laparoscopic transhiatal approach were combined, and the thoracic esophagus was safely mobilized to separate the esophagus from the stump of the left bronchus and to divide dense adhesions between the esophagus and fibrotic tissue at the site of the previous left mediastinal pleural resection...
November 8, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Laura S Grebe, G Wolf, B Schick
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a common symptom reported by patients in various medical fields, raising the question of diagnosis. In addition to otorhinolaryngologic examination with a mirror, the current gold standards videofluoroscopy and fiber optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) are available. Ultrasound is frequently used in everyday clinical practice, although its application for swallowing diagnostics needs addressing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2012 and February 2014, 81 subjects (age 19-66 years) with no indication of a swallowing disorder were sonographically examined...
November 6, 2018: HNO
Jotamo Come, Clara Castro, Atílio Morais, Matchecane Cossa, Prassad Modcoicar, Satish Tulsidâs, Lina Cunha, Vitória Lobo, Alberto Gudo Morais, Sofia Cotton, Nuno Lunet, Carla Carrilho, Lúcio Lara Santos
PURPOSE: Eastern Africa was recently described as a high-incidence geographic area for esophageal cancer. Mozambique is included in this region. This study aimed to characterize this malignant disease at Maputo Central Hospital (MCH) to develop a global program for esophageal cancer management in Mozambique. METHODS: MCH records from between 2012 and 2016 were used to assess the clinical, pathologic, and outcome profiles of esophageal tumors. A descriptive analysis of data collected was performed...
November 2018: Journal of Global Oncology
Dimitrios Schizas, Ioannis Katsaros, Adamantios Michalinos, Christos Damaskos, Nikolaos Garmpis, Vasileia Ntomi, George Agrogiannis, Spyridon Stergiopoulos, Alexandra K Tsaroucha
BACKGROUND/AIM: Collision tumors are rare neoplasms which consist of two or more distinct neoplasms that develop adjacent to one another and coexist with no or minimal intermingling between them. Their diagnosis is often incidental and their behavior remains widely unknown. Several theories have been proposed regarding their pathogenesis. The objective of this study was the evaluation of current evidence on collision tumors of the gastrointestinal tract regarding their pathology, biological behavior and treatment approach...
November 2018: Anticancer Research
Surinder Singh Rana, Ravi Sharma, Rajesh Gupta
Background: Patients with esophageal stricture who have normal mucosa and whose endoscopic biopsies are inconclusive pose a difficult diagnostic dilemma. We prospectively assessed high-frequency miniprobe endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the evaluation of indeterminate esophageal strictures. Methods: Over a period of 3 years, 19 patients (14 male; mean age: 58.9±11.6 years) with indeterminate esophageal strictures were studied using high-frequency miniprobe EUS...
November 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Tadashi Higuchi, Hodaka Moriyama, Asako Takahashi, Ryohei Watanabe, Sayaka Nagao, Toshiyuki Enomoto, Yoichi Nakamura, Manabu Watanabe, Yoshihisa Saida, Shinya Kusachi
Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor. A 76-year-old man consulted near hospital about dysphagia. A gastrointestinal fiberscopy showed a stricture of the thoracic esophagus at approximately 34 cm from the incisor, and the macroscopic type of the tumor was 0-Ip. Biopsy results indicated carcinosarcoma. The patient underwent esophagectomy and regional lymphadenectomy with gastric tube reconstruction by laparoscopy-assisted surgery and thoracotomy. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed that the majority of the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped atypical cells, but because a very small transitional area between squamous cell carcinoma and sarcoma was noted, a diagnosis of carcinosarcoma was made...
October 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Li Lin, Zhenfa Wang, Xuehui Zeng, Shuzhen Xu, Zhijie Ding, Jianchun Cai, Sibo Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and safety of membrane-based right-sided approach of laparoscopic suprapancreatic lymph node dissection for advanced distal gastric cancer. METHODS: The clinical data of 41 patients with advanced distal gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy using membrane-based right-sided approach for laparoscopic suprapancreatic lymph node dissection at the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University from January 2016 to January 2018 were retrospectively analyzed...
October 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Chethan Ramprasad, Jane Yellowlees Douglas, Baharak Moshiree
Gastrointestinal disturbances are seen in nearly all patients with Parkinson's disease and lead to impaired quality of life, affect drug pharmacodynamics, and potentially worsen patient's existing motor fluctuations, leading to further disability. Recent evidence links abnormal accumulations of α-synuclein aggregates in the periphery (gut) as seen in the cortex which causes dysfunctions impacting every level of the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus, to the stomach, small bowel, colon, and rectum and can even predate the onset of the central neurologic disorder itself...
December 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
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