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Pathology of esophagus

Ryan B Budde, Muhammad A Arafat, Daniel J Pederson, Thelma A Lovick, John G R Jefferys, Pedro P Irazoqui
OBJECTIVE: Recent research suggests that obstructive laryngospasm and consequent respiratory arrest may be a mechanism in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. We sought to test a new hypothesis that this laryngospasm is caused by seizures driving reflux of stomach acid into the larynx, rather than spontaneous pathological activity in the recurrent laryngeal nerve. APPROACH: We used an acute kainic acid model under urethane anesthesia to observe seizure activity in Long-Evans rats...
October 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Mohamed Hichem Loghmari, Wafa Ben Mansour, Arwa Guediche, Wided Bouhlel, Mourad Gahbiche, Leila Safer
INTRODUCTION: Acute esophageal necrosis, also known as black esophagus, is a rare digestive complication, frequently manifested by an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and occurs in patients with comorbidities. AIM: To report the case of a patient with a black esophagus revealed by an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. OBSERVATION: A 72-year-old patient with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and ischemic heart disease was hospitalized in surgical intensive care unit for hemorrhagic shock induced by cholecystectomy...
February 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
A López-Colombo, M Jiménez-Toxqui, P D Gogeascoechea-Guillén, D Meléndez-Mena, E R Morales-Hernández, Á J Montiel-Jarquín, E Amaro-Balderas
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: An inlet patch (IP) is the presence of gastric columnar epithelium outside of the stomach. No studies have been conducted in Mexico on that pathology. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of esophageal IP and the clinical characteristics of the patients that present it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted that included consecutive patients referred for endoscopy within the time frame of September 2015 to May 2016...
October 11, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Y Li, H Q Luo, D Wu, X W Xue, Y F Luo, Y M Xiao, J Chen, W X Zhou
Objective: To analyze the clinical and pathological features of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS), and to investigate the significance of IgG4 positive plasma cell infiltration. Methods: Clinical presentations, endoscopic appearances and morphological features of 18 patients diagnosed with CCS at Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2000-2016 were included in the study.There were 11 male and 7 female patients. IgG4 and IgG immunohistochemical stains were performed in total of 55 biopsies from the patients (36 polyps, 10 adenoma and 9 surrounding mucosa) and a control group of 58 cases (19 colonic mucosa, 7 colonic hyperplastic polyps, 9 inflammatory bowel disease and 23 adenoma)...
October 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Kenji Tsuchihashi, Shuji Arita, Minako Fujiwara, Kazuhide Iwasaki, Atsushi Hirano, Tomoyasu Yoshihiro, Kenta Nio, Yutaka Koga, Motohiro Esaki, Hiroshi Ariyama, Hitoshi Kusaba, Taiki Moriyama, Kenoki Ohuchida, Eishi Nagai, Masafumi Nakamura, Yoshinao Oda, Koichi Akashi, Eishi Baba
RATIONALE: Esophageal carcinosarcoma generally comprises 2 histological components: squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and sarcoma. Esophageal carcinosarcoma comprising 3 components is extremely rare and no reports have described therapeutic effects for this disease with metastasis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 76-year-old man with dysphagia presented to a local clinic. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a polypoid tumor in the middle esophagus and he was referred to our hospital...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elizabeth Montgomery, Christina A Arnold, Dora Lam-Himlin, Kevan Salimian, Kevin Waters
Biopsy samples from esophageal columnar metaplasia and dysplasia are commonly encountered in Western pathology practice and knowing a few pitfalls can save both pathologists and patients a great deal of anxiety. Herein we discuss criteria for Barrett esophagus, evaluation of dysplasia, and some pitfalls in reviewing endoscopic mucosal resections. Also included is a summary of suggested follow-up for patients with Barrett esophagus.
September 28, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Kun Jiang, Gregory Y Lauwers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Matthias Sauter, Mark Robert Fox
Increased acid reflux after meals is a key feature of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and is the most important cause for patient symptoms, particularly heartburn and acid regurgitation. Chronic acid exposure also predisposes to associated pathologies including reflux esophagitis, esophageal stricture, Barrett's esophagus, and Barrett's carcinoma (esophageal adenocarcinoma). The severity of esophageal symptoms and mucosal damage is related to two key factors, (i) the acidity of the refluxate, which depends primarily on the gastric secretory output and its distribution within the stomach, and (ii) the frequency and duration of reflux events which depends on the efficacy of the reflux barrier at the gastro-esophageal junction and the esophageal clearance function...
October 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Olaf Sommburg, Astrid Helling-Bakki, Abdul Alrajab, Jens-Peter Schenk, Wolfgang Springer, Marcus A Mall, Tsvetomir Loukanov, Joachim G Eichhorn
BACKGROUND: Congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVM) may cause infrequently airway pathologies (AP) in children and are of prognostic and therapeutic relevance. While computed tomography (CT) is considered first-line imaging modality in many centres, we started using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) more and more in the last years to detect CCVM and AP to avoid radiation in this patient group. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of CT and MRI when used to detect CCVM and/or AP...
October 5, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Jardel Lemos Thalhofer, Ademir Xavier Silva, Wilson Freitas Rebello, Juraci Passos Reis Junior, José Marques Lopes, Samanda Cristine Arruda Correa, Edmilson Monteiro Souza, Alessandro Mariano Domingues
Currently, lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer (IARC, 2012), the pathology being detected in advanced stage, when the tumor has considerable volume because the disease in most cases asymptomatic in the early stages (INCA, 2016). Dosimetry analysis of healthy organs under real conditions is not feasible. Therefore, computational simulations are used to aid in dose verification in organs of patients submitted to radiotherapy. The goal of this study was to calculate the equivalent dose, due to photons, in the surrounding of healthy organs of patients submitted to radiotherapy for lung cancer, through computational modeling...
October 2, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Joachim Labenz, Parakrama T Chandrasoma, Laura J Knapp, Tom R DeMeester
The progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients who are taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been reported by several investigators, leading to concerns that PPI therapy does not address all aspects of the disease. Patients who are at risk of progression need to be identified early in the course of their disease in order to receive preventive treatment. A review of the literature on GERD progression to Barrett's esophagus and the associated physiological and pathological changes was performed and risk factors for progression were identified...
September 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Alexander A Smirnov, Aleksandr N Burakov, Aleksandr N Shvetsov, Egor V Blinov, Kirill D Semenikhin, Nadezhda V Konkina, Sergey Y Dvoreckij
Achalasia is an extremely rare pathology in children. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of achalasia in adults, but only a limited number of cases of achalasia treatment using POEM in children have been published in the literature. Sometimes, high-resolution manometry signs of achalasia can mimic diffuse esophageal leiomyoma. This case report represents the first known successful performance of POEM on a 15-year-old female with diffuse thickening of the esophagus with signs and symptoms of achalasia and suspicion for Alport syndrome associated with diffuse esophageal leiomyoma...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Xiaofeng He, Minke Shi, Bin Cao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of the gastric tube diameter on quality of life of esophagus cancer patients after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. METHODS: Clinical and follow-up data of 188 esophageal cancer patients who underwent Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Drum Tower Clinical Medicine College, Nanjing Medical University from January 2015 to June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Inclusion criteria included age <75 years old, good foundation health situation, no distant metastasis, complete follow-up data for one-year after surgery, and middle-lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
September 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Christian Pesenti, Erwan Bories, Fabrice Caillol, Jean Philippe Ratone, Sebastien Godat, Genevieve Monges, Flora Poizat, Jean Luc Raoul, Pauline Ries, Marc Giovannini
Background and Objectives: Subepithelial lesions (SELs) of the upper part of the digestive tract are rare, and it can be difficult to characterize them. Recently, contrast-enhanced endosonography (EUS) and elastometry have been reported as useful adjuncts to EUS and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in cases of pancreatic mass and lymph node involvement. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate whether contrast-enhanced EUS can discriminate benign submucosal lesions from malignant ones...
September 26, 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
Doğan Gönüllü, Okan Demiray, Serkan İlgün, Ufuk Mete Yıldız, Mehmet Lari Gedik, Muzaffer Er, Ayşenur İğdem, Elife Kimiloglu, Ferda N Köksoy
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors that express type 3 tyrosine kinase receptors and are thought to develop from the neoplastic transformation of the interstitial Cajal cells. The present study was performed to morphologically and immunohistologically evaluate GISTs, to compare their qualities using a GIST risk categorization system, and to identify the diagnostic and prognostic parameters of GISTs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 27 patients with GISTs underwent treatment and were followed up at the Gaziosmanpaşa Taksim Training and Research Hospital...
September 11, 2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Masataka Tochimoto, Toru Watanabe, Kazunori Koyama, Karin Sadamura, Yoshitaka Iwaki, Hideaki Katoh, Masahiko Kawaguchi, Kanae Tawaraya, Osamu Hosokawa, Kunio Yanagimoto
The patient was a 42-year-old man who presented with dysphagia.Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a protruding lesion in the lower thoracic esophagus.Pathological analysis of the lesion showed squamous cell carcinoma.Laboratory data showed leukocytosis(21,200/mL)despite no evidence of infection, and the serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimu- lating factor(G-CSF)were elevated to 283 pg/mL.We diagnosed him with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(Lt, type 1, cT4N4M0, cStage IV a).After administering 2 courses of docetaxel plus cisplatin plus S-1(DCS)as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the patient underwent surgery...
September 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Desmond Kwan Kit Chan, Fion Siu Yin Chan, Daniel King Hung Tong, Ian Yu Hong Wong, Claudia Lai Yin Wong, Tsz Ting Law, Simon Ying Kit Law
Background: Esophagectomy remains the mainstay treatment for esophageal cancer. Minimally invasive techniques have gained popularity in recent years. Whether minimally invasive methods result in equivalent or superior outcome to open esophagectomy or not is still controversial. The aim of the current study is to compare outcomes of minimally invasive and open esophagectomy from a single institution, using propensity score matching to lessen biases. Methods: From 1994-2016, 724 patients with squamous cell cancer of the esophagus who underwent esophagectomy were studied...
September 1, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Yi-Pin Liu, Wei-Wei Jiang, Guo-Xun Chen, Yan-Qing Li
Here, we report a rare case of primary gastrointestinal amyloidosis in a stable condition after being followed up for three years. The patient was admitted to the hospital in 2014. Tests showed decreased levels of hemoglobin and ferritin. Transoral and transanal enteroscopy showed multiple nodular protuberances in the esophagus, ileum, colon and rectum. Endoscopic ultrasonography indicated the nodular protuberances stemmed from the submucosa and partially invaded the intrinsic myometrium. Pathological examinations found multiple small nodules in the submucosa and dyed structures, which were positive for special Congo red dyeing...
September 6, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Naohito Uchida, Yuko Bando, Sae Hamaya, Yukiko Koyama, Kazuhiro Kozuka, Rie Kawakita, Yuki Sawada, Akihiko Tatemoto, Toshiaki Nakatsu
In all endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) examinations performed at our hospital, the heart, vasculature, and mediastinal lymph nodes from the esophagus are observed after checking for gastrointestinal pathologies. Since the introduction of EUS using a convex linear-array echoendoscope at our hospital in April 2015, EUS examinations have been performed in 371 cases for examining pancreaticobiliary diseases, submucosal tumors, and other pathologies during the 3-year period, till March 2018. We diagnosed 2 patients with asymptomatic cardiovascular disease while observing the mediastinum during EUS examination to examine identified pancreaticobiliary disease...
September 12, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Takaoki Furukawa, Yoichi Hamai, Jun Hihara, Manabu Emi, Ichiko Yamakita, Yuta Ibuki, Tomoaki Kurokawa, Morihito Okada
BACKGROUND/AIM: The present study aimed to determine the effects of intervals between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and esophagectomy on therapeutic outcomes in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 134 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with locally advanced ESCC of the thoracic esophagus and were treated by nCRT followed by esophagectomy between September 2003 and September 2015...
September 2018: Anticancer Research
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